givt^. you gentlemen an adequate picture of this distressing situation,
I hope that this distinguished committee, charged by its colleagues
in the Senate with a diflicult and exhaustive duty, will be able to
find a solution to a hitherto insoluble j)roblem.
After the information I have received is collated and examined, it
Avill be turned over to this committee. I shall withhold nothing and
shall make available to the committee the information which has been
made available to me.
I have carefully studied the standards of loyalty, as set forth by
Secretary of State Acheson.
I agree with them wholeheartedly.
I have come to the conclusion, however, that these standards of loy-
alty are meaningless unless they are applied to all Government em-
ployees without exception.
It is the exception that I wish to bring to the attention of the com-
I am convinced that in a sizable number of cases these standards
have not been applied properly.
JNIr. Chairman, one bad risk is too many, and a very few of these
bad risks might well be disastrous to our national security.
At the outset I think it is important that the committee know that
the statement I shall make here today regarding various persons in the
employ of the United States Government is based on documented evi-
dence and these documents I will submit to the connnittee as I go
Senator McMahon. Senator, is it your intention to name individ-
uals against whom you are making charges?
Senator McCarthy. I intend to name names of those that are thor-
oughly documented and important, yes. The ones that are not thor-
oughly documented I intend to give to the committee and have the
committee, with its own investigative staff, do the documenting.
Senator McIVIahon. Senator, as I understand it, this is the first
of a series of cases in which you are going to name names.
Senator McCarthy. That is right.
Senator McMahon. And you are going to give to the public and
to us the digests of the files as you have had them given to you ?
Senator McCarthy. In this first case I am going to give nothing
from any files. I am going to present documents.
Senator McIMahon. What documents ?
Senator McCarthy. I am going to give them to you as I go along.
Senator McMahon. I mean, are they abstracts of the State Depart-
Senator McCarthy. I will give you the documents. Senator, as I
go along. They are photostats, and I can't give you a preview. I
have to go through them.
16 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Senator Lodge. Mr. Chairman, I don't like to be tedious about this,
but I do hope
Senator McMAHOisr. Senator, if you do not mind, I have not yielded.
There is a very important point involved here, Senator, whether
you realize it or not, and this is the point where this committee is going;
to have to consider it, as to whether or not we are going to adopt a
procedure whereby charges are made about citizens for all the world
to see, based upon material that has been taken from files without an
opportunity for the connnittee to have a full preview of that file.
Now, what I have in mind is the Coplon case and what took place
down in the district court. I have no fixed opinion on this at the
moment. Senator, but I just want the committee to understand that
apparently we are going to open up the files for public inspection.
Is that the Senator's idea ?
Senator McCarthy. No, no. I have no intention — even if I had the
files I would have no intention — of presenting any of the State De-
partment files. I say "even if I had them." It is not my decision to
conduct the hearing in this fashion. The committee has asked for
information. I have the documents. The names appear on the docu-
ments very clearly. If the committee wants to go into executive
session and take this testimony, that is entirely up to the committee.
Otherwise I shall have to proceed, and it is impossible to develop this
and say "Mr. X," "Mr. Y," "Mr. Z." Do you follow me. Senator?
If the committee wants to go into executive session and hear these
cases, let me tell you without mentioning her name that the first case
will involve a person in a high State Department position getting
about $12,000 a year who belongs to 28 organizations that have been
listed by the Attorney General and by various senatorial and House
committees as subversive or disloyal — 28 different organizations. I
have the documents to show that she has belonged to those 28 subver-
sive organizations — not organizations that I say are subversive, but
organizations that the Attorney General has said are subversive, plus
senatorial and House committees.
In presenting these documents, I think it is impossible to dismiss
or hide this individual's name. I think this is very important. We
will want to ask, for example, Mr. Acheson wh}^ he keeps in a high
position, a $12,000-a-year position, someone who belongs to 28 sub-
versive organizations. She may, you understand, belong to 10 or 12
others. I have the documents to show the membership in 28.
I have no desire whatsoever to make this name public, but the com-
mittee has called me here. They say, "Give us information," and I
can't give this information by referring to X, Y, and Z.
