Mr. Duran has now served as one of my immediate associates for more than
a year. His work has been excellent and outstandingly u.seful to the T'nited
States Government. From my personal knowledge based on close association,
Mr. Duran is not a Conmmnist but a liberal of the highest tyi)e. I consider him
an unusually worthy, patriotic, and honorable American citizen, who shows
great promise as a United States Government official capable of high resiionsibility.
This was w^-itten. Mr. Chairman, at the time, you understand, that
Duran, of Spanish fame, was not the Duran of State Department
fame, but that claim has long since been dropped.
Senator Tydixgs. The date of the connnunication you have just
read was December 21, 1943.
Senator McCarthy. That is exactly as I read it, December 21. 1943,
Mr. Braden describes Mr. Duran as one recoiameiided to him Ijv a
friend of unimpeachable integrity.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY IXVElSTIGATION 121
He set forth in his letter that Diiran was a naturalized citizen, bom
and educated in Spain, of good family and in his youth was particu-
larly interested in the arts. Braden said that from 11);^>G Duran gave
up everything to fight on the side of the Spanish Loyalists and said he
urgently recommended his empknnient as an auxiliary Foreign Service
Incidentally, not that this is important, but Duran was mistaken
in where he was born. He was born in the Canary Islands, according
to the Intelligence reports.
Xow with that information in the possession of the then Secretary
of State, information which Braden gave, plus the claim that this was
not the same Duran, I can understand why the then Secretary kept
liim on. That was before the intelligence report was made available to^
the Secretarj^ of State.
Following Senator "Wherry's letter to the State Department of
August 194G, in which the Senator maintained that this man was such
a bad security risk that he should be discharged, we find that he was
])ermitted to resign on October 4, 1946.
In view of the grave charges made by Senator Wherry and the
unusual attitude of the State Department in permitting this man's
resignation, plus all the information the committee will have before
it. it Avoukt be interesting to know what, if any, investigation was
made by State Department officials as to his conduct while in a
lesponsible, confidential capacity in the Department.
But Duran's frieiids in the State Department did not turn their
backs on him.
After his resignation. Duran almost immediately was employed as
a representative of the International Refugee Organization of the
United Nations. He was employed there as of yesterday.
I believe I have explained that this is not his title, according to the
State Department. Tryg\'e Lie's secretary says he cannot tell me what.
he is doing, but we sent a man over there to physically check, and try
and find out, and he reports that his work has to do with the screening
Senator Greex. May I ask a question?
Senator ^McCarthy. Yes.
Senator Green. Can vou explain Avhv Mr. Braden did not sign this
letter of December 2.3, 1943?
Senator McCarthy. There is no part of Mr. Braden's actions that
I would even attempt to explain. Senator.
Senator Greex. All right.
Senator Htckexlooper. Mr. Chairman, this exhibit, as I under-
stand it. is not in the form of a letter. It is in the form of a memoran-
dum for the military attache, or rather, from the military attache.
Senator McCarthy. It is a photostat of the memorandum which is
in the Department file.
Senator Tydixgs. The signature is typed in; is that your point?'
Senator McCarthy. If the Senator wants to get the original, he
can get it where I cannot. I assume that would be in order.
Senator Tydixgs. Well, we will get it.
Senator McCarthy. I have received a confidential report tluit
Duran was recommended for his UX position by a member of the
present Presidential Cabinet. It has also been, reported to. me that
122 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVEBTIGATION
Diiran is the brother-in-law of Michael Straight, the owner and pub-
lisher of a pro-Communist magazine called the New Republic.
Here again it is certainly pertinent to inquire where this man got
his power, what he did while in the State Department and, possibly,
of equal importance, is what he did not do.
To complete this picture, I attach hereto copies of the following
Senator Tydings. Has the New Republic been declared by any or-
ganization as a Communist-front newspaper. Senator McCarthy ?
Senator McCarthy. I did not say "Communist front," Mr. Chair-
man. It is not necessary for the Chair to put words in my mouth. If
he will read the top of page 13
Senator Tydings. I did not read it, but I want to know who de-
nominates it as pro-Communist magazine.
Senator McCarthy. I have just named them that. If the chairman
will read it, I think he will agree
Senator Tydings. I do not have the time to read it.
