He had very little contact with the Embassy, and I suppose during
that period in Chungking I saw him briefly two or three times. We
shared some intei'est in what you might call central Asia generally.
I had grown up in the extreme far west of China near the Tibetan
borderland. My father had traveled in Tibetan country and had col-
STATE DEPARTMEJS'T EMPLOYEE LOYALTY IX^â€¢ESTIGATION 1375
lertod i^robably tlio host collection of Tibetan articles Avhich have been
oxliibited in several nuiseunis in ihe United States.
I had also traveled in northwest China and Inner Monjiolia, and
the only conversations that I had Avith Mr. Lattiniore dnrinj^ that
})eriod were on problems of central Asia and the culture of the no-
mads and ]Mon<2:ols â€” mv observations and his observations.
Tlie next time I saw Mr. Lattimore was very briefly. I think, in
the winter of 1042 when he was Director of Pacific Operations for
OWI, with headquarters at San Francisco. I called on friends in the
office, and while 1 was there 1 stop))ed by his office and said, "How do
you do'' and had a brief conversation with him.
I saw him airain, I think â€” well. I know I saw Inm the next tnne m
1944. He was, I think, present at the meeting I had with the IPR in
November 1944, and I spent one eveniuir at his house.
â€¢Now, the important thino- is that I did not see him or have any
contact with him or see, as far as I knoAv, any of his writings, from
1942 until the end of 1944. But that was exactly the important period
of my reporting on China. It was. you might say, the formative
period of my views, my views on policy. It was a period of my con-
tact and reporting on the Chinese Communists.
So that whatever views I had I had arrived at independently and
were completely formed before I ever saw Mr. Lattimore that one
evening toward the end of 1944.
There just is not any justification or basis for the statement that
I am a student of Owen Lattimore.
Mr. Morris. Will you tell this committee of your visit to the Amer-
asia office ? I know you went into it yesterday, but I want to ask you
one more cpiestion about it.
]\Ir. Service. Well, I don't remember a great deal about it, sir. It
was a rather brief visit. I don't think I even sat down.
I came in, he showed me around, I looked in the office, I looked in
the library workroom â€” the tables, bookcases, some file cabinets. He
introduced me to a woman there named Ralf Sues, who had written a
book called Sharks' Fins and Millet. He said they made it open to
anybody interested in or writing of the Far East and they could use
their library. We went to his office; he showed me the office. I had a
very brief discussion with him.
Mr. Morris. Did you notice the photographic room they maintained ?
Mr. Service. No, sir. As I mentioned yesterday, I did not see any
photographic room or printing equipment either.
Mr. ]MoRRis. Yet in j-our statement you say they showed you through
the whole office.
Mr. Service. They showed me through the whole office. They didn't
tell me wliether they showed me the whole office or not.
Mr. Morris. During the time of your reporting from China and dur-
ing the time of your visit to the Amerasia office did you conclude on
the basis of your study of the Chinese political situation that the maga-
zine Amerasia was a Communist publication?
Mr. Service. I was not seeing Amerasia during the time I was in
Mr. jVIorris. You did not receive copies of Amerasia?
Mr. Service. No, sir.
Mr. Morris. While you were in China at all ?
1376 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Mr. Service. No ; I don't recall ever seeing a copy of it. As I men-
tioned, very little material was forwarded to us in China. We could
not receive magazines because of the limitations of the mail over the
Hump, and the only magazines we saw were a few airmail editions
of magazines like Time and Newsweek. I had no familiarity, recent
familiarity, with Amerasia during the period.
Mr. Morris. What was your association with Sol Adler in China,
Mr. Service. Sol Adler was the Treasury attache, and he was the
American member, I believe, of the Chinese Stabilization Board.
After I was attached to the Army, I lived for a while in Army
billets, officers' quarters. They were very cramped. I had to share
a room with another officer. We could entertain
Mr. Morris. Who was that other officer?
Mr. Service. It varied from time to time. There was a great deal
of coming and going. One was Dr. Melvin Cassberg, now dean of the
St. Louis School of Medicine.
Mr, Morris. Sol Adler was not one of those people ?
Mr. Service. No ; he was not attached to the Army and never lived
in Army billets.
I could not entertain Chinese in the Army mess. My whole work
required me to spend most of my time with Chinese.
