l^resently with the State Department.
Carr, I don't remen;tber what Carr that is.,,
Mr. Morris. Could that be Drew Pearson's assistant?
Mr. Service. It might be, it might well be.
Colling was a joimg captain in the OSS, who had been a member
of the observer group at Yenan. He was, what you would call, a sort
of guerrilla-warfare man, a demolitions man, and he had just recently
returned to Washington to make his reports to OSS, and brought back
a lot of films, and they were trying to put together a picture of Chinese
Communist guerrilla operations, and I went over to OSS and saw
those jfilms several times, consulted with them on it.
John Cakbvell was a friend whom I had known since we were bovs
together in China. He was with OWI, was with me in China, and was
back with me in China on the China desk of OWI.
Cowan was an officer in the lieadquarters at Chungking who hap-
pened to be back here temporarily in the War Department.
Dan Davis â€” that should be Don Davis, is a cop,ying mistake â€” he
w\as at that time an officer in Naval Intelligence. Marty refers to C.
ISIartin Wilbur, who was head of the Political Branch of the Far
Eastern Section of Research and Analysis, which is OSS, formerly a
China boy; also a professor and curator in the Field Museum, and
came into the OSS during the war.
Dennison refers to a man whom I had known out in China with
the National City Bank. I think it was the National City Bank or
possibly the Chase Bank, and he was back here with the RFC during
the war. His wife had been a college friend of mv wife and myself.
Drumright was Everett F. Diumright, an American Forign Ser-
vice officer, who was Assistant Chief, Division of Chinese Affairs,
Emmerson is a fellow service officer, Japan expert, who had been one
of the four Foreign Service officers attached to General Stilwell's
Mr. Morris. Who Avere the four, by the way ?
Mr. Service. John Davis, Raymoiid P. Ludden, John Emmerson,
Lee Engdahl was tlie widow of a Foreign Service officer who had
served with me at Shanghai, aud wliom we liad knov\-n verv well.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 1447
Mv. Morris. "What was his naiiie?
Mr. Service. His name was Kussell EiigdahL He was killed dur-
ing internment in Honjj: Kong during the early part of the war. She
was employed by the State Department at this time on some sort of
a visa review board. She is now vice consul in the Foreign Service
and stationed at Tehran.
The next name I think is a mistake in copying. It should be Fickan.
He was a man who was a house mate of mine at college. He was a
matlienuitician, had been a professor and was employed during the war
bv the Xavy.
" John Fairbanks, noAv professor of oriental history at Harvard Uni-
versity, during the war was head of far eastern operations for OWL
At this time he was in Washington for employment with OWL
Hon. C. E. Gauss, of course, was former Ambassador, and my for-
mer chief in China.
The next name is Mark Gayn.
Griffiths refers to Col. Samuel P. Griffiths, United States Marine
Corps, who had been a Navy language officer in Peking, studying Chi-
nese at the same time I was in Peking in 1936 and 1937. I had kept
up my friendship with him.
(jeiitille is, so far as I can remember, one of those research special-
ists in OSS who came over to see me on some particular project that
he was working on where he hoped that I could give him some advice.
Now, the next item, Garrisonville, Va., "Ask for Tom AValler," does
not ring any bell right now. I don't know who Tom Waller is. That
might be a "mistake in copying. I mean there are so many mistakes in
The next name is Hutchinson. He was a lieutenant colonel in OSS
in one of their more secret branches, who had been out hi the Far East,
and with whom I had consulted on a number of projects which they
had contemplated undertaking.
Hitch was an assistant naval attache in Chungking during part of
my period there. He had returned to Washington and was on duty
Christine Homan was the wife of an economist who was working
for some Government bureau. I think he is employed at present with
the President's Council of Economic Advisers. I had known the
Homans first in Peking. They had visited there in 1936 or 1937.
I had become acquainted with them there, and I was invited to their
house for dinner or something here in Washington.
Captain Harris was a young man over in MIS, a researcher in the
social branch of or a special branch of something of the sort there
who had been present at some interrogation, ancl had come over to
consult me further on some points he was interested in.
Hatem is Corp. J. W., who is a brother of an American doctor who
had gone out to China about 1936 or 1937, and had stayed with the
Chinese Communists. This doctor in Yenan had asked me to write
a letter to his family back here and let them know he was well, and
this man Hatem, his younger brother, had come up to see me.
