I>r. Pufus M. Jones. Haverford Collei-'^e
Philip O. Keeney, libraries officer, Su-
preme Command Allied Powers in
Dr. J. Spencer Kennard, educator, for-
mer Baptist missionary to Japan and
Dr. Raymond Kennedy, Yale Univer-
Morris E. Kriensky, artist
Dr. John H. Lathrop. Church of the Sa-
Richaid E. Lauterbach, editor, the
Harold Leventhal. chairman, American
Friends of India
Dr. Alain Locke. Howard University
Kev. Jack R. JIcMichael, executive sec-
retary. Mt^thodist Federation for
Albert Maltz, writer
Dr. William Mandel, writer
(iHorge Marshall, cbairman, board oi
directors. Civil Rights Congress
Dr. Kirtley F. :\Iather, Harvard Uni-
Dr. H. T. ]Medford, secretary. Foreign
Missions, A. M. E. Zion Church
Dr. Clyde R. Miller. Teachers College,
Kate L. ^litchell, writer on the Far
ISernard J. Mooney, upstate New York,
regional director, United Office and
Professional Workers of America
Rev. Richard iNlorford, executive direc-
tor. National Council of American-
IJishop Arthur W. Moulton, Protestant
Gi-ant W. Oakes, president. Farm
lupiipment Workers Union
Patrick H. O'Brien, judge of probate,
Wayne County, Mich.
Mrs. Jessie L. O'Connor, Fort Worth,
Dr. Ernest Osborne, Columbia Univer-
Bishop Edward Parsons, Protestant
Kobert I'ayne, writer on the Far East
Dr. Arthur Upham Pope, chancellor,
ilartin Popper, board of directors, Na-
tional Lawyer's Gn'ld
Dr. Edwin McNeill Poteat, president,
Colgate-Rochester Divinity School
Phelps Putman, poet.
Dr. Walter Rautenstrauch. educator
Dr. Raymond Robins, social economist
Holland Roljerts, director, Califorrija
Paul Robeson, concert singer
Nathaniel L. Rock, lawyer
Sidney Roger, radio commentator, CCO
Edward Itohrbough, writer on the Far
Walter Rosenblnm, president. Photo
150 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Mand Russell, executive director, Com-
mittee for a Democratic Far Eastern
Rose Russell, legislative director,
Dr. W. Carson Ryan, University of
Dr. Frederick L. Schuman, William'^
Arthur Schutzer, New YorJc City
Dr. Vida D. Scudder, Wellesley College
Bernard Seeman, writer on the Far
Joseph P. Selly, president, American
Rev. Guy Emery Shipler, editor. The
Elie Siegmeister, composer
Harold G. Slingerland, chairman, Che-
mung Comity American Labor Party
Dr. Maud Slye, University of Chicago
Agnes Smedley, writer on the Far P^ast
Christine B. Snuth, ijresident, National
Association of Colored Women
Ferdinand C. Smith, secretary, national
Mrs. Edgar Snow, writer on the Far
Johannes Steel, publisher, Johannes
Dr. Harry C. Steinmetz, San Diego
We urge immediate registration.
Dr. Bernhard J. Stern, Columbia Uni-
Martha Dodd Stern, writer
Annalee Stewart, president, U. S. Sec-
tion, Woman's International League
for Peace and Freedom
Paul Strand, artist
Frank E. Taylor, editor, Random House
Dr. Donald G. Tewksbury, Columbia
Dr. Rexford G. Tugwell, University of
Jennette Turner, executive secretary,
New York City Consumer Council
Olive Van Horn, secretai-y for adnunis-
trative affairs. National YWCA
Rev. Eflgar ]M. Wahlberg, formerly with
UNRRA in China
Dr. Harry F. Ward, writer
( harles Weidman, dancer
Dr. Gene Weltfish, Columbia University
Dr. Charles PI. Wesley, president, Wil-
berforce State College
Howard Willard, artist
Dr. James M. Williams, Hobart College
Ella Winter, writer
Justice James H. Wolfe, Sunreme
Court. State of Utah
Uii-liard Yaffe, writer
Victor A. Yakhontolf, writer
William Zorach, scidptor
I am an individual visitor Organizational delegate Appointed
Indicate whether : National State Local
Enclosed is $ for registration fee ($3 per delegate)
Admission to single sessions (morning, afternoon, or evening) $1
Address requests for housing accommodations to organizing secretary
Contributions in support of the conference are invited
Address all comnmnications to: The Organizing Secretary, Far Eastern Con-
ference, 111 West Forty-second Street, New York 18, N'. Y., LOngacre 4-3943.
