sometimes in dugouts for 12 hours a day, there was a lot of con-
I knew something about the Wang Ching-wei organization in this
country because one of its strongholds was in the San Francisco Bay
area, where I was living.
I was aware of the possibility of trouble through our Chinese per-
sonnel because thei-e had been similar troiible with foreign or foreign-
born personnel of OWL Our principle was that everything going
out over the air as \'oice of America or in print as material distributed
by OWI must be absolutely and beyond a doubt the Voice of America.
We had anot'her principle. In dealing with foreign countries we
nuist deal with those countries as allies. For example, in dealing with
478 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTT INVESTIGATION
Great Britain, we V^^ - ^ (^'^'^l^^^^ ^:\^ Conl
'"mlt we put out broadcasts and other material praising theEusskn
K.iS So if 1 Â£ave a decision one way, people won d say, Ah
fe Vs stili woHdng for Chiang Kai-shek." If I gave a election the^
itln'f 1 he thev wonkl sav, "He has turned aganist C hiang Kai-shek.
''&^ow T^dd m^Vo' make quite clear one or two minor points hex..
T wiote 'it would be rash to say that there are no Commumsts con-
LXlwitl^rC China Dail/News." I wrote t^-t because i was
my duty not to give a blanket endorsement.to any ^:!^^-^lfl''^^ ^^J^^
thnt T Guaranteed it had no Communists m it. Ihat is ot a piece
.^dSenZ McCarthy has misrepresente.1 this-with m^^^^^^^^
flvit "we need to avoid recruiting any Chinese Communists, ana i
was mTkino it cleaTthat by recommending Chinese of a certain kind
TwaTnot ^^^^^^^^^ thJt all of them of that kind were free from
LriunTsm They must still go through the regular security check
that everybody went through before we hired them.
Senator Green. How was that misrepresented ^
Dr L.^TmoL. The quote here is "the recruiting of personnel solely
from'the shareholders of the Communist New China Daily News
S^natoi Tydings. And what does your letter say, precisely, on that
Dr Lattimore. My letter says :
?r;LÂ°S"cSe ,i^?â€žTo"t o7cS""%l.e.e Chinese a,e f.. ftom being fed
to the chariot wheels of Moscow. Â« Â»
Senator Ttmnos. You went on to say prior to tliat however, that
thev we?e sinall-business men, and therefore less ikely to be Com-
mi^iisrand theVefore you qualified it by saying that perhaps there
"'gr'Â£:~E. I Sieved that to be a good place to look for per-
sonneirb â„¢was in no position to give a blanket endorsement to people
^ SeLr^T^NOS. I think the letter and the statements of the Sen-
atoi pretty well take care of each other, and we can study it when we
(TPt around to it in the committee.
^ Semator HiCKENEOOPER. Mr. Chainnan, this is a inat^er I forgot to
clarify when this hearing started this afternoon at 2: 30. At th^
mirnincr's hearings, when I began to interrogate Dr. Lattimore, I said
Tat I expected to a'sk him some questions which had occurred to me as
a resulTof all this publicity, aAd then I expected to ask him some
STATE DEPARTMENT E:MPL0YEE LOYALTY IXVESTIGATION 479
questions because I had asked Senator JNIcCarthy if there were any
questions that he wouhl specifically like for me to ask Dr. Lattimore.
I did receive a communication from one of Senator ]McCartln''s aides
this morning, just before I came to the meeting, and we discussed
certain things that T understood at that time to be in the nature of a
request by Senator McCarthy that I ask certain specific questions.
Unfortunately, I apparentl}' completely misund.erstood Senator INIc-
Carthy, because at the close of the hearing at noon today he came to
me and said that he had not submitted any specific questions to me to
ask for him, that he did not want me to ask specific questions on his
behalf, that he had not been accorded the opportunity to ask the ques-
tions himself; therefore he could not adopt the device of asking his
questions through a member of the committee.
I am sorry that I misunderstood the situation. I want to assure
you, Mr. Chairman, and everybody else, that I have not asked any
specific questions that were requested by Senator jNIcCarthy for me
to ask. All the questions I have asked are questions that have occurred
naturally to me as a result of reading the various allegations that have
been made; and I want to make it clear that I have not asked, and
shall not ask, at least under present circumstances, until I am specif-
ically asked to propound any questions generated by Senator McCarthy
I have another question or two.