]\Ir. Morris. Was Dr. Hatem a Communist ?
Mr. Service. I suppose he must have been to stay there all that
time, but I don't know whether he was actually a party member
68970 â€” 50â€” pt. 1 92
1448 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Harold Isaacs, of course, was at that time correspondent in China
of Ne\ysweek, and he had recently returned to the States and was
livinii: in New York.
Phil Jaife we have already discussed.
Col. Paul Jones, his name I alread}^ mentioned. His name appears
on my date pad.
Herbert Little had formerly been with the Chinese Maritime Cus-
toms in China. Since the war he has been the senior foreigner with
the Chinese Customs Service, During the war he was returned from
internment, I think, and he was with the OSS, and I saw him here
in Washington on OSS business.
Freddy Lvon, of course, was the security officer of the Department
Ludden is Raymond P. Ludden, whom I have discussed.
Lattimore I have discussed.
Mrs. W. W. Lockwood is a widow of an old friend of my mother's
and father's, who was associated with them, an associate of theirs,
out in the YMCA in China.
Capt. Paul Linebearger I have already mentioned. I think that
his branch was the Morale Branch of MIS.
Colonel McHugh had formerly been naval attache in China for a
good mjxny years before and during the war. At this period he had
been assigned to OSS and was here in Washington.
Colonel Mayer had formerly been military attache in China and at
that time was, I don't know what the term was, Far Eastern specialist
in MIS, and he asked me to come over and talk to him and to General
Bissell on one occasion.
Mr. RiiETTs. Who is General Bissell ?
Mr. Service. He was Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, for the United
States Army, in charge of intelligence.
Mertsky was a woman who had formerly been on our staif with the
consul general in Shanghai. After marriage to a man named Coleman,
she left the Foreign Service and was living in New York.
She had been my stenographer for a while in the consulate general
Colonel McNally was a man I had known in China as a language
student, had known liim during the war. He went out to China
originally in 1034, as aide to General Hurley, returned to Washington
thereaftei', and was at that time stationed at MIS.
J. K. Penfield is Mr. James Penfield. I gave his address at this
time as CINCPAC, commander in chief of the Pacific.
Phoebe Reichner is this woman in OSS who was writing a biogi-aphic
series, biographic data, whom I was assisting.
Lieutenant Colonel Roberts, his name appears in my pad. He was
assistant public relations officer in Chungking.
Lt. Andy Roth we had mentioned.
Ray is a man who had been working for lend-lease out in China,
nn(l I had seen him off and on. He had made numerous trips to
China, and was here in Washington with FEA.
Snow is Edgar Snow.
Next is Mrs. Harley Stevens. I am trying to think of a Mrs.
Harley Stevens. The^name does not mean "^anything to me now, but
is an address with OSS, so it must have been" somebody working in
OSS, somebody in the Research Branch, who had got in touch with^me.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 1449
(luonthiM- Stein was :i oonespoiKU'iil for the Cln-istian Science
iMonitoi- and the ^Manchester (Guardian. ^ -r i â€¢ ^ n tj
Phil Sullivan was in Shan-hai, and went to St John s College. He
was emi)loved bv the Department of State m the labor en(l
(ien J *W Schulz is l^ri-. (J.n. John Wesley Scliulz, the brother
of niv wife's father. At that time he was a member of the engineerin<r
board. I think the head of the engineering board at Fort Belvoir.
R. M. Service is mv vounger brother. . ^, . , i i i
Georo-e Tavlor is a man 1 had known out m China where he had
tauÂ«dit "-It Yenan University, was in the University of Washington,
aiuf during the war was employed by OWI on Far Eastern operations,
and I had had some contacts with him. ,-â€ž... i v i . ^
Terrell, I have already mentioned, was the British diplomat wlio
was stationed in Washington, attached to the British Embassy, and
1 had known him out in China. n , rr w â€¢ tt^
The next name is a mistake in copying and should be lolstoi. Me
wa- at that time Major Tolstoi, an OSS officer I had met first m the
extreme northwest of China in Lanchow. One of my i-easons in
goin<r to Lanchow was to carrv funds for him, and another officer, who
had come from India through Lhassa, up to Lanchow 1 saw a good
deal of him subsequently in China, and at this time he was back in
Washington. n â€¢ i +
Vino Gradoss, of course, I have already mentioned, was press at-
tache in Chungkinir at the Embassy. -. 1,'
Wilbur, I have mentioned as C. Martin Wilbur, at that time attache
to the Research and Analysis Branch of OSS.