Senator TydinCxS. I think. Senator McMahon, your question is a
proper one, but I believe the better way to handle it would be when
we get to a document to ask for a description of it, et cetera, rather
than to try to make a blanket ruling here where we might have to
amend it over and over again. Do you agree with that, Senator? In
other words, postponing the time until the Senator gets to the docu-
ment, and then we can ascertain whether or not it is a State Depart-
ment matter or loyalty file or FBI file, or what the matter may be.
I don't think we want to get in the position of denying the witness
.any proper testimony that he might deliver.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 17
Senator McMahon. It is a very difficult question, and I would
•defer to you as chairman of this committee on this matter of proce-
dure. The only thing that disturbs me is this: Let us assmne that
the Senator charges this specific person what is true and is determined
tjo be true. Then there is certainly no reason why the public should
not be advised of the fact that she is what he says she is.
Contrariwise, let us assume, hypothetically, that it turns out on an
investigation that she is completely innocent of the charges that are
made. Senator, you and I know that that verdict will be on page 27 or
47, if there are 47 pages, but the charges will be on page 1.
Senator McCarthy. I must say I heartily agree with you.
Senator McMahon. And we must be careful, it seems to me, that in
our desire to do a thorough job of investigation here and bring to
book — and they should be brought to book — any persons who do not
belong in the Government of the United States, not, in the process
of doing that, to do a great injustice to decent American citizens.
Senator ^McCarthy. May I say that I heartily agree with the Sena-
tor. Oil the Senate floor I said that I would not divulge any names.
I said I hoped any names that were divulged would be developed in
executive session. Mr. Lucas, who is the leader of the majority party,
demanded time after time on the Senate floor and publicly that I
divulge names. I am now before the committee. In order to present
the case I must give the names, otherwise I cannot intelligibly present
it. If the committee desires to go into executive session, that is a
decision that the committee and not I can make, but if I am to testify,
I say it is impossible to do it without divulging names.
Senator Lodge. Mr. Chairman, may I get recognized now? This
committee unanimously voted to hold public hearings. That was our
decision. Senator McCarthy now has the opportunity to name names.
That is his decision. If he wants to give this information in private,
then we have to decide whether we will hear them or not. Those is-
sues were all settled when we had our meeting last week. I do not
understand why Senator McCarthy cannot have the opportunity to
present his statement and not be compelled to act as though he were
in some sort of a kangaroo court — '"Answer 'Yes' or 'No' " and that
sort of thing. It almost looks as though there was an attempt to
rattle him. , We ought to let him make his statement, and then, if he
has facts with him, we will investigate the facts. It seems to me just
as simple as that.
Senator Tydixgs. Gentlemen of the committee, so far as the Chair
is concerned about this, I think we ought to leave pretty well the man-
ner of presenting the evidence up to Senator McCarthy. Senator, at
any time that you feel you want to go into executive session with part
of this testimony, if you will indicate that I will call the committee
right here together and we will see what the situation is. If any mem-
ber of the committee at any time thinks that the matter that is being
made public should be heard iii executive session, he will indicate that
to me. We will go into a huddle and come out with a decision on that.
In the meantime, proceed.
Senator McCarthy. Let me make my position clear. I personally
do not favor presenting names, no matter how conclusive the evidence
is. The committee has called me this morning, and in order to intelli-
gibly present this information I must give the names. I think this
18 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
should be in executive session, I think it would be better. However,,
I am. here. The committee has voted to hold open sessions, so I
Let us take the case of Dor
Senator Ttdings. I told you when I invited you to testify that you
could testify in any manner you saw fit. If it is your preference to
give these names in executive session we will be very glad to have your
wishes acceded to. If it is your desire to give them in open session,
that is your responsibility. Now, if you will indicate how you want
to proceed, the committee will take it under advisement and give you
an answer in 2 minutes.
Senator McCarthy. Let me say this first case has been handed to the
press already, I think we will have to proceed with this one in open
session. When we get to the next case, let us consider it.