Urgent Summons to a Congress on Civil Rights in Detroit, April 27 and 28,
1946. to Organize an Offensive Against the Rising Fascist Aggression in
the United States
Today's drive to subvert our democratic liberties is well-organized, well-heeled,
insidious. It presents an emergency that emergency measures alone can meet.
The great war against fascism is won, but the victory is far from secure.
Only a coalition of all the forces of the people, through united action, can prevent
Here's what is happening in the United States :
Congress on civil rights, Detroit, Mich., April 21 and 2!8, 19Ii6
Saturday morning. First Congregational Church (Woodward Avenue at Forest) :
11 a. m., registration.
12 noon, opening luncheon.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY IN VEST I CATION 151
Saturday afternoon. 2 p. ni. to fi p. tn., :\Iaccabees Auditorium (Woodward Avenue
at I'm nam) :
l>etVnso A.yainst tlu' Enemy Within â€” Presentation of key issues.
I'roteet Minorities for America's Defense â€” Tlie tight against police terror
in Columbia, Tenn., the Freeport Ivillings, and other \videspread violation
of civil rights: results of campaigns on tliese cases.
Labor's Rightsâ€” First Line of Defense â€” The tight against the Case bill,
police violence, the injunction menace.
Crush America's Fifth Colunmâ€” The light against the Kanliiu committee,
Gerald L. K. Smith, the KKK, Bilbo and all domestic fascists.
Tlie :\Ienace of anti-Semitism and Jim Crowâ€” The fight against terrorism,
and discrimination in employment, housing, and educaticm.
Initial report of resolutions conunittee ; report of credentials committee;
election of campaigns coordination committee.
Saturday evening, 8 : 30 p. m., reception for delegates by Michigan Civil Rights
Sunday. 9 : 30 a. m. to 3 : 30 p. ra. :
Report of campaigns coordination committee. Discussion of proposals.
Continued discussion :ind action on committee report.
Final report of resolutions committee.
Proposals f()r carrying out conference decisions.
Conference Headquarters: GO!) Hanunond Building, Fort and Woodward
Avenues. Detroit. Telephone : Cadillac 6278.
Registration : At First Congregational Church from 11 a. m. to 2 p. m. on
Saturday. After 2 p. m.. at Maccabees auditorium. Registration fee: $2 for
each (U'ganization delegate, or individual.
Rein-esent;iti()n : Two representatives from each organization; interested
Conference huu-iieon : Saturday noon, at First Congres.sional Church.
Reservations nuiy he made at $l.r)0 per plate. I'lease make reservations in ad-
vance. Luncheon speakers to be announced.
Acc-omm(Â»dations : Reservations for hotel accounnodations must be made in
advance because of housing difficulties. Address all requests for reservations
to New York headquarters of Congress on Civil Rights. For further details,
additional copies of this call and general inquiry, send all communications to :
Congress on Civil Rights, 205 East Forty-second Street, New York 17, N. Y.
Reactionary forces, based on war-rich monopolies, the die-hard union break-
ers, red-baitei-s. and race haters, command the largest surviving fifth column
in the \\orld. They are turning the weapons and methods of fascism against
the American people. They are prepared to destroy our democracy, even to the
establishment of outriglit fascism.