Senator McCarthy. I do not recommend it necessarily for reading.
Now, the exhibit numbered 34, Mr. Chairman
Senator Hickenlooper. Is that the one denominated 1 ?
Senator McCarthy. This is the report from Edward J. Rutf , assist-
ant United States military attache in the Dominican Republic, ad-
dressed to the American Intelligence Service dated December 30, 1943.
I have a note here, that the date of this is December 30, 1943. I do
not find any date on this document, however. I assume that that is
the correct date.
The second page of the letter, I do not have the first page either â€”
the first part may not be too valuable, Mr. Chairman. It is not clear
who Ruff is referring to.
It is marked "Secret copy," and says :
He states, dogmatically, that the records showed Duraii to be a nieralier of
the Spanish Comimmist Party. Our source had previously made available to
xis the information agreeing vpith that sent to us by military attach^, Habana,
except the statement that Duran entered the Army as a private. According to
our agent, Durun was commissioned directly from civilian life and given the rank
of major in the militia. Later when the militia became part of the Spanish Re-
publican Army, he was made a major in the army. The only additional informa-
tion we had, and which we did not mention in the report, as it was not believed
pertinent, was the reported fact that Duran is a homosexual. I do not question
Duran's interest in the arts, his culture, or intelligence. However, we only stated
in our report that Duran was a member of the Communist Party, and that we
(lid not know whether he is still a member of the Communist Party. I, myself,
am convinced that Duran was a Communist and consider Ambassador Braden's
statement that he is a ''liberal of the highest type" to be a euphemism. Under
the circumstances, I believed the reliability of our report still remains as origi-
The Ambassador here is inclined to concur in my report on Duran, but has
asked that no further official correspondence on the subject be sent up. Hence
this personal letter from me.
I want to repeat that, Mr. Chairman :
The Ambassador here is inclined to concur in my report on Duran, but has
asked that no further official correspondence on the subject he sent up. Hence
this personal letter from me.
Senator Tydings. Just a minute, Senator McCarthy.
Senator McCarthy. I might say the entire letter â€” the first half I
<lid not read, and it might be well to I'ead that into the record, also,
STATE DEPARTMEIS^T EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVEISTIGATION 123
ami w ith the permission of the Chair I would like to read the first half
of that letter.
Senator Tyoings. All rio;ht.
Senator McCarthy. I read the last half from the j^hotostatic copy.
I do not have a photostat of the first. Here is the first half :
I want to take this opportunity to clarify my position in connection witli Re-
port No. 4'JS, dated December 18. l!)4:i, sub.iect : Gustavo Duran, alleged Com-
munist employee of the CIAA, Habana. As you know, this office received a cable
from th(^ military attach^, Habana, requesting that dissemination of this report
to be held up on the grounds that it was '"absolutely incorrect." A few days ago
we received letter No. 7967 from Lieutenant Colonel Brown, written by Ambas-
sador r.raden concerning this individual. Both these communications corrobo-
rated information which we had regarding Duran and I cannot see on the basis
of their reports how our report can be branded as "absolutely incorrect." Our
only statement in the report on Dui'an is that he was a member of the Commu-
nist I'arty in Spain. From further reports received, this information can now be
evaluated as A-1. For your own knowledge, the information on Duran was sub-
mitted iiy a Spanish refugee who also served on Duran's promotion board in
Spain, which board was charged with considering recommendations for promo-
tion of Spanish Republican officers. As our source was actually sitting on the
board at the time that Duran's I'ecommendation for promotion came through,
he himself saw all Duran's papers and letters of recommendation, and had
access to complete information regarding Duran's background.
I next submit to the Chair an excerpt from the book. Why and How
I Left Defense Ministry in the Intriijue of Russia in Spain, by Indali-
cio Prieto, former Minister of Defense for the Spanish Republican
Senator Tydings. Is that the next page?
Senator McCarthy. I have the original document, if the Chair
cares for it.
Senator Tydings. I want to follow you.