I suppose that during 1 month I had 50 meals, at least, with
Chinese friends, Chinese contacts, sources of information. 1 spent
most of my clays with Ciiinese. I had to have a place where I could
bring friends, people of that sort, to talk to in the evening.
IMr. Adler had an apartment, a fairly large apartment, in the city
of Chungking. He had an extra bedroom. So he offered mje that
room, and I think for perhaps a year I shared that apartment with
Mr. Morris. Did you during that period of time realize that Mr.
\.dler was a Communist?
Mr. Service. Certainly not.
Mr. Morris. Have you read the testimony that appeared before the
'Congressional committee, testimony by Miss Elizabeth Bentley, to the
effect that Sol Adler was a full-fledged member of her espionage ring?
Mr. Service. I have not, but I have heard second hand, I admit,
that Miss Bentley appeared before the Loyalty Board, and after hear-
ing her testimony, Mr. Adler was cleared. I am told that was the only
Loyalty Board appearance INIiss Bentley was willing to make and that
after that experience she did not appear before any more.
Mv. Morris When is the last time you saw Sol Adler ?
Mr. SER\acE. I saw him socially here in Washington some time
before I left to go to my post in In<lia. It might have been in Decem-
ber 1040 or January 10.50. Our friendshi]) since China has been a
casual and very sporadic one. I have not seen him frequently at
all. I can't even remember the exact occasion on which I saw him.
I think it was a dinner party or suppei- where several other people
Mr. ISfoRRis. When did you first join the Institute of Pacific Rela-
tions, Mr. Service?
Mr. Service. I am not sure of the answer to that. During the year
1937 â€” 1036 or 1037 â€” when I was studying Chinese and preparing "my-
self to be a specialist in Chinese affairs, I was interested, as I men-
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 1377
tioiied A-esterday, in readiiiji;, keeping np to date as far as possible with
( vervtliinir" tliat was written about the Far East. And I think that
diirin<;- that period 1 became a subscriber to the Institute of Pacific
There are various cate<>ories of nienibersliip, and my recollection is
that my membership was of the h)west and cheapest class, the cate<!;ory
wliicli simply entitled me to receive some of their magazines, par-
ticularly ([uarterly Pacific Afl'airs and biweekly li'ar Eastern Survey.
1 discontinued that membership, as I did all my magazine subscrip-
tions, when 1 went to Chungking because it was simply impossible
because of the wartime dithculties for lis to receive any magazines
there. I i-esumed my membership in the Institute of Pacific Relations
2 years ago or 3 years ago â€” I am not sure. By membership, I mean
]Mr. Moinas. In your testimony here this morning you made refer-
ence to a meeting held at the Institute of Pacific Relations. Can you
tell us vvhat the o'-casion of that meeting was ^
^Ir. Service. Duriii"- the war the Institute of Pacific Relations had
an oflice in AVashington, I think it was maintained only during the
war and maintained then primarily because so many of the Institute
of Pacific Relations members were here in various research or other
positions with Government agencies.
It was their custom to have ])eriodical]y, whenever an interesting
speaker might be available, I think, what they called sort of a sherry
party, where members, particularly members of the council of the
Institute of Pacific Relations, were welcome to come and where they
invited some speaker who gave remarks ofl' the record and later an-
Quite a number of Foreign Service officers were guests at those
meetings and also foreign diplomats. Madam Pandit, the Australian
Minister, quite a number of other people had been speakers at those
ofT-the -record talks with Institute of Pacific Relations staff members
The invitation came to me second-hand. Actually it went to my
superior officer, who gave his approval and provisionally accepted the
invitation for me. Later on he told me he had accepted the invitation
ftnd that I should go over and meet ivith them.
I think the chairman of that meeting ^vas Dr. William Johnstone,
who I think used to be dean of George Washington University.
Mr. Morris. Have vou answered ? Have vou finished?
Mr. Service. Yes. The date of that meeting must have been about
the middle of Xovember 19-14.
Mr. Morris. Do you know Mr. Duncan Lee â€” L-e-e ?
Ml". Service. I know him very, very slightly. I think I have met
him two or three times.
Mr. Morris. I have part of the records, part of your address Uiok;
in addition to your address book, there was also a schedule of yours
showing vour appointments between the 27th of May and the 6th of
I noticed you have listed â€” I do not see why â€” I should give you a
cop3^ of this whole thing anyhow for reference purposes.
Mr. Service. Thank you.