Their program consists of smashing unions through strike provocation,
in.tunctions, and legislation like the Case bill that would wipe out labor gains
of a quarter of a century : spreading discrimination and hatred against
minorities throngh violence against Negro civilians and veterans, partic-
ularly in the South. anti-Semitism and destruction of FEPC ; maintaining
the poll-tax system to defranchise 10,000.0lÂ¥) Negro and white Americans;
sapping the strength of labor and other organizations by using Hitler's prime
weapon of i-ed baiting, esjiecially tlii-ough revival of the Dies committee under
This reactionary program has met the growing organized resistance of the labor
movement and other groups and individuals who believe firmly in democratic
The popular response to such campaigns as FEPC and poll-tax repeal shows
that the people will organize. Veterans are fighting discrimination and challeng-
ing the pro-Fascist press. Committees everywliere have sprung up to defend
victims of police and lynch violence: the renewed activity of such Fascist spokes-
men as Gerald L. K. Smith has brought widespread, fighting protests.
Labor has sharply stiffened the defense of its civil rights, and people in all
walks of life are rallying with enthusiasm to labor's defense.
Now more than ever the united action of the democratic forces is needed to
enable ea<h organization and individual to exert maximum effectiveness in the
realizntion of a common program. The elaboration of a campaign or series of
(;s!)70 â€” .'-,0 â€” pt. 1 11
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
campaigns, coordinated in detail and Nation-wide in scope, is therefore essential
to meet the challenges that today confront us all :
To safeguard and extend all democratic rights, especially the rights of
labor, and of racial, political, religious and national minorities ;
To combat all forms of discrimination against these groups ;
To defend and aid victims of the fight for these rights ;
To fight against domestic fascism and all its forms â€” Jim Crow, anti-
Semitism, red-baiting, discrimination against the foreign born.
To these ends, we call upon civil rights, labor, religious, interracial, and other
organizations and individuals to attend a congress on civil rights in Detroit
on April 27 and 28, 194(>, to formulate and agree upon a national program to
defeat the offensive of reactionary and Fascist forces, and to consider all steps
required to assure the maximum unification of effort to advance that program.
Zlatko Balokovic, vice president, Amer-
ican Slav Congress
Elmer A. Benson, chairman, executive
council. National Citizens PAC
]\Iary McLeod P.ethune
Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, presi-
dent. Palmer Institute.
Col. Evans Carlson
Julius Emspak, secretary-treasurer,
United Electric, Radio and Machine
Jess Fletcher, vice president, Building
Service Employees International
Chirk Foreman, president. Southern
( '(Uifei-ence for Human Welfare
Rep. Vito Marcantonio, president, In-
ternational Labor Defense
George Marshall, chairman. National
Federation Constitutional Liberties
Dr. Kirtley F. Mather
Dr. Benjamin E. Mays, president, More-
Bishop Edward L. Parsons
James G. Patton, president. National
Dr. Edwin McNeill Poteat, president,
Colgate-Rochester Divinity School
Edward G. Robinson
Wesley E. Sharer, co-chairman, Chicago
Civil Liberties Committee
Prof. John F. Shepard, president, Mich-
igan Civil Rights Federation
Donald Ogdeu Stewart
Milton Kaufman, executive secretary
Meyer Adelman, district director,
United Steelworkers, Milwaukee
Raymond Pace Alexander
James Egert Allen, president, New
York State Conference NAACP
Rep. Charles W. Anderson, Kentucky
Judge William A. Anderson, Minneapo-
Susan B. Anthony II, secretary, Con-
gress of American Women
Elmer J. F. Arndt, cliairman. Commis-
sion Christion Social Action, Evan-
gelical and Reformed Church
Bishop James C. Baker, Los Angeles
C. B. Baldwin, executive vice president,
National Citizens PAC
Howard Bay, president. United Scenic
Artists Local S29
W. A. Bell, president. Miles College
Lewis Alan Berne, president. Federa-
tion of Architects, Engineers, Chem-
ists and Technicians
Warren K. Billings
Rev. Shelton Hale Bishop, New York
Judge Jane M. Bolin, New York City
H. D. Bollinger, secretary. Department
of Student Work, Board of Educa-
tion, Methodist Church
Rev. W. Russel Bowie
Louis E. Burnham, organizing secre-
tary. Southern Negro Youth Congress.