Senator McCarthy. I hope the committee will keep in mind that
this is the same Duran who is apparently presently screening our
It is true that I have had certain Incidents with the Russians. Certain Rus-
sian technicians proposed to me in Valencia that a service of military investiga-
tions should be created. This was the Spanish counterpart of the NKVD. I
confess that I opposed the project. But because of insistent pressure, I created
The SIM, I believe the committee knows, is the counterpart of the
I was especially concerned with choosing a chief, until I gave it to an intimate
friend of mine, who had just come from France, wliere he was with his family.
In entrusting him with the task. I gave him these insti'uctions :
"You are going to form the SIM, carefully, with elements of all groups of the
Popular Front. Your only charges will be these two: Do not permit the new
organization to be converted into an instrument of the Communists and do not
permit Russian technicians to gain control. Listen to the advice of these tech-
nicians and follow their orientations, whicli can be very useful to you, but con-
trol must always be in your hands and in that of the Government, and of no
I .showed little tact in the selection of that comrade. A Republican named
Sayagues came in fact to be the chief of SIM. Regional chiefs of the SIM
were designated and they proposed to me a certain Gustavo Duran for the
Madrid zone. It was not conv:>ale(i from me that the person proposed was a
Communist. I knew this, but in spite of that, he was appointed by decree which
I myself drew up. becau.se I did not wish to follow in a slavish manner the
project which was handed to me â€” there is an article by virtue of which the
appointment of all agents of the SIM rests exclusively' with the Minister of
124 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
National Defense. This was a guarantee which temporarily I wish to establish.
No one could be an agent of the SIM who was not in possession of the memoran-
dum book wliich bore duplicate the signature of the minister. Duran having
been appointed chief of the demarcation of the army of the center, of his own
acctn-d and without power to do so. appointed the agents who were under his
orders, which to the number of some hundreds, were Communists and only four
or five were Socialists.
As the Chair will recall, this was at the time Spain was trying to
Avork out her difficulties by having a coalition government of Socialists,
Connnnnists, and so forth.
I faced an intolerable situation, wherefore alleging, and with reason, that I
lacked commanders in the army. I ordered that all military chiefs who were
xiot in particular positions in the army should return to their former positions,
and thus Major Duran liad to return to his military fun( tion. Because of
Dtiran's leaving the SIM, I received a visit from a Russian technician, of these
services, who said to me :
â– Russian Agent. I have come to speak to you about the dismissal of Duran.
"Prieto. Nothing special I lacked commanders in the army and ordered Duran
to return to it.
"RiTsstAN Agent. Xo. You discharged him because he appointed Communists
as agents in Madrid.
'â€¢Prieto. That is also sufficient reason, becau.se Duran absolutely lacked au-
Ihoiity to make appoiutmeuts.
"Russian Agent. Why did he not have the power to appoint agents?
"PuiETO. Because by virtue of the decree creating the SIM that power is
ireserved exclusively to the Minister."
Still quoting :
I read the decree and before the evidence of my statement my visitor alleged:
"Russian Agent. Duran could m.-ike temporary appointments.
"Prieto. Neither actual nor temporary. Hei"e in Spain, moreover, the tempor-
ary is converted into the definitive.
"Russian Agent. Be that as it may. I come to ask ycm to immediately restore
3Ia.ior Duran as chief of the SIM in Madrid.
â– 'Peieto. I am very sorry, l)Ut I cannot consent.
â– "Russian Agent. If you do not consent to restore Duran, my relations with
you are broken.
"Prieto. I am sorry, but Major Duran will go to the front of his division and
will not return to the SIM. Your attitude is unjustified and I cannot yield to
I did not yield as a matter of fact, and my relations with the Russian technician,
thi'ough his own wish, were absolutely cut off. I have not seen him since that
Incidentally, the Chair questioned my description of the magazine
Senator Tydixgs. I did not question it, I asked what information
you had to support your allegation.
Senator McCarthy. If I may finish, I want to call attention to the
fact that Mr. Wallace was for a time the editor of that paper, and
the Chair may not think he is ])ro-Connnunist. I think he is, and as
far as I know the magazine has not changed its policy in the slightest
since Wallace left, in fact it almost seemed that Wallace was a stabiliz-
ing influence on that paper, if anyone could call Wallace that in any-
I believe, Mr. Chairman, that covers exhibits in the Duran case.