Mr. Morris. You will notice on Vrednesday. June G, you had listed
at least an appointment at 12 : 30 with Duncan Lee.
1378 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Will 3 Oil tell the committee your associations with Duncan Lee and
in particular that occasion?
Mr. Service. Duncan Lee had made a trip to China for the OSS.
He had been in that airplane which was forced down in the jungle over
the Hump, spent something like 21 days walking out.
I had met him briefly at that time. I believe I had met him at least
once here in Washington at one social occasion, mostly wnth other OSS
people. The occasion of this meeting, as I remember it, was to feel
me out to ask me whether or not I ^^ould accept employment with the
I had been asked by the OSS several times â€” I think General Dono-
van himself can confirm this â€” to accept employment with them, pre-
sumably because of my knowledge and contacts with Xorth China and
the Chinese Communists.
I told Mr. Lee on this occasion that I was not interested in leaving
the Foreign Service and I was not interested in employment with the
OSS. It was the same answer I had given the OSS several times
Mr. Morris. Was that the only occasion on which you ever had
discussion with Mr. Lee?
INIr. Ser\t^ce. That is the only discussion of which I have any recol-
lection, and it is the last time I have ever seen him or talked to him.
Mr. Morris. Did you know Duncan Lee was identified before a
congressional committee as a member of a Soviet espionage ring ? Do
you know he was identified before a congressional committee?
Mr. Service. I read many years subsequently that he had been
named, but my recollection from reading the paper was that the
charges were not substantiated. I certainly had no knowledge
, at the time I saw him in 1944 that he was under any sort of suspicion.
I knew he was a trusted officer of the OSS.
Mr. Morris. The testimony in the Congressional Record, Mr. Serv-
ice, was that he was during 1945 a member of die Soviet espionage
Mr. Seratlce. I had no knowledge of him in 1945, except that he
was an officer of the OSS.
Mr. Morris. Mr. Service, did you ever meet Agnes Smedley?
Mr. Service. I met Agnes Smedley once very briefly here in Wash-'
ington in 1945. I had lunch with one or two other people and Miss
Smedley was there. That is the only time I have met her to my
Mr. Morris. Do you know now that Agnes Smedley has been iden-
tified by General MacArthur's intelligence organization as being a
member of a Soviet spy ring?
Mr. Service. I do not know that. I have read in the newspapers
that published reports of statements by a Russian spy, who was cap-
tured and executed by the Japanese, include her name among many
Mr. Morris. That is the substance of the testimony.
Mr. Service. Yes.
Mr. Morris. Do you know Mr. Haldore Hanson ?
Mr. Service. Yes, I know Mr. Haldore Hanson.
Mr. Morris. Will you describe to the committee the extent of your
association with Mr. Haldore Hanson?
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 1379
:Mr. Service. In the fall of 19^7 in Peking, Mr. Haldore Hanson
was representing the Associated Press. He was an extremely active
young man and with a great deal of enterprise. He got on a bicycle
and rode down a railway line, as I remember it, riding the ties or riding
the path beside the railway, right behind the leading Japanese ele-
ments, and he arrived in the city called Paoting immediately after
the Japanese capture.
Paoting, I think, is about 50 miles south of Peking. For some time
he was able to walk around, write reports, and then all of a sudden
the Japanese headquarters arrived. They said, "My goodness, what
is this newspaperman doing here?" And they detained Mr. Hanson,
put him through very grilling detention for, as I remember it, 10 or
12 days, and finally released him.
Mr. Hanson came back to Peking in very bad shape. I had a large
house, my family had been evacuated from Peking, I was living there
alone. 1 had only the most slight casual acquaintance with Mr. Han-
son. But he had been living, as I remember it, at the Chinese YMCA
or some place like that, where he couldn't get good food, and there was
very little comfort, so I said to ]\fr. Hanson, "I have a house with lots
of room, come over and sta}' with me."
He stayed with me, I think, for perhaps a month in my house. I
left Peking at the end of that year. I have seen him casuallj^ several
times since when I have been in the United States.
I have usually seen him around the State Department, once or twice.
I think I had a cocktail at his home on one occasion. But we are
not close intimate friends. We have not maintained that association.
Mr. ISloRRis. Did you know Mr. Hanson operated for a period of
time a newspaper in China ?
ISlr. Service. I believe that he was a coeditor or one of the editorial
board of a small magazine which was published out at Yenching
University, in which a number of faculty members were interested.
