desire to disclose.
Senator Tydings. I did not mean to say the raw file. What I
meant to say, you say "We have completed the case ; the evidence is
there, and we send the summary for you to work with."
Mr. Hoover. That is correct.
Senator Tydings. You do not need to answer this unless you want
to, l)ut I can see no harm in it. I would assume that if you have not
sent a file forwai'd in any particular case, it would be for the reason
that the case itself does not show such a conclusive state that you could
forward it to the proper agencies for legal action.
Mr. Hoover. That would be, I would say. Senator in about 98 or 99
percent correct ; for this reason I reserve the 2 percent : There are
cases which we bring to conclusion in which we may have direct
evidence of a violation of law, but for purposes of caiTj'ing on further
inciuiries to identify other members of the ring it is not forwarded at
that time. I recall the days of the Duquesne case at the beginning of
the last World War in New York City, where we had one or two men at
the very beginning that we were certain had violated the espionage
statutes. We held that case back for 18 months. AYlien we went to
trial we had 38 defendants, all of whom were convicted.
Senator Tydings. So that, except for the excejition that you first
enumerated, in each case where you feel you have gathered sufficient
evidence you forward it then to the proper legal authorities for such
action as is necessary.
Mr. Hoo\T.R. That is correct. Senator.
Senator Tydings. And there would be no completed case in your
files showing a breach of any of the Govei'nment's laws except for the
reason you have given, that you would withhold it.
Mr. Hooat=:r. That would be correct.
Senator T^tungs. Thank you very much, Mr. Hoover.
Senator McMahon. There is one additional question I would like
Mr. Hoover, on the first page of your statement you say, at the bot-
The question of opening the tiles of the FBI involves n iTave matter of prin-
ciple. In taking the position that the tiles of the FHI shoulrl remain inviolate. I
would not. of course, presume to discuss files other than those of the Federal
Bureau of Investigation.
I assume that your feeling, however, would go to the files of other
Government departments that contain your reports?
Mr. Hoo\T5R. We have a very definite understanding with the other
governm.ental agencies that no reports of the FBI which are sent to
them, whether it be loyalty reports or reports on security of the War,
Navy, Interior, or Treasury, can be released by that agency upon re-
quest from any source without first clearing with the Federal Bureau
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 339
of Investigation, iind if there is any (luestion in my mind as to the
l)ropriety of it, I submit it to the Attorney GeneraL
Senator McATahox. That clears that up.
Senator HicivKNr.oorEK. Just one question that occurred to me that
I do not think I quite foUow up. I woukl like to ask Mr. Hoover this
question. AVe were discussing the case of the Judiciary Committee of
the Senate receivino; summaries on Federal judijes. Are you aware of
any other instances where summaries developed by the FBI have been
turned over to other conunittees of Congress i
Mr. Hoover. In the atomic-energy cases that has been done by rea-
son of the very unusual, and I think very satisfactory, procedure
Avhich was worked out for having a joint conmiittee of Congress
created by Congress, having very definite responsibility for the check-
ing of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission. In that
instance the Attorney General approved the requests that were made
for making available to the Joint Connnittee on Atomic Energy the
sunnnary lejiorts in some of those cases. In each instance, however,
they inquire of the Bureau as to whether there is any reason why this
report should not be released at that ])artieular time. There may be
a current investigation going on, in which event we would not want it
Senator Hickenlooper. In those cases it is my understanding in
connection with the Atomic Energy Commission that the FBI claims
no supervision or dominion over any files once the file that is in the
Atomic Energy Commission has actually gone into the custody of the
Atomic Energy Commission.
Mr, Hoover. We do not claim full supervision over the file. We do
claim a right to be advised if any portion of the file which they have
received from the Federal Bureau of Investigation is to be made
Semitor Hickenlooper. I see.
Do you know of any other committee. of Congress which has been
given access to summary files developed by the Federal Bureau of
Investigation other than the Atomic Energy Commission?
Mr. Ht)ovf:R. I think in the case of the Committee on Expenditures
last year or the year before, headed by Senator Ferguson, there were
certain files made available to that committee at the direction of the
Attorney General in connection with the Kansas City election-fraud
causes. That is the onlv other instance I can recall that any files were
made available. They have not been made available to the Appro-
priations Committees of either House of Congress.