Let us take the case of Dorothy Kenyon.
Senator Tydings. Is that one of the cases your brought up on the
Senate floor ?
Senator McCarthy. This is not.
Senator Tydings. I see. Go ahead.
Senator McCarthy. This lady, according to the latest issue of the
official registry of the United States Government, is on the Commis-
sion on the Status of Women, LTnited States Member on the Commis-
sions of the Economic and Social Council, United States Mission to
the United Nations, Department of State. Her salary is $12,000
And I now present to the chairman of the committee the documen-
tation of that ]);\rt of my testimony.
Senator Tydixgs. Will you hold that a minute until I find whether
it is listed here in the Eegister or not.
Senator McCarthy. This lady has been affiliated with at least 28
Communist-front organizations, all of which have been declared sub-
versive by an official Government agency. Nine of the 28 have been
cited as subversive by the Attorney General of the United States, and
I might say that her record of belonging to these subversive organi-
zations dates back 10 or 15 years. It is not something new.
On February 21, 1940, Miss Kenyon signed a protest under the
auspices of the Veterans of Abraham Lincoln Brigade condemning
the war hysteria "being whipped up by the Roosevelt administration."
Exhibit marked "1" I now hand the committee. This organization
has been cited as subversive by the congressional House Committee
on Un-American Activities, the California Un-American Activities
Committee, and the Attorney General of the United States.
Senator Tydings. Will you let us read that a minute. Is her name
Senator McCarthy. I think you will find her name marked.
Senator Tydings. I have it. It isn't marked. We will mark it.
Let me read, Senator, for the record, the caption :
The following outstanrlins: Americans, writers, poets, playwrishts, educators,
judges, critics, and public officials signed the letter to President Roosevelt and
Attorney General Jackson protesting the attacks upon the Veterans of the Abra-
ham Lincoln Brigade and condemning the war hysteria now being whipped up
by tlie Roosevelt administration.
Senator McCarthy. Mr. Chairman, I might say that this is the only
photostat that I have, and I do not like to have it out of my possession.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 19
If the committee ^vants these documents, I wish they would arrange
with me to have them photostated so they may have a photostatic copy
of the document.
Senator Tvotngs. Senator McCarthy, we will have to file all of the
exhibits in the record that you <iive publicly, and I will instruct the
stenojirapher to o^uard these exhibits, and when the committee finishes
its deliberations to return them to you. Is that all riiiht ?
Senator jMcCakthy. May I ask one other thino;, Mr. Chairman.
This is my only copy. I wonder if the Chairman Avould not instruct
the clerk to have photostats made so that my file may be complete.
Senator McMahon. Could I ask a question on that ?
Senator Tydings. Yes.
Senator jNIcMahon. Senator, this is a clip from the Daily Worker,
February 21, 1940, and it is entitled "Signers of Protest."
Senator McCarthy. That's right.
Senator Mc^Maiion. Of course, the list is a very lengthy one. As to
some of the people on this list, I see one or two that I know casually
myself. The description of the petition that was signed is the Daily
Worker's description, and it does not appear to be a copy of the peti-
tion that these people signed. Is the Senator aware of that?
Senator McCarthy. I think the Senator has stated it correctly.
Senator McMahon. Yes.
Well, knowing the Daily Worker and its genius, from the copies that
I have seen, for misrepresentation, I am curious as to just wdiat the
petition said. You haven't got that with you, have you ?
Senator McCarthy. I am sure when the Senator sees the 28 docu-
ments he will no longer be skeptical.
Senator McIMahon. It is not a question of that. I am curious as to
what they did sign. It may be that in this instance the Daily Worker
is telling the truth as to what they signed, do you see ? But the Senator
has not got the actual petition that they signed ?
Senator INIcCarthy. That is correct. That is a copy of the petition
run in the Daily Worker as a paid ad, and advertised as having been
run by these people.
Senator Tydixgs. Does the Senator know where we could get the
original, so we could see wdiat the petition pur})orted to advocate?
Senator McCarthy. I think the committee must hire a competent
staff to run -anything down they care to run down.