Dr. Leighton Stuart, Ambassador to China, was president of the uni-
versity. I do not recall seeing a copy of the magazine. It was not a
very flourishing enterprise.
Mr. Morris. Who was the coeditor ?
Mr. Service. I don't know.
Mr. Morris. Was Nym Wales, wife of Edgar Snow, a coeditor?
INIr. Service. She could have been one. There was a man named
Savior. There was a young Englishman, I am speaking only from
Mr. Morris. In all your association with Haldore Hanson did you
recognize he may have been a member of the Communist Party?
Mr. Service. I never saw any indication that he might be.
Mr. Morris. Mr. Service, do you know Nym Wales?
Mr. Servtce. I know her slightly. She was living in Peking with
her husband, Edgar Snow, during most of the years 1936 and 1937
when I was in Peking. I didn't know either one of them well.
I saw her certainly at functions in Peking like the Fourth of July
receptions, where most of the Americans would be present. I remem-
ber seeing her at work as a newspaperwoman. She was doing some
writing. For instance, I have a clear recollection of seeing her among
the group of Americans who were watching student demonstrations
in Peking in 1935, but all the newspaper people were there.
1380 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
I think I saw her here in Washington once durinof the war, I am not
sure whether it was 1943 or 1944, met her. I think we had a drink
Mr. Morris. In your dealings with Nym Wales did you have any
reason to believe she was a member of the Communist Party?
Mr. Service. No, I had no indication she v/as a member of the Com-
munist Party. A rather emotional, high-strung person, always work-
ing for some cause, but I never heard her say anything to indicate she
was a Communist or member of the party.
Mr. Morris. Do you know Edgar Snow, Mr. Service?
Mr. Ser\t:ce. Yes, I know Edgar Snow.
Mr. Morris. Will you describe your association with Mr. Edgar
Mr. Service. My associations with him are similar to my associa-
tions with most other newspapermen specializing in the Far East. As
I have already mentioned, he was living in Peking in 1936-37. I saw
him occasionally. I saw him more often than his wife because he came
to the Embassy fairly frequently for news or conversations with offi-
cers of the Embassy for background information.
I saw Edgar Snow from time to time in Chungking during the war.
He didn't spend all of the war in China, but he made several trips
there. I saw Edgar Snow again at least once in the United States. I
saw him again casually and as a newspaperman and writer perhaps
two or three times in Japan in 1945 and perhaps early 1946.
Mr. Morris. In your dealings with Mr. Snow did you have any
reason to believe Mr. Snow was a member of the Communist Party?
Mr. Service. No, I believe he is not a member.
Mr. Morris. How would you know that. Mr. Service ?
Mr. Service. I don't know, but I don't see any indication in his
writings that he is.
Mr. Morris. Were you in Peiping at the time his Red Star Over
China was published ?
Mr. Service. Yes, I believe I was,
Mr. Morris. Were you present at a cocktail party when Mr. Snow
made the statement that the success of his book depended for the most
part on Owen Lattimore?
Mr. Service. No, sir ; I never heard that statement.
INIr. Morris. Were you present at a cocktail party in Peiping at
which yourself, Owen Lattimore, and Mr. Snow were in attendance
:it the general time when the book had been published. Red Star Over
Mr. Service. That was 1937, if I remember rightly, and it would
be very hard for me to remember, since diplomats go to a good many
cocktail parties. It would be very hard for me to remember if I was
ever at a party where those two men were. It would not be surprising.
I have no recollection.
Mr. Morris. You just testified, with what seemed to be a great deal
of detail, your associations with both those two men. Now I should
think you would be able to recall whether or not there was any con-
fluence of associations there.
Mr. Service. I am sorry, I cannot.
Mr. Morris. Do you know a woman named Anna Leise Wang, a
STATE DEPARTMEXT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 1381
Mr. Sekvice. The name (loesn't rinir any bell now. Could yon tell
me when or where I mia'ht liave known her?
Mr. Ah)KHis. In China.
Mr. Service. Anna Leise AVang, a Chinese woman. I am sorry, but
Mr. MouHis. Did you ever have a controversy with any of your
superiors on whether or not you had given access to your files to a
certain Anna Leise Wang?
Mr. Service. I recall no such controversy.
Mr. Morris. In other words, it is your testimony that you do not
recall ever having met, or associated with, or dealt with in any way
Anna Leise Wang ?