D. A. Cameron, editor. Little, Brown
Councilman Charles N. Carr, Cleveland
Del Castle, Ship Scalers Union, local
Rose Mae Catchings, president. South-
ern Negro Youth Congress
Prof. Emmanuel Chapman, chairman,
Commission of Catholics for Human
Dr. Rufus E. Clement, president, At-
Dean Nick Comfort, Oklahoma School
Philip M. Connelly, secretary, Los An-
geles CIO Council
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVE'STTOATION
Councilman Eugene P. Connolly, New
A. A. Couch, president, Iowa Federa-
tion of Labor
Julius Crane, vice president. United
George W. Crockett. Jr., executive di-
rector. Fair Practices Committee,
Josepli Cun-an, president. National
Councilman Benjamin J. Davis, Jr.,
New York City
Pep. Hugh De Lacy, Washington
Hon. Earl B. Dickerson, president, Na-
tional Bar Association
N. H. Eagle, director of organization.
United Rubber "Workers
Prof. R. D. Feild, Tulane University
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn
Eleanor Fowler, secretary. Congress of
Stephen H. Fritchman, editor, Christian
Leo Gallagher, L-os Angeles
Sander Genis, manager. Twin City
Joint Board, Amalgamated Clothing
Elinor S. Gimbel, New I'^ork City
Leonard Golditch, secretary. National
Committee to Combat Anti-Semitism
Rabbi .Solomon Goldman, Chicago
L. A. Gossett, secretary, Georgia State
Bishop J. A. Gregg, Kansas City, Kans.
Abner Green, secretary, American
Commission for Protection of Foreign
Mel J. Heiuritz, secretary, Wisconsin
State CIO Council
Donald Henderson, president, Food, To-
bacco, Agricultural .md Allied Work-
Rev. Charles A. Hill, president, De-
James A. Hinton, president, State Con-
ference of NAACP for South Carolina
Rev. Kenneth deP. Hughes, president,
Hosea Hudson, local president. United
Steel Woi'kers, Bii-mingham
Ralil)i Ferdinand M. Is.serman, chair-
man, Justice and Peace Connnittee,
( entral Conference (tf American Rab-
I>r. I). V. Jemison, jiresident, National
1)1-. Kufus M. Jones, Haverford. Pa.
J. F. Jnrich, pie.sident. Internal icnial
Fishej-inen and Allied AA'orkers
Ring W. Lardner, Jr.
Kenneth Leslie, edit(>r, The Protestant
A. A. Liveright, executive director,
American Council on Race Relations
Arthur Le Sueur, Duluth, Minn.
Bishop Francis J. McConnell
Prof. Edward W. IMcFarland, president,
IMetropolitan Council FEP, Detroit
O. E. McKaine, secretary. Progressive
Democratic Party, South Carolina
Rev. Jack R. McMichael, secretary,
Methodist Federation for Social
Herbert March, district director,
United Packinghouse Workers, Chi-
Prof. F. O. Matthieson, Harvard Uni-
Sannxel D. Menin, Denver, Colo.
Lewis Merrill, president, United OflEice
and Professional Workers
Saul Mills, secretary, New York CIO
Dr. George S. Mitchell, director. Vet-
erans Service, Southern Regional
J. I'. IMooney, organizer, Textile Work-
ers Union, Bessemer, Ala.