Dick Watts is Richard Watts, who was for many years drama critic
of New York Herald Tribune. During the war he was m China tirst
foi^he New York Herald Tribune and later for OWI. I saw a good
deal of him in Chungking, and at this time he had returned to the
States. - 1 1. 1 T
Captain Weaver, as I mentioned, was a research analyst whom 1
had met. â€¢ i -r,- i i ix^ ^j- q
Senator Lodge. Are you still in touch with Richard Watts?
Mr. Service. No ; I liave not seen him since 1945.
Senator Lodge. How often had you seen him before that *â–
Mr. Service. AVell, I suppose in Chungking I saw him fairly fre-
quently. I think I saw him once in the spring of 194o very briefly, i
have not seen him since.
Thelma Wolfeâ€” the name does not mean anything to me now.
The last name is apparently a copying mistake. It should be Yar-
doumian. Rose, whose name I have already mentioned.
Mr. Morris. I have no other questions.
Senator Lodge. I have no questions of Mr. Service. There are some
questions I would like to ask of Mr. Morgan, due to the fact that Sen-
ator Green and I were away as a subcommittee of two. and the rest
of the sulx^ommittee verv properlv went ahead with the development
of this case, and I have "some points I would like to have cleared up.
I have had a chance to go through the transcript that was developed
while Senator Green and I were away, and I have jotted down some
questions I would like to ask you.
This fir^t grou]) can be answered "Yes" or "No" if you want to. You
do not have to if you do not want to.
1450 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Does the subcommittee, or do you as the chief comisel of the sub-
committee, feel that you have obtained clear-cut and convincing an-
swers to the following questions :
Why was Jaffe permitted to plead guilty in a brief and almost un-
noticed trial, and let off with a fine of $2,500 ?
Mr. Morgan. I would like to ask Mr. Service a couple of questions,
Senator Lodge. Yes.
Mr. Morgan. Mr. Service, the question I am going to ask you now
is, of course, one that probably calls for a self-serving answer, but it
is one that I like to see any man in a similar situation place on the
record, and that is this : I believe you have testified you have never
been a member of the Communist Party ; is that correct ?
Mr. Service. That is correct. I have never been a member of the
Mr. Morgan. Have you ever knowingly associated with members of
the Communist Party apart from the association in your official capac-
ity with the Chinese Communists^
Mr, Service. I have never knov.'inglv associated with any Commu-
nists other than Chinese Conmiunists in connection with my work in
China. I am sorry, I have never knowingly associated with any Com-
munists other than Chinese Communists and Kussian diplomatic
officials in connection with my official work.
Mr. Morgan. If you care to, you may, I am sure, at this point
indicate on our record your attitude and philosophy with respect to
communism. I do not put that as a question. I thought, perhaps, you
might want to indicate in our record your sentiments in that respect.
]\Ir. Service. I am not used to talking about my personal intimate
lieliefs, but I will try to summarize them.
One has to start with some faith and, I believe, that life was not
an accident, that there was a divine purpose, if you call it that, in
creation, and particularl}'- in creating man, as the highest and unique
type of life.
What makes man unique is his spirit, his mind, his ability to rea-
son; that our task, our mission, our responsibility, call it what you
will, is to seek to realize our full potentialities as human beings;
that we have had a few insights as to what these potentialities are
through people like Jesus Christ.
This philosophy, if you call it that, is, of cotirse, based on the deepest
and fullest conception of the rights of the human individual and the
dignity of man.
I think that the most important thing in the world is to give the
fullest opportunity for us to improve ourselves and to realize our
potentialities as human beings and as individuals.
Politically this philosophy, of course, is expressed in democracy,
which is based on the rights of the individual, and the dignity of
man. . It is the exact antithesis of communism, which subordinates
a man to the state which denies human rights, and which tries to fit
it into a mold, according to a set dogma, which we know is false be-
cause it ignores the human spirit, based purely on economic terms.
I think that that is a brief expression of my beliefs.
Mr. Morgan. Have you ever knowingly at any time submitted, as an
officer of the Foreign Service of the State Department on your de-
STATE DEPARTMENT EAFPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 1451
tac'lied duty, reports other than those which were, insofar as you were
concerned, your lu)nest conviction of the true facts?