Senator Hickexlooper. Or any other committee of tlie House or
Mr. H'jovER. So far as my knowledge goes, no.
Senator Hickexlooper. That you know of.
Senator TvniX(;s. I would like to thank you. General McGratli. and
you, Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, both for coming up before us at our invi-
tation and conferring on the matter before us.
In the event the chairman may be absent for several days this week.
I have designated Senator Green to act as chairman so as not to
delav the work of the connnittee.
(Whereupon, at 5 : 10 p. m., a recess was taken until 10 : 30 a. m. of
the following day, Tuesday. March 28, 1950.)
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE
TUESDAY. MARCH 28, 1950
United States Senate,
Committee ox Foreign Relations,
Subcommittee Appointed Under S. Res. 231,
Washington^ D. C.
The subcommittee met. pursuant to adjournment on March 27, 1950,
at 10: 30 a. m. in room 318 Senate Office Building, Senator Theodore
Francis Green, acting chairman, presiding.
Present : Senators Tydings, Green ( acting chairman of the subcom-
mittee), McMahon, Hickenlooper, and Lodge.
Also present : Senators Connally (chairman of the full committee) ,.
Wiley, and Tobey.
Senator Green. Come to order, please.
Is ^Ir. Hanson here ?
Mr. Hanson. Yes, sir.
Senator Green. Mr. Hanson, please stand. You are Haldore
Hanson ? â€¢
Mr. Hanson. Yes, sir. ^
Senator Green. Hold up your right hand. Do you solenmly swear
that the testimony you will give in this hearing before this committee
will be the truth, the whole truth, and iiQthing but the truth, so help
you God ?
Mr. Hanson. Yes. sir.
Senator Green. Mr. Hanson, you have asked to come here. I sup-
l)ose it is in repl}' to certain charges that have been made against you
by Senator McCarthy at the hearing on March 13.
Mr. Hanson. Yes, sir.
Senator Green. You may proceed in your own way to answer what
you think is relevant.
STATEMENT OF HALDORE HANSON
Mr. Hanson. I have a few character statements, sir, which I
would prefer to read first, and then I will be glad to answer any ques-
tions of the connnittee.
Senator Green. Very well; proceed.
Mr. Hanson. Mr. Chairman, I appreciate the opportunity to appear
before your conmiittee.
On ^larch 13 Senator McCarthy testified before this committee that
I had pro-Communist proclivities and that I was a man with a mis-
sion to communize the world. He even compared a book I once wrote
with Hitler's Mein Kampf.
342 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Mr Chairman, communism is the nastiest word in the American
vocabukrrtXj'. In this country the word Communist stands tor
Li Xidual who IS a sneak, a thief, a liar a traitor. It makes no
Meience whether you qualify the word anc say -'l^^^^^^l^Z-
munist or has an affinity for communism, or has pro-Communist pio
c v ies They all mean that he is the dirtiest, lowest type of man
I deeply resLt this attack upon my loyalty. I wish to state now,
unde oath that I am not a Communist. I have never been a Com-
mst I have never belonged to an organization cited by the Attor-
evcfenera as being a Communist-front organization. I have never
SS as-'lteS with an espionage agent of a foreign power I
havrnever advocated the Communist form of governnient anywheie
at any time, for any people. I have never committed any act which
^^f Si5;S^?S^^^-^arthy will say d^ectly ^at he has
fay S without^the benefit of congressional immunity, I assure Inm that
he will be called upon to answer to me m a court of justice at the ear-
liest possible moment, . i â€ž xu^f t
On what does Senator McCarthy base this serious charge that I
have pro-Communist proclivities and that I have a mission to com-
munize the world? Does he base these charges on evidence that I am
a mrbe of the Communist Party? Does he chum tx) have evidence
Uiit I have been associated with organizations which have been desig-
nated by the Attorney General as Communist fronts? Does he have
anv evidence that I have followed the Commumst Rirty line m its
Zish adherence to the needs of SoViet foreign policy dunng the
nnst 11 vearsÂ« Surely a man with a mission to communize the \\oilcl
^;Sld have performed some overt service for the Communist Party
durino- this period. The reason Senator McCarthy does not have this
evi^clence is because it does not exist. I am conficlent that an investiga-
tion of my political philosophy and my moral character will convince
you ?hat bith compare favorably with those of any loyal American
who is conscious of his duties of citizenship and is striving to live hon-
orably in his community. ivTor^o,.fiiv'Â«
An examination of my record will disprove Senator McCai thy s
accusations. That record has been ex^immed by the Government
through a comprehensive FBI investigation completed m 1948 under
the President's Government-wide loyalty procedures. My activities
in China as well as in the United States were covered and my wi'itings
were reviewed. Senator McCarthy produced no new facts before this
committee which were not available to those investigators. In Â±act
he produced nothing that I hadn't put m a public library After the
FBI investigation, I was given a complete clearance by the JJepait-
'" In the course of these investigations, I made available to the officers
concerned not only a full file of my public writings but even a personal
diary which I had kept during the entire period that I was with the
Chinese Communists. . , ^ â€¢ n ^^ i i^,r
Mv Chairman, I wholeheartedly believe m the President s loyalty
niocram, and I want to help in every possible way to maintain the
)ubTic"s confidence in the loyalty of its servants.