Senator Tydings. I say, does the Senator have any idea of where we
might search for this particular item, so we can save time in finding it ?
Senator IMcCarthy. There are many places the Senator could
search. I do not know where he could find it.
Senator Tydixgs. The question that the Senator does not answer,
apparently, is that the Senator has no information. I am simply
trying to find out where we could get it in the quickest possible time.
Senator McCarthy. I do not have the original petition. I do not
know where it is.
Senator McMahon. I think, I\Ir. Chairman, that we should, as
quickly as possible, get this petition, for this reason, that there are
in this list about 100 names, and some of them bear good reputations.
Xow, to characterize them in a i-ecord of the Senale of the United
States just on the basis of a clip from the Daily Worker is something
that perhaps they are not entitled to either, so I do hope that we can
get -"-hat they reall}'^ signed.
20 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Senator McCarthy. I hope I have made it clear that I also hope that
the committee proceeds to develo]) the situation.
Senator Tydings. Before the Senator proceeds, without any reflec-
tion on the press, newspaper accounts are not always the best evidence.
The petition itself, as the Senator, who has been an eminent judge,
would know, would be the best evidence, but we have a pretty wide
latitude in these committees and we can look that phase of the matter
Senator McCarthy. Thank you.
In signing this statement Miss Kenyon collaborated with such well-
known Communists as Paul Robeson, Bernard J. Stern, Albert Maltz,
Anna Louise Strong, William Gropper, Langston Hughes, and Harry
Miss Kenyon is presently the sponsor of the National Council of
American Soviet Friendship. This organization has been declared
subversive by the House Un-American Activities Committee, the
California Un-American Activities Committee, and the Attorney
Understand, when I say "presently," some of this information may
be 6 months old. It is the best information, and I have no informa-
tion that it has been withdrawn.
On November 16, 1948, Miss Kenyon as a member of the board
of sponsors of this officially declared subversive organization welcomed
the Red Dean of Canterbury, Hewlett Johnson, at a rally in Madison
Square Garden in the city of New York. Only a few days ago the
State Department refused to permit the Dean of Canterbury to enter
the United States because of his Communist record.
For the guidance of the connnittee I hand you herewith exhibit 2,
which fully documents Miss Kenyon's affiliation with the National
Council of American Soviet Friendship.
Senator McMahon. Senator, that National Council of American
Soviet Friendship had quite a vogue when we were cobelligerents
back during the war days. I may be in error, but I think that there
were a couple of Senators of the United States who are still members
of this body who were members of that organization at the time. Are
you aware of that ?
Senator McCarthy. The Senator is talking about war days. This
document is dated late 19-18, November 16, 19-18. And, Senator, I
may say this, that I have not declared these organizations subversive.
I tell you in each instance which official bodies have. In this case it
was declared subversive by the House Un-American Activities Com-
mittee, the California Un-American Activities Committee, and the
I assume when they declared this organization subversive they did
it upon very excellent and competent proof, so when I refer to these
subversive organizations I am not saying that I myself have deter-
mined whether or not they are subversive.
Senator McMahon. I did not assert that you did. I just asked
you whether or not it is not a fact that a couple of the Senators had
been members of the National Council of American Soviet Friend-
ship. I would doubt, of course, that it was as late, though, as Novem-
ber 16, 1948, and you do point out that she was a member of the Board
on that date.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 21
Senator Tydings. Seniitor McCarthy, going back to the first exhibit
that you introduced, I see some names on here that 1 think it only
fair ouiilit to be associated with the evidence you have given. I see
such names as Ernest Hemingway, Dr. Harold Urey, the man who was
in the forefront of development of the atomic bomb for the United
States, and several others I recognize by reputation, some of them
holding ])ul)lic oflice. I believe here is one man, the Honorable Stanley
Isaacs; my recollection is that he holds an office in Xew York State
of some kind. So that there is rather a large mixture of names that
are pretty prominent.
Senator McCarthy. This is exhibit 2, Mr. Chairman. It is a letter
on the letterhead of the National Council of American-Soviet Friend-
ship, and has a list of the sponsors, Kenyon's name being one of the
list of sponsors. The letter reads as follows — or would the chairman
rather see it before I read it?