Senator Tydings. The confidential exhibits furnished by the wit
nesses will be held by the connnittee until the whole connnittee author
izes in whole or in part their release.
Senator McCarthy. I am going to give the chairman another photo
stat â€” I think that had better be given later to the committee staff.
STATE DEPARTAIEXT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 125
Mr, Chairman, while out making some Lincohi Day si^eeches, I also
mentioned another name which has been shrugged off by the State
-Department. I wouUl like to read what T said about this individual,
Senator Gkeex. May I ask a question ?
Senator Tydings. Senator Green w^onld like to ask a question.
Senator Grkex. In that connection, Senator, would you like to put
into the record all your speeches on this subject?
Senator ]McCartiiy. If the Senator wants my speeches, he most cer-
tainly can have them.
Seiiator Tydixgs. Will you i)ut in both the written speeches and the
oral speeches, because as I recall your testimony, you stated on the
floor that you spoke without notes out at Wheeling, at least.
Senator McCarthy. Not at Wheeling, at Reno, Nev.
Senator Tydixgs. Well, at Keno; and. we would like to have both
the written speech and the oral speech.
Senator McCarthy. I am glad to know the Chair is so interested in
my speeches. I will give him a complete file I have made.
Senator Tydixgs. The Chair is interested in everything you have
to say about this hearing, from the time it started until it ends.
Senator McCarthy. Here is what was said about this man Harlow
I said you will recall last spring there was held in New York what
was known as a World Peace Conference
Senator Tytjings. Do you have copies of this ?
Senator McCxVEthy. I am reading from the Congressional Record.
This conference was labeled by the State Department, and Mr. Tru-
man, as a sounding board of Communist propaganda and a front for
Russia. Mr. Harlow Shapley was a chairman of that conference. In-
terestingly enough, according to a news release put out by the State
Department in July, the Secretary of State appointed Shapley on a
commission which acts as liaison with UNESCO and the State De-
After I made my Lincoln Day speech, the State Department,
through its Under Secretary John Peurifoy, had this to say in his press
release of February 13, 1950, concerning Dr. Shapley :
Di-. Shapley has never been an employee of the Department of State. How-
ever, in 104"), he served as a nienib'r of the Amerie:in dolesation at the UNESCO
Conference in London ; and in 11!46 to the International Astronomical Union at
Dr. Shapley is a member of the National Commission for UNESCO, repre-
senting the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
I submit that this statement in Mr. Peurifov's press release is a mis-
representation of the true facts concerning Dr. Shapley's association
with our Department of State.
Keep in mind, this is the man who headed the peace conference
which the Secretary labeled as a sounding board for Russia.
Senator Tydixos, Senator McCarthy, my two colleagues are asking
me questions which I will attempt to clear up.
Is this one of the cases you outlined on the Senate floor by number?
Senator McCarthy. No; this is one of the men I mentioned in
talking, one that the Secretary had referred to in a news release, and
I assure the Chair that whenever I refer to one of those cases men-
tioned on the Senate floor, I will give him the number.
126 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
The full facts concerninfy Dr. Shapley and the facts that the State
Department's press release conveniently omitted are these:
Dr. Shapley was appointed to the National Commission for
UNESCO by the Secretary of State in May 1947 to fill an unexpired
term, and he was reappointed to that position by the Secretary of
State in June 1947 for a second term on the Commission, which expires
in April of this year.
Not only was Dr. Shapley twice appointed to the National Com-
mission by the predecessor of the present Secretary of State, in
accordance with the provisions of Public Law 565 of the Seventy-
ninth Congress, but his transportation expenses and $10 per diem are
also paid by the State Department, in accordance with the provisions
of Public Law 565.
I am at a complete loss to understand how the State Department
could seek to avoid responsibility for Dr. Shapley's appointment and
continuance on the National Commission, in view of these uncon-
As a matter of fact,'! know that John Peurifoy had all of these
facts in his possession concerning the appointment and payment of
expenses for Dr. Shapley at the National Commission at the time his
misleading press release of February 13 was issued to the public.
I know that because I have a letter from John Peurifoy, dated Feb-
ruary 16, 1950, in which he furnished me with the facts concerning
Shapley's appointments and compensation, in accordance with Public
Now I personally do not blame John Peurifoy for attempting to
mislead the public and whitewash the State Department in that press
release. I have known Peurifoy to be an upright, honest individual,
and I for one am convinced that he is issuing these misleading half
truths to the American public on orders from higher ups.