Senator Tytjings. I would like to say right in that connection that
this matter of cross-examination came up in the committee in executive
meeting, and it was considered there as to whether or not it would be
fair to let Senator McCarthy cross-examine the witnesses. The com-
mittee had in mind, in saying that Senator McCarthy should ask his
questions through the members of the committee, this thought: That
the most entitled persons in all of these proceedings to have a fair
deal are those, even if they are guilty, who are accused of the heinous
offense of treason, near treason, disloyalty, or espionage. Inasmuch
as the Avitnesses accused by these people who have been publicly named
had no chance to interrogate those who accused them, it seemed to us
in line with the sixth amendment to the Constitution, which we call
the Bill of Rights, which entitles every person accused of a heinous
offense to be confronted with the witnesses against him, that the
accused should at least have no disadvantage in the matter, and, there-
fore, as they had had no chance to interrogate Senator McCarthy â€”
for example, on the very thing just read â€” to point out immediately,
at the time, the difference between his uttered remarks and the docu-
ment itself, that if we gave Senator McCarthy the right, they had
had no right to cross-examine him either in person or b}^ counsel, and
it would be a most unfair and a Cardinal Mindszenty proceeding, and
one of the things that has revolted America lately has been the convic-
tion of numerous religious prelates and some American businessmen
under methods similar to that which I have just described, which we
are trying to keep out of this committee.
We want to be fair to Senator McCarthy. We want to be fair to the
accused. And we do not feel that we can extend to Senator McCarthy
a right which has been denied the persons accused by him of various
heinous offenses, and, for that reason, the method that was adopted
was voted on in the committee.
480 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Senator Hickenloopp:r. Mr. Cliairmaii, I might just amplify what
I said a moment ago. I have no hesitancy in asking any questions
that a member of the Senate might want to submit to me to ask. I am
perfectly willing. I have asked two or three questions in the last
several clays that various members of the Senate have submitted to be
asked, and I have no hesitancy about that. If I do ask questions that
have been specifically submitted to me, I want to make it clear that
they are questions I have been asked to ask.
Senator Tydings. The press has asked for copies of this letter.
There is only one. If the press will designate someone who will be
responsible for the letter so copies can be made of it, and return it to
the reporter, thej^ may have it..
Senator Hickenloopek. I just want to say, any member of the Sen-
ate that wants a legitimate question asked, or a question that is ap-
ropos to the advancement of this hearing, I am perfectly willing to
ask it as an individual.
Senator Green. Instead of asking you to ask a question, may I ask
Senator Hickenlooper. You may ask it.
Senator Green. When you explain that Senator McCarthy did not
authorize you to ask questions, did you mean that to refer particularly
to this letter Avhich has just been read?
Senator Hickenlooper. No. Senator McCarthy did not ask me to
put this letter in the record. The letter came into my possession. I
said awhile ago part of the letter had been referred to. I had the
letter in my possession. If it were a genuine copy, I thought the
entire letter ought to be put in the record.
Senator Green. You mean Senator McCarthy did not give you his
copy of the letter ?
Senator Hickenlooper. I did not say that. But I did say that
Senator McCarthy did not ask me to put this letter in the record.
Senator Green. He just gave it to you?
Senator Hickenlooper. No. As a' matter of fact. Senator Green,
he did not give it to me, and it happens to be, I think, just a little
beyond your province to ask questions about that, but the fact is
Senator McCarthy did not give me this letter.
Senator Green. I won't ask any more.
Senator Tvdings. We don't want to get to examining each other
here. We have enough work to do without that.
Senator Hickenlooper. I don't know whether this letter came from
Senator McCarthy or not, but he is not the one who gave it to me.
1 will assure vou of that.
Now, Mr. Lattimore, Dr. Chi, referred to in this letter, whom you
referred to as your friend, is he in China uoav, so far as you know?
Dr. Latti3iore. Yes. He w^ent back to China, Senator, after the end
of the war ; I forget exactly when, whether it was right after or shortly
after. He then became a professor at one of the universities in Peking,
which were then, of course, controlled by the Nationalist Government,
and after the Communists took over at Peking he, like the majority of
university professors, remained there.
Senator Hickenlooper. Is he an editor of the New China Daily
News in China, in one of the cities of China?
Dr. Lattimore. Not to my knowledge. Senator.
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 481
Senator Hickenloopek. Is it his son that is now waitin<; liopefully
to he recoiiiiizcd as tlie Chinese representative to the United Nations
on behalf of the Conuniuiisl <j;overnnient of China?
Dr. L.vrriMORE. So I have heard. Senator. His son. whom I had
known first in Xew York in the early 1930's, when he had jnst fin-
islied liis orachiate work at Cohnnbia. hiter went back to China â€” I am
lint (luite sure when â€” and entered tlie service of the Government in
Chuii<j:kino:. I then saw him when I was in Chungking again in 1941
and in 1942. Mr. Chi at that time had a higli position in the Bank
of China and also, as I recall, on the Currency Stabilization Board.