Senator Tydings. This is 2?
Senator McCarthy (reading) :
On Monday evening. December 18, the Very Reverend Hewlett Johnson, Dean
of Canterbury, and foremost leader in the democratic movement for world
peace, siieaks at IMadison Square Garden. This eminent churchman, who will
climax a month's tour of the United States with this rally, will present his
impressions of the American peace movement as it relates to the peace forces
of England and the continent. He will also report on his recent observations
of conditions in eastern Europe and his personal conversations with the leaders
of the new democracies.
We feel it is a rare privilege, indeed, for us to be able to present the dean in
the first significant rally to follow the elections. We know you will appreciate
the importance of forcefully demonstrating, particularly before the new congres-
sional .session, the people's will for peace through cooperation and friendship
with the Soviet I nion.
The Ambassador from the Soviet Union, His Excellency Mr. Alexander S.
Panyushkin. will address the meeting. The mreting will also feature Paul
Robeson, other well-known speakers, and a program of entertainment.
As you may recollect, thousands were turned away from the Garden on the
occasion of the dean's last visit here in 1945. Thus, to insure you proper ac-
commodations, we are enclosing an advance ticket order blank.
Senator Tydings. What was the date of that?
Senator McCarthy. Tliis is November l(i, 1948.
Won't you plan to attend this rally for peace and reserve seats for yourself
and your friends?
I point out that Miss Kenyon was not merely a member of this
organization Init one of the sponsors, and I hand the Chair the exhibit
Senator Tydings. "Will you pause a moment there, Senator, until
we look at the document '^.
Senator McCarthy. Mr. Chairman, while the balance of the com-
mittee are looking at the docuunent, may I inquire as to how long
the committee intends to remain in session today ?
Senator Tydings. How long w^ould you like us to remain?
Senator McCarthy^. I frankly had hoped to develop three or four
cases. HoAvever, I do want to be on the floor today, and my thought is
that we should certainly develop more than we have now, but I would
not like to stay away more than an hour.
Senator Tydings. I have conferred with the members of the com-
mittee, and most of them seem to be of the opinion that we could con-
tinue for another half hour. Their engagements are such that at that
time thev won't be able to remain.
22 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Senator Hickenlooper. I might suggest that Senator McCarthy
probably can get through with his presentation and the presentation
of his exhibits which he alleges support his position if we just let
Senator Tydings. Yes; but Senator, we want to get all the evidence
that is pertinent as we go along. We do not want to get it lopsided.
We want to make sure that everything is weighed properly and proper
connotations are put on it.
Senator McCarthy. May I ask the Chair, so I may make prepara-
tions, is it planned that we will have daily hearings?
Senator Tydings. We will meet tomorrow morning at 10 : 30, and
the only possible change I can see to that would be that the Senate
would agree to some unanimous-consent agreement during the day
to vote prior to 12 o'clock. We will certainly run from 10 : 30 to 12,
and maybe longer, if we ai-e not confronted with a vote in the Senate.
Tomorrow I hope you will have the answei-s to those two questions,
Senator McCarthy. I am sure the Chair will be satisfied with the
information lie gets.
Senator Green. With regard to this exhibit that has been put in
as evidence, I would like to draw attention to some of the names on
these sponsors of the National Council of American-Soviet Friend-
ship, Inc., which is considered such a Communist group. Here are the
Honorable Arthur Capper
Senator Tydings. Senator Capper?
Senator Green. Yes. The Honorable Claude Pepper; the Honor-
able Elbert D. Thomas ; the Honorable Joseph E. Davies, and a great
many other similar names.
Senator Hickenlooper. There are a great many others that the
Senator could read too, off that list.
Senator Green. If there are, I would like for you to read them.
Senator Hickenlooper. I do not want to take the time. That is an
exhibit the Senator has put in to substantiate the fact that the person
he alleges was a sponsor of an organization, and it seems to me we are
Senator Green. And the names on it are significant.