Morris Muster, president, United Fur-
Tom Neill, executive secretary. Serv-
icemen's and Veterans' Welfare Com-
Josephine Nordstrand, secretary, Wis-
consin State Conference on Social
Grant W. Oakes, president, United Fai'm
Equipment and Metal Workers
Rep. Ellis E. Patterson, California
Boyd E. Payton. president, Virginia
State CIO Council
Dr. Charles A. Petioni, chairman. West
Indies National Council
Terry Pettus, president, Washington
Irving Potash, manager. Furriers Joint
Council, New Y'ork
Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., New
Lee Pressman, general counsel, Con-
gressman of Industrial Organizations
Councilman Michael J. Quill, president,
Transport Workers Union
Thomas C. Rabbitt, Washington State
Mervyn Rathborne, secretary, Califor-
nia State CIO Council
Prof. Walter Rautenstrauch, Columbia
Reid Robinson, president. International
Union, Mine, Mill and Smelter Work-
Dorothy K. Roosevelt, executive secre-
tary, Michigan Citizens Committee
Rep. William A. Rowan. Illinois
Rep. Charles R. Savage, Washington
154 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
William Jay Schieffelin Senator Glen H. Taylor, Idaho
Prof. A. M. Sclilesinger, Harvard Uni- ReiJ. Donald C. Teigland, Illinois State
Artur Schnabel W. E. Tucker, president, Local 157, In-
Prof. Frederick L. Schuman, Williams ternational Union of Brewery Work-
College ers, Dallas, Tex.
Joseph P. Selly, president, American Prof. Ralph E. Wager, Emory Univer-
Communications Association sity
Henry R. Silberman, executive director, Dr. Harry F. Ward
New England Division, American Courtney D. Ward, secretary. Painters
Jewish Congress District Council, Cleveland
Charles N. Smolikoff, director, Florida Max Weber
State CIO Council Lulu P.. White, secretary, Houston,
Herbert K. Sorrell, president, Confer- Tex., NAACP
ence of Studio Unions, AFL Rev. Claude C. Williams, director. Peo-
Christina Stead pie's Institute of Applied Religion
Max Sein, secretary, Cincinnati CIO James H. Wolfe, Justice, State Su-
Council prenie (Jourt, Utah
A. E. Stevenson, secretary, Cleveland Bishop R. R. Wright, Jr., secretary,
CIO Council Fraternal Council of Negro Churches
Prof. Dirk J. Struik, Massachusetts In- Dr. Max Yergan. president. National
stitute of Technology Negro Congress
Gleiui J. Talbott, president. North Da- Jack Zeller, educational director, UAW-
kota Farmers Union CIO
Note. â€” Organizations listed for identification only.
Schuman signs this.
April 7, 1948.
A Statement of American Educators
As American educators, we are much disturbed by one of the byproducts of the
Presidential "loyalty order" â€” the listing of a number of schools as "subversive"
organizations by the Attorney General of the United States. The charge that
these schools "appear" to be "adjuncts of the Communist Party" could be made
against any institution that teaches Marxism, and could thus always be used as
a device for labeling Marxist teaching subversive.
We may or may not believe in Marxist schools. Catholic schools, single-tax
schools, or any other schools with particular social outlooks. We are alarmed
that any official of the American Government assumes the power officially to
proclaim the teaching and study of an economic philosophy to be subversive.
We believe that every group â€” including Marxists â€” has the right, under the
American Constitution, to teach and propagate its ideas, and that students,
whether they are Marxists or not, have the right to study Marxism and to judge
for themselves the validity of its teachings. If this right can be denied by
arbitrary government fiat â€” in the sense that teaching at or attending a school
where such ideas are taught is declared "subversive" â€” then similarly any other
ideas not approved by those in power can as readily be stifled.
We recognize, for example, that the Jefferson School of Social Science in New
York is, in its teaching of the social sciences, avowedly Marxist. It operates as
an independent institution under its board of trustees, and clearly defines its edu-
cational objectives and organization in its bulletins. Whatever one might think
of Marxism as a method or a body of doctrine, it is clear that the action of the
Attorney General in stigmatizing such institutions as "subversive," esiiecially
without hearing or trial, represents an extremely dangerous step in the direction
of thought control and the institution of thought police. If Marxist schools can
be declared subversive, then social science teachers who assign Marxist materials
or express Marxist views may quickly be sultjected to the same label. Freedom
of inquiry will be gravely imperiled.