His family, his father and Dr. H. H. Kung, the Minister of Finance,
were old friends, and Dr. Chi was treated as an extremely confidential
financial subordinate by Dr. Kung.
Senator Hickexlooper. Now. l3r. Lattimore. I am asking vou now
specific questions that were handed to me by a Member of Congress
during the noon hour.
Senator Tydixgs. Do yon care to identify him ? It is not necessary.
Senator Hickexlooper. I think it is completely irrelevant to iden-
tify Avho it is. It is a Member of Congress who handed me these
questions during the noon hour. He is interested in securing an
answer to them, and I told him I would be glad to ask you the ques-
tions. These are not specifically my questions.
Question : Do you know who recommended you or who was i-espon-
sible for your appointment on the Presidential mission to China when
you went ovei- there as an adviser to Chiang Kai-shek?
Dr. L.vTTnioRE. In 1941. sir?
Senator Hickexlooper. I believe that is correct. The date isn't
here, but I believe that is what is referred to.
Dr. L ATTi^ioRE. So far as I know. Senator, what happened was that
Chiang Kai-shek asked President Roosevelt to nominate somebody
who could be an American adviser. I was called over to Washington
and told that my name was being considered.
Senator Hickex'^looper. Who called you over?
Dr. LATTnroRE. The telephone message came from Mr. Lauchlin
Currie, in the executive offices of <:he President, to the Johns Hopkins
University, a.nd I came over here and. in the first instance, I saw Mr.
Currie. Who suggested my name to Mr. Currie or to the President,
or however it came up, I don't know. Perhaps I was a little bit vain-
glorious in merely assuming that I was well enough known so that my
name would naturally come up when a question of an expert on China
I was asked if I cared to name anybody with whom the President
might consult, and I named Admiral Yarnell â€” Admiral H. E. Yar-
nell â€” and President Isaiah Bowman, of the Johns Hopkins.
Senator Hickexlooper. When Vice President AVallace made his
tri]) to China you were head of tlie OWI in China at that time; were
Dr. LATTmoRE. No. Senator. At that time â€” let's see; that Avas
1944 â€” I had come back from San Francisco and, as I recall, I had
resumed my work at the Johns Hopkins, but was coming over to
Washington once or twice a week as a consultant to OWI.
Senatoi- Hickexlooper. And as consultant to OAVI where did yon
meet ? AVhere were their headquarters?
482 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
Dr. Lattimore. In flie Eaihvay Retirement Board Building here
in Washington, D. C.
Senator Hickenlooper. Do you know who suggested your name
to be assigned to Mr. Wallace on liis trip to Cliina?
Dr Lattimore. I don't know, sir, of my own knowledge, in the
introduction to the book that I^Ir. Wallace wrote about that mission
he says, or implies, that it was President Roosevelt.
Senator Hickenlooper. Dr. Lattimore, what were the circum-
stances of your assignment by the United Nations to the recent
Afghanistan trip that you just returned from? , , , -^
Dr. Lattimore. I was called up from New 1 ork by the Economic
Division of the United Nations nnd asked
S-nator Hickenlooper. Who heads that division?
Dr. Lattimore. Mr. David Owen, who is one of the Assistant
Secretaries to Mr. Tryg\^e Lie.
Senator Ttdings. Of the United Nations?
Dr. Lattimore. Of the United Nations.
Senator Hickenlooper. Had you been consulted prior to this
call from New York by the State Department or anybody m it as
to whether you would be available?
Dr. Lattimore. No, Senator.
Senator Hickenlooper. In addition to the memorandum of August
1949, which was the memorandum to Dr. Jessup and others that we
referred to, in the State Department, what other memoranda^ or re-
ports have you submitted to the State Department or any divisions ot
the State Department in the past?
Dr. Lattimore. I can't recall submitting any. Senator.
Senator Hickenlooper. And outside of the consultations and ac-
tivities that you mentioned in your formal statement this morning,
have you had other consulations with the Secretary of State or any
of his subordinates with regard to Far Eastern Affairs and American
policy in the Far East? -, . ^ .
Dr Lvttimore. The only Secretary of State that I ever met was
Mr Hull I remember it must have been about 1939 or 1940 I came
ovei- with one or two other people from Baltimoreâ€” I think only one,
Pi-of Arthur Lovejoy of the Johns Hopkins Universityâ€” after ask-
ino- for an appointment with Mr. Hull to urge that we take steps to
diminish or cut off the flow of supplies of strategic value to Japan.