Mr. Service. From the information you have given me, I cannot
Mr. Morris. Just for background purposes here, Mr. Service, will
you describe how in the period prior to the war it would be possible
for an American group of people to proceed to Yenan i
In other words, Yenan was then in Chinese Connnunist territory and
se])arated from the main part of China by military forces. Could you
tell us, based on your experience in China, how a gi'oup of Americans
would proceed from a city occupied by the Nationalists to Yenan?
]Mr. Service. During what period, sir?
Mr. Morris. AVell, the period that you were there in Peiping, say
1935 to 1941.
Senator Green. Would you mind telling the purpose of the ques-
Mr. Morris. I stated it was for background purposes, because there
Avere many of the people involved in this inquiry who did make trips
from Nationalist China to Yenan, and there is a certain amount of
confusion and a certain discrepancy in the method pursued.
Here we have Mr. Service, who spent many years in Yenan, and I
thought this would be a good idea for us to determine
Senator Green. For general purposes or Mr. Service's testimony?
Mr. ]MoRRis. Mr. Service's testimony and the testimony of the people
whose testimony bears on his activities. You see, there is testimony
here. Senator, that Mr. Service was mentioned in Communist circles
as a pupil of Owen Lattimore's. We have addressed our question to
Mr. Service and he has given us an answer. However, there is also
evidence before the committee that a group of three people went to
Yenan in l!)o7, I believe, that the peo]->le involved were T. A. Bisson,
Owen Lattimore, and Phili}) Jaffe. There is also testimony it was
Mr. Owen Lattimore who organized that party.
Senator Green. What has that to do with Mr. Service ?
Mr. AIoRRis. Mr. Service was in Yenan and I thought it was a good
idea while Mr. Service was here that he explain how a group of Amer-
icans could proceed from Nationalist China to Yenan.
Senator Green. It does not seem to me it makes any difference how
they proceeded, from what you have said.
Mr. Morris. I do not think it is fair that I should be draAvn out.
The purpose in asking this is to determine the plausibility of Mr.
Lattimore's statement tliat he was able to arrange for this trip for
Jaffe and himself to Yenan and yet not have any association with the
1382 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Senator Green. You are checking up on Mr. Lattimore's statement
Mr. Morris. It is related. I am still ])ursuino- this line of question-
ing here that Mr. Service was a pupil of Mr. Lattimore.
Senator Green. Well, I will not object to j'Our asking this question,
but I am afraid you are going very far afield, and w^e do not want to
check up through this witness on what might have been truth or falsity
of other witnesses' testimony, unless it relates to Mr. Service.
Mr. Morris. Senator, I have explained the reason I have asked the
question. I maintain it is pertinent. However, if you insist. Senator,
1 will withdraw it.
Senator Green. I will not object in this case, but I am just giving
a warning that we do not go so far afield that we will take days on
Mr. Service's testimony.
Mr. Service. Let me make a few corrections. I was in Peiping
during the years 11)36 and 1937, not up to 1941, as you mentioned.
I have not spent years in Yenan. I have spent a total of 4 months
Now, as I have just said, I was in Peiping and studying Chinese dur-
ing the period I presume you are interested in, the period in which
Mr. Lattimore and others entered, went to the Communist areas. I
have no knowledge of how they made the arrangements.
There were other people who also went in then or fairly soon after-
ward. I Mould point out, though, just a speculation, that the Com-
mimist areas were extensive, they were not at that time rigidly defined
by trenches or military lines, that there undoubtedly were Communist
agents in some of the cities held by the Central Government, and as
a matter of speculation, I don't think it would have been difficult to
have simply gone out in the country and walked through by some
I personally have no direct knowledge of how the arrangements were
made, but knowing China and having a general picture of the situation
at that time, I can see no real difficulty, provided a man was willing
to put uj) with a certain amount of discomfort and hardship in getting
over these very vague and indistinct lines.
Mr. Morris. Will you tell the committee the extent of your associa-
tion with Harold Isaacs?
Mr. Service. Yes. Harold Isaacs was for a good many years dur-
ing the war the correspondent in China of Newsweek. I met him first
in Chungking as a newspaper man. I saw him fairly frequently, as
I saw all the other foreign newsmen in Chungking, tie made a very
brief trip to Yenan. I saw him there and I saw him once in New York,