STATE DEPART.MENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY IX\ESTIGATIOX 343
I believe that subversives can be ferreted out of the Government
by the quiet, sober, thorouoh methods now used by the FBI. The kind
of public denunciation, labelino;. and hate-inonoerino- with which
we are now dealing- is alien to the traditions of the United States and
more closely resembles the purges of another political system.
^Ii'. Chaiiman, let me tell you what the impact was on me when my
picture suddeidy appeared in the newspapers under the caption "Red.
in State I)ei)artment."
On Marcli 1.'5. without any warning or opjxjrtunity to present my
side of the case, 1 was called out of a meeting in the State Department
and told that Senatoi- McCarthy had namecl me to this committee as
one of the cases which he.claimed would prove his charge that there
were Connnunists in the State Department.
I spent the rest of that day and practically all of the following day
answering queries from the ])ress and radio.
By the third day, I acquired a false feeling of optimism that came
from reading and listening to viewpoints that coincided with my own.
Many editorials said Senator ]\IcCarthy had not proved his case.
So did many columnists and connnentators. Telegrams and letters
from my personal friends told me it was ridiculous. Colleagues in
the State Department told me not to worry about it. I thought that
by the end of the week it would be forgotten, hoping that reasonable
people who read the newspapers would know the charges were not
That was the ]:)oint at which I got my second shock. I went to see
an elderly neighbor about helping me with some fencing on a farm
I own in Virginia. He is a man I have known for 5 years. He has
helped me many times.
He told me that the day before he had been standing at his mail box
when several other neighbors stopped by. One said, "Could you be-
lieve it, that we have had a Russian spy living in our neighborhood
all these years and didn't know it."
I went on to the home of the man who has been feeding my cattle
this winter. He lives about 4 miles from me. He said he had been
asked by a number of persons in Leesburg, the county seat, whether
he intended to keep on working for that Communist.
From a housewife in the village near my farm. ^Nfrs. Hanson got
word of a petition being circulated, calling my family undesirable and
asking us to get out of the community. 1 have since verified this re-
port from several sources. And, as I reported to the chairman in my
request for this hearing, I understand the petition has now been Avith-
drawn. because a lawyer advised the circulator of the petition not to
continue his activities.
My latest information of this kind, which I did not state in my let-
ter to the chairman, concerns a meeting of a country agricultural com-
mittee at Leesburgh at which a Vir-ginia State official from Rich-
mond, in the })resence of a number of fai'mers, denounced the growing
n\nnber of (^ommunists in Government and named me as one of them.
As far as T know, he had never heard of me until Senator McCarthy's
Ml". Chairman, I do not recount these facts to aj^peal for sympathy.
The farming connnunity in which I live consists of no more than 50
families. It is noted for its active clun-ch and PTA. It is a good
68970â€” 50â€” pt. 1 â€” â€”23
344 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
American community. I want you to know what is happening in this
one community. It may be happening in other connnunities across
the land. I learned one thing from these experiences. To many
loyal Americans, who have read the assertions about Communists
still in the Government, any American whose name appears in the
newspapers charged with being a Communist is guilty until proved
innocent. You have probably heard the story, Mr. Chairman, about the
juror who was asked what his opinion was about the guilt or innocence
of the defendant. He said, "Of course he's guilty. Why else would
he be here?"