The President's Commission on Higher Education for American Democracy
(December 15, 11)47) has ably stated : "The social i-ole of education in a democratic
society is at once to insure equal liberty and equal opportunity to differing indi-
viduals and groups, and to enable the citizens to understand, appraise, and re-
direct foi-ces, men, and events as these tend to strengthen or to weaken their
STATE DEPART-MENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 155
111 this spirit, we ask that the President of the United States and the Attorney
GeiUM-al withdiaw tlie blacklist of Marxist and labor educational institutions, as
repusnaut to uur national ideal of freedom of thought.
SIGNKUS OF STATEMENT OF AMERICAN EDUCATORS
Professor Institution (for identification only)
Thonias Addis Stanford University.
Edward S. Allan Iowa State College.
Ku>seII Ames Queens College.
Earl Maynard Aris Albion College.
Francis ^I. Harbour Southern Illinois University.
Fred Asa P>arnes Cornell (retired).
Ralph P.eals University of California at Los Angeles.
Leonard lUoomfield Yale University.
Cornelius P.ol Stanford (retired).
Earl C. Bowman De Pauw University
Lyman K. Bradley 1 New York University.
Theodore Brameld Do.
Joseph Bressler Brooklyn College.
Dorothy Brewster Columbia University.
John Bridge City College of New York.
Arthur G. Brodeur University of California.
Charles N. Brooks Harvard University.
William B. Bryan Macalester College, Minnesota.
Edwin Berry Burgum New York University.
John L. Buys St. Lawrence University.
Robert Chambers Ts^ew York University (retired).
Charles M. Child Stanford University.
Edith F. Claflin Columbia University.
Edwin L. Clarke Rollins College.
Will.son L. Coates Sarah Lawrence College.
M. Robert Cobbledick Connecticut College.
Joseph W. Cohen University of Colorado.
Philip W. L. Cox New York University.
Oliver C. Cox Tuskegee Institute.
Grace L. Coyle Western Re.serve University.
Abraham Cronbach Hebrew Union College.
Dean W. C. Curtis University of Missouri (emeritus).
John J. De Boer University of Illinois.
Haii Dougla.ss Director, School of Education, University
H. M. Doutt University of Akron.
Arnold Dresden Swarthmore College.
W. E. B. DuBois National Association for the Advancement
of Colored People.
Lyford-P. Edwards Bard College.
Franklin Edgerton Yale Law School.
Thomas D. Eliot Northwestern University.
Albert I. Elkus '_ University of California.
Thomas I. Emer.son Yale University.
Bergen Evans Northwestern University.
Frederic Ewen Brooklyn College.
Henry Pratt Fairchild New York University.
Philip S. Foner Jefferson School.
Abraham Edel City College of New York.
Frances A. Foster Vassar College.
Royal W. France Rollins College.
Harold A. Freeman ]\Iassachu.setts Institute of Technology.
Reirinald F. French Amherst College.
Henrietta V. Friedman Hunter College.
Wendell H. Fuiiy Harvard University.
David R. Goodard University of Pennsylvania.
Erwin R. Goodenough Yale University.
Ralph H. Gundlach University of Washington.
Calvin S. Hall Western Reserve University.
156 STATE DEPARTMETnT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY IN\^ESTIGATTON
SIGNEKS OF STATEMENT OF AMERICAN EDUCATORS Continued
Professor Institution (for identification onlyi
Victor E. Hall Stanford University.
R. Travis Hardaway Queens College.
Harrison Harley Simmons College.
Virginia Harlow De Pauw University.
Robert .J. Havighurst University of Chicago.
Harold Haydon I>o. ^ ^. . ,. , ^. t^
G A Hedger TTniversity of Cincinnati (retired).
virgii B Heltzel Northwestern University.
J Allen Hickerson New Haven State Teachers College.
Philip M. Hicks Swarthmore.
Ernest R. Hilgard Stanford University.