It is inconceivable that the Secretary of State should be condemning
the Communist-inspired Scientific and Cultural Conference for World
Peace on the one hand, and retaining Dr. Harlow Shapley, one of
its main organizers, in an important position with UNESCO, on the
As this committee well knows, the power to appoint carries with it
the power to dismiss unless definite restrictions are placed on the
appointing authority, which they are not in the case of Dr. Shapley.
Furthermore, inasmuch as State Department funds are being used to
pay the traveling expenses and per diem of Dr. Shapley's at the
National Commission, there is no reason why he could not be sum-
marily dismissed from that position by Secretary Acheson under the
broad powers of the so-called McCarran rider.
Dr. Shapley's active participation in the Soviet Peace Conference
is not the last nor only Communist-front with which this man has
been affiliated. His record with Communist fronts is a long and
Now, I have here, Mr. Chairman, I do not want to take the com-
mittee's time to dwell on each one, in view of the fact that the Secretary
himself has said this man headed an outfit which was a sounding board
of Communism, but I have here in my hand, a list of some 36 Com-
munist-front organizations which this individual has belonged to,
and if the Chair's staff is interested
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 127
Senator Tydixgs. Tliey ^vill bo ])rinted in the record at this point.
Senator McCarthy. I will be glad to give them to him.
1. Joint Aiiti-Fascist Refugee Committee, sponsor (letterhead dated September
8. 1044) (also letterhead of April 2S, 1040) .
2. Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee ("onuuittre, eliairnian. reception committee for
Irene Joliot-Curie, a leading French Conuuunist fronter and wife of
Fredericlv Joliot-Curie, top-ranking French Conununist Party member
(invitation to the dinner, March ;U, 1948).
3. Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, speaker (the Worker, October 31,
4. Fraternal Outlook, official ori:an of the International Workers Order, inter-
view, March 1042. p. 12.
5. Natiomxl Federation for Constitutional Liberties, Signer of Statement on
i.ssuance of commissions to Communists (Daily Worker, March 18, 104.5).
6. Progressive Citizens of America, attack on motion picture industry for firing
Communists (Daily Worker, November 26, 1047).
7. Progressive Citizens of America, vice chairman (PCA Politics, October 1047).
8. Progressive Citizens of America, chairman, cultural freedom conference
(Daily Worker, October 27, 1047).
9. Progressive Citizens of America, honorary chairman, Massachusetts chapter
(the Progressive Citizen, March 1947).
10. Progressive Citizens of America, Conference on Thought Control in the
IL S. A. (pamphlet. 1947).
11. Progressive Citizens of America, delegate, national convention (release of
list of delegates, 1948).
12. Progressive Citizens of America, speaker on behalf of Hollywood Communists
(dinner pi-ogram, March 1948).
13. National Conuuittee to Defeat the Mundt Bill (pamphlet: Hey, Brother,
There's a Law Against You) (also release dated June 1.5, 1040).
14. League of American Writers, signer of open letter (Daily Worker, July 31,
15. Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions,
vice chairman (letterhead. May 1046).
16. Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions,
initiating sponsor (Daily Woi'ker, December 24, 1944).
Ma}'^ I call attention to the fact that most of the organizations with
which Harlow Shapley has been associated get their pnblicity ex-
chisivelv in the Dailv Worker, the official organ of the Communist
17. Congress of American Women, an affiliate of the Soviet-controlled Women's
International Democratic Federation, speaker (Daily Worker, September
18. American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom, member,
national committee (letterhead, September 22, 1939).
19. Signer of statement defending," Isadore Rubin, Communist writer (Daily
Worker, January 16, 1948).
20. Teachers Union, speaker (New York Times, April 18, 1949).
I might point ont that this organization has been cited as Communist
by a number of witnesses before the Senate Committee on the
21. New York Conference for Inalienable Rights, signer of open telegram
(Daily Worker. September 17, 1040).
22. United Public Workers â€” an organization which was thrown out of the
CIO for being Communist â€” speaker (Daily Worker, April 16, 1948).