I deeply resent the action of a United States Senator, shielded by
his congressional immunity, who makes charges without investigation,
and thus starts a ground swell of hate.
Senator McCarthy recommended to this committee tliat it examine
my background and philosophj^ I would like to submit fuller in-
formation on this subject than Senator McCarthy was able to quote
from the Department of State Register.
My Norwegian grandparents came to this country about 1870 and
settled in the little town of Sparta, Wis., a little over 100 miles from
Senator McCarthy's home town. The family home there is still occu-
pied by Hansons. My various uncles, cousins, and nephews, includ-
ing Thompsons, Olsons, and Lundquists, are scattered in many towns
My father and mother settled in the neighboring State of Minne-
sota, where I was born in the iron-mining town of Virginia, Minn.,
the second of five children. I went to public school in Duluth, Minn.
I was active in the YMCA at the age of 10. I went to YMCA sum-
mer camps and was president of the Hi-Y Club during my high-school
years. From the age of 12 I was a Boy Scout. I became an Eagle
Scout ; I served as a Boy Scout camp counselor, and served as Scout-
master during my first year of college. I was active in the Presb\-
terian Church, of which all my immediate family were members. My
father was a Sunday-school superintendent.
During my senior year in high school I was awarded a summer in
Europe as a result of an essay contest sponsored by a boys' maga-
zine. The award included only my travel expenses from New York
City to Europe and back to New York. I recall I went through a
period of some uncertainty, when I was unable to raise the necessary
travel costs to New York, but a neighbor, an architect for the United
States Steel Corp., arranged for me to travel down the Great Lakes
and back on one of the company's ore boats. 1 was then able to spend
several inonths visiting in European homes, principally in Scandi-
I attended Duluth Junior College for 1 year and Carleton College
at Northfield, Minn., for 3 years. By means of scholarships, a job
waiting on table, and loans, I was able to finish my college education
during the depression. I might say my family was trying to help
three children through college at the same time. That is the reason
this impressed me. I majored in history and political science. I
was a debater and on the track squad. I was elected to Phi Beta
Carleton College for 40 years has maintained an affiliation with a
Chinese high school, called Carleton-in-China, located in Shansi Prov-
STATE DEPAKTAIENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY IXVEFTir.ATIOX 345
ince. I suppose it was through hearing about this school that I be-
came interested in China. Before I decided to go there, I talked it
over with an old newspa])ernian, fieff Jones, of the Minneai)olis Star,
and with Dr. Walter Judd, who was then doing medical research at
^Mayo Clinic. He was on furlough from his missionary work in China.
Both encouraged me. After graduation in 10;U. I borrowed a small
amount of money and made my way to Peiping, China.
At first I lived with a retired Chinese Minister of Finance, work-
ing as a secretary and teaching in a YJNICA college. I might say that
this retired official had a son who was my classmate in college. I had
entertained his son in my home and it was a return courtesy. I studied
Chinese, That year the Japanese Army was already holding maneu-
vers along the railroads east of Peiping, under an old treaty right,
and there were a number of shooting incidents involving Japanese
^ly second year in Peiping I held several teaching positions and
began free-lance writing for publications in Shanghai. I spent the
Avinter and summer vacations traveling through 14 Cliinese provinces
and writing articles for magazines in China. During that year the
Japanese Army smashed the Chinese Government authority over the
customs service in North China by sending gangs of thugs to beat up
the Chinese railroad guards. I wrote a number of stories on that and
one magazine article.
My third year I taught English at Central China College, one of
the 13 Christian colleges in China. I worked simultaneously as a
"string" correspondent for the Associated Press and Avrote editorials
for the Hankow Herald. That was the year that Chiang Kai-shek
was kidnaped, a truce was reached in the civil war, and the Chinese
Communists agreed to fight against the Japanese under the leadership
of Chiang Kai-shek,
I have recently looked over my writing files for the 3 years 193i to
1937. Those were the years immediately preceding the invasion.
There are some 600 pages of articles, mostly contributed to publica-
tions in China. I was preoccupied with two subjects: One was the
menace of Japanese invasion; the other was the appalling social
jn-oblems of China. I wrote articles about Chiang Kai-shek's military
j)repai'ation. about the railroad network for defense, and about the
Japanese battle over the customs. I also wrote about famines, flood
control, the opium trade, the land tax. and experiments with new
crops. I find I Avas quite interested in agriculture at that time, al-
though I had no previous experience with farming. T find in that
file no article about the Chinese Communists or conmuniism.