Mr. Skkvici:. I never have submitted any report at any time wliich
was not my conception of the truth, of the true facts at the time.
Mr. JMoRGAN. Did you ever at any time seek to undermine the policy
of this Government, as you knew it and understood it?
Mr. Skrvice. I never sou<>ht to undermine the policy of this Gov-
ernment as I understood it. In fact, I think I can conscientiously say
that I always sought to further the achievement of this Government's
Mr. Morgan. I believe those are the only questions I have.
Senator Lodge. Will you give your definition of the word "Com-
Mr. Service. A Communist, to my way of thinking, is a person who
believes in the infallibility of Marxism, by which I mean a strictly
materialistic interpretation of history; the dialectic of Marxism de-
rived from Hegel, who submits himself to rigid party discipline, who
adheres wholeheartedly to that dogma to which he is willing to sacri-
fice his own i)ersonal interests in tlie interest of following orders of
Senator Lodge. Will you define for us the words "Soviet agent"?
Mr. Service. Well, a Soviet agent does not necessarily need to be a
Communist. I would say that he has to be so close to communism,
however, that he is willing to forego or to abandon his own family, his
own life, his own country, in the interests of serving the Soviet Gov-
ernment and the Communist Party.
Senator Lodge. I notice in your definition of "communism," you
make no reference to its impact on religion or to its connection with
Russia. Is there anything significant in that?
Mr. Service. Well, economic materialism is a denial of religion. I
did not tie up with Russia completely because I was tliinking of com-
munism in the broad sense as a theory.
Senator Lodge, I am talking about an active modern Communist
Mr. Service. Well, here again we run into complications which, I
think, confuse the issue. You could be a Yugoslav and be a Titoist,
and still be theoretically a Communist with all the devotion to the
dogma and the cause of Marx and all the economic materialism, and all
the rest of it.
Senator Lodge. I am asking you to give me your definition of these
things. I mean, you must have a definite idea in your mind of what
the word "Connnunist" means to you. Let us take an American Com-
munist, what is the relationship?
Mr. Service. Well, an American Connnunist is certainly committed
to the recognition of the overpowering interests of the Soviet Union,
I have absolutely no doubt of that, and relating my definition to me,
as an American, I Avould say that a Communist would have to be one
who is committed to supporting the interests of the Communist moth-
erland, tlie leading party of communism; which is the Russian Com-
Senator Lodge. Thank you.
Mr. Morris. May I ask a question? Mr. Service, while you shared
an apartment with Adler over the course of a year, as you testified, did
1452 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
you find his views and his conversations and his outlook on life aiiti-
thetical to yours?
Mr. Service. Well, we did not argue very much. I don't remem-
ber discussing American affairs witli him a great deal. I did not al-
ways agree with Mr. Adler or follow liim on economic discussions,
since his knowledge of economics was detailed and specialized, where-
as mine was not.
Mr. Morris. How about his political views?
Mr. Service. Well, as I say, we were so wrapped up in China, the
Chinese theme, that I don't remember much discussion about the
United States. Certainly, on China w^e agreed generally.
Senator Green. Are there any other questions?
Senator Tydings. I would like to request of you and your counsel
that these things you have been requested to put into the record by
Senator McMalion while he was here, and perhaps by others, while I
do not press you after the ordeal you have been through down with the
otlier hearing, and this one. 1 would still, however, while your testi-
mony is current, like to get it with a fair amount of promptness so
that Ave can put it in. When do you think vou could give us that,
Mr. R.IIEITS. We will prepare it. Since we have these materials
essentially assembled, it will be a question of putting them together.
We will prei)are them tonight, and it is a question of getting them
Senator Typings. That is all right.
(Discussion ( ff the record.)
Senator Tydixgs. I have no further questions. If there are no
other questions, we will take a recess, and 1 would like to have the
committee members to stay a minute.
Mr. RiiETTs. Before we leave, sir, I would like to offer for inclusion
in the record at this time a letter addressed to you. Senator Tydings,
and M'hich was transmitted to Mr. Service, from Dr. H. C. Mei.
(The letter referred to is as follows :)
Gkand Lodge of Fkee a^d Acticpted Masons of China,
HlKDiiiJidi. ('lih)ti. April 18, 1950.
Hon. Millard E. Tydings,
Cliairman. Fevnte Foreign Relations Investif/atiny Suhcommiftee,
United States Senate, Washington, D. C.