Then came the war. Wlien the invasion began on Jrily 7, 1937, it
was no surprise. Our small American comnninity in China had wit-
nessed years of Japanese Army arrogance, bullying, and deceit. No
normal American in China in 1937 could avoid a feeling of bitterness
toward Japan and an eagerness for successful Chinese resistance.
That was tlie big political issue. It was the main topic of conversa-
tion. It was the principal story for newspapermen.
Two weeks before the war started I returned to Peiping, hoping to
be around when the shooting started. For those 2 weeks I assisted a
Japanese resistance magazine, and did feature writing for the Peiking
Chronicle. I was out at the Marco l*olo Bridge on the morning of tho
346 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
incident. I was assigned thereafter as a f"^^-^;"^^^^^^^!?;^;^^!;^^^^^^
the Associated Press, and covered ahnost every front m Onna dniing
the followinof year and a half. ^ ^ t^ â€¢ . i i.
I returned to the United States in January 19: 9. Dunng that year
I 4as married to Bernice Bro..i of Chicago who ^-^\been a fe lo^^
student in college and later had served as a teacher at Caileton-in-
ri n We now have two children : A daughter, 4, and a son, age 1
I rejoiiied the Associated Press at Chicago in 1939, on the day tha
Hitler invaded Poland, and served as a staff wnter and eclitor unti
Z-ly after Pearl HaAor. During this per.od I ^^uched Frenclwnu
German at the Berlitz School in Chicago, liopnig that the AP ^Nould
send me into the European war zone. h^nnened this
In February 1942, I entered the Government It happened tnis
way â€¢ The AP assigned me to cover a meeting ot the American Hi.-
Sal Associatioirin Chicago during the Christmas hohday season
1941 I encountered a number of professors who had lived in China.
This was about 3 weeks after Pearl Harbor They told me that both
the State Department and the Coordinator ot lutormation were look-
1^^ for peop e with China background. I wrote to both to find what
fey weie okring. 1 found that the State Department was pnmarily
nterested in someone to recruit civilian advisers for the Chinese Gov-
emmei t, and wanted a person with a current knowledge of conditions
in we' China where General Chiang Kai-shek was making his war
basr I, of course, had just come back from that area approximately
sTears before. I was\dred by the Department to nndertake that
assignment. I would like to submit, as an exhibit, a list of the jobs 1
have since held in the Department and the work I have done.
Senator Green. Do you wish to submit it now '(
Mr Hanson. I wish to put it in the record, sir
Inc'identally, Mr. Chairman, Senator McCarthy did read you from
the State Department Biographical Register the official statement of
my work in the State Department. This is an amplihcation indicating
the kind of work involved. . ...â– .-..
Senator Green. Were there any discrepancies m his list (
Mr Hanson. There is always a discrepancy, sir, between the official
State* Department Register, which is based upon personnel actions,
and the dates under which a man actually entered on duty on a ]ob.
There is no other discrepancy-wait a minute; I will take that back
There were several minor misquotations, but they are not relevant to
this particular point. .
The important thing is, sir, that personnel actions requires a matter
of months when a man is assigned to a new job. and I am giving you
the dates on which I actually entered on duty on each job, and he was
crivino- you the date on which the Civil Service Commission recorded
that action. ^ x^ ^^ ^ it
Without going into details about my State Department work 1
should like to correct a few false impressions given by Senator Mc-
^'in Vbscussing my work with the Far East branch of the Public
Affairs Overseas Program Staff in 1947-48, he implied tMt m this
capacity I was responsible for political policies. That staff on Avhich
I worked was entirely concerned with the Department s far eastern
information program, not with. formulation of policies.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 347
Let lue ;ukl tliai tluriiii>' my 8 years in the Deparlinent 1 have never
been assianed to the Hureau of Fai- Eastei'n Atl'airs, Avhicli is respon-
sible for our political policies in that area; nor have 1 ever held a
])()sitioii which involved any responsibility for such policies or in