Dear Senator: As an American-born Chinese I have known for some 30
years Mr. and Mrs. Robert Koy Service, parents of Hon. .lobn Stewart Service,
and also the latter for over 10 years both in the United States and in China.
The late Mr. Robert R. Service was for probably two decades a secretary of
the International ('ommittee of Y. M. C. A's (headquarters in New York) and
served most <if that time as a Y. M. C. A. secretary in west Cluna and Shanghai.
He had traveled widely in all j arts of China, beloved by thonsands of Chinese
of all classes, Cliristian and non. My family and I ha\e been Tor ma.iy yea:-s
intimate associates of the Service family in Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., church.
Rotary and Masonic activities in China. In all those organizations the Services,
both father and son, always .showed syiupathetic understanding and had a
genius for friendship witli the Chinese people, especially with the underiu'ivileged.
These qualities chacterize tlie whole Service family. I had come to know Robert
and John Service quite closely in community church and Masonic lodges, and
admire tbem for their genuine humanitarian spirit, their devotion to the Protes-
tant missionary enterprises in China and their love of the Masonic craft.
I write this luisought testimonial, sir, not merely as a gesture of confidence in
a brother Mason, nor yet as a friend of Mr. .lohn S." Service and his truly
Christian family, but fundamentally as one who keenly appreciates his char-
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 1453
acter to be utterly alien to aiiythiim- approachiiiir Coiiuiumist leanings. Who-
ever possessed of sueh a proud educational, cultural, and relii,nous background
cannot easily stomach communism, and I am firmly convinced that Mr. Service's
professional career negates everything connuunism stands for. I feel it is due
to Mr. yervit'e, as well as to your isubconunittee interested in ascertaining the
facts of bis background, that I address you. for it sieaks louder than words his
loyalty to his country and the I'rotestant faith of which all the Services have
been such outstanding exponents all their lives.
Dr. H. C. Mei.
(Whereupon, at 4:30 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned for the
purpose of taking up other matters.)
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE
MONDAY, JUNE 26, 1950
United States Senate,
Committee on Foreign Relations,
Subcommittee Appointed Under Senate Resolution 231,
Washington, D. C.
The subcommittee met, following adjournment of the investigative
session, at 4 : ?>0 p. m. in room 0-23, United States Capitol, Senator
Millard E. Tydings (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.
Present : Senatoi-s Tydings, Green, and Lodge.
Also present : Mr. Edward P. Morgan, chief counsel for the com-
mittee ; Mr. Robert Morris, assistant counsel. c^ r^ a
Senator Lodge. I can begin now by saying that Senator (jreen and
I were out of the countrv for 11 days in connection with a subcom-
mittee of two, of which we were members, and during that time the
rest of the subcommittee very properly ;
Senator Green. Are you counting the 11 days from when we went
across the Atlantic and came back again?
Senator Lodge. No; that is 12. â– , â€¢ j -^i.
During that time, the subcommittee very properly continued witn
that investigation, and I have now had occasion over the week end
to read the transcript of the testimony that was taken while we were
away, and I have jotted down some questions which I would like
to ask Mr. Morgan, and he can answer them "yes" or "no ' if he wants
to, or he could answer them more in detail if he wants to.
Does the subcommittee feel that it has clear-cut and convincing
answers to the following questions:
1. Why was Jaffe permitted to plead guilty m a brief and almost
unnoticed trial and let off with a fine of $2,500?
Mr. Mokgax. Yes, sir. t t r. â€¢
Senator Lodge. You think you have a clear-cut and defanite answer
Mr. Morgan. Yes. - t, i i
Senator Lodge. AYhv were charges against Lieutenant Roth, who
had been indicted by tlie Federal grand jury, dismissed by the Govern-
ment? â€ž _ .
Mr. Morgan. You mean insofar as the Department of Justice was
Senator Lodge. They did not prosecute Roth.
Mr. Morgan. Yes, sir. So far as the Navy is concerned, we are
trying to get a statement with respect to them.
1456 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY ESTVESTIGATION
Senator Ttdings. Senator Lodge, if you will allow me to interject
there, I have written to the Navy Department asking them why,
notwithstanding the Department of Justice, did they not do anything.
The letter has come into my office this afternoon, but I have not seen
Senator Lodge. Li the case of Jaife, is it because the evidence was