Except for that occasion, I have not met any of the Secretaries ot
Semxtor Hickenlooper. You have never met Mr. Acheson?_
Dr. Lattimore. No, Senator. I wish I had. I admire him very
Senator Hickenlooper. Do you know who the present Director
of Far Eastern Affairs is in the State Department ?
Dr Lvttimore. It seems to me there was a statement m the paper
the other day that Mr. Walton Butterworth had been he^d of that,
but was now assigned to a Japan mission, and that^Mr Dean Rusk
had been appointed-no, wait a minute. Mr. Rusk I midei|tand has
been appointed Under Secretary responsible for the Far East, and
you are asking about China, are you, Senator, specihcally i
Senator Hickenlooper. Yes, China.
Dr. LArriMORE. The China desk ? I am not sure.
STATE DEPARTMENT E.MPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 483
Senator Hickexloopi.r. Do you know Mr. Butter\yoi-tli?
Dr. La'itimoki:. I have met him, I think, once.
Senator HiCKKXLcoPKK. Do you know Mi'. Dean Kusk?
Dr. Latti:m()re. 1 luive met Mr. Dean Kusk. In fact I was on a
panel with liim in P]nUulelj)]iia a month or two ago.
Senator Hickkxlooper. That ends the questions that have been sug-
gested to me by this ^Member of Cono-ress.
I woukl like to ask you, Mr. Latt'imore, if your formal statement
of tins morning, which you have read, had been submitted by you to
or seen or ])articipated in by any member of the State Department
or any employee of the State Department.
Dr. Lattimore. Xo.
Senator Tydixgs. Or any member of the committee ?
Dr. Lattimore. Nor any member of the committee.
Senator Tydixgs. I mean this conunittee.
Senator Hickexlooper. Last night, in the session of the Senate,
and I think I can give you the exact quotationâ€” well, I believe I have
a copy of what is alleged to be a direct quotation from the Record â€¢
I won t take time to find itâ€” it is in the Record here, but I am reading
from a copy of a news release issued by Senator Karl Mundt this
nionimg and in this news release there is a quote of what he said on
tlie floor of the Senate last night. He said :
There is a simple formula available t(> Owen Lattimoi-e fo cU^ar his name aii'l
prove his mnocence. All he iieerls to do is to ask the investisating committee to
Ml the I resident in his nehaif to r^^lease his files so that as an American citizen
whose reputation has lieen attacked before the committee he can be siven the
hTrhP nÂ«!! nf Vh^'^'i' ""T^ ".'J'^ iV'""'^'^' demonstrating his ability to clear his name
in tiie use or the facts m the files.
That statement was made last night on the floor of the Senate bv
benator Mundt I ask you if you have any objection to, not the pub-
Jicity of these files; nobody has ever asked to make the files publicâ€” I
ask vou if you have any objection at all, Mr. Lattimore, to the five
members of this subcommittee having full and complete access to the
tiles of information which have been or may be in existence in either
the State Department, the FBI, or the Civil Service Commission with
regard to any historical background or information on you.
Dr. Lattimore Mr. Senator, so far as I as an individual am con-
cerned, my record is open and clean. I do not mind any form of fair
investigation that helps me to prove that my name is clean and honor-
able. On the other hand I am not a member of the Government and as
an individual I do not think it would be fair for me ask for special
treatment differing m any way from that which is accorded to other
individuals by the regular procedures of this Government
Senator Hickexlooper. I merely ask you if vou, as an individual
and divorcing yourself from any possible technical questions involved
ex minf H ^' i-elease of files, would have any objection to such an
examination, at least without the intention at the time of the exam-
nation of making any of those files public property. Do you have any
objection to such an examination by the committee ?
T ihoi^Tr'"''''-! ^'^^^^^t^^' you realize that in replying to this question
1 shall not be replying as a disinterested person to a theoretical ques-
nf'^'iv fif"' "" ''?7 ?"'^' "^terested person. In my case, the opening
of m^ files would show me to be a completelv honorable American
citizen, even an American citizen with some modest reason for pride
484 STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION
But I feel that if I were to ask for that, I should be asking for a
favor, and that I refuse to do.
Senator Hickenlooper. That is all. ^ j â€žâ€ž
Sena or Ttdings. Dr. Lattimore, your case has been designated as
the No 1 case, finallv, in the charges made by Senator McCarthy. You
have been called, substantially, 1 think if not ^-^.f /^.^^"^^'^f ^ ^^^
top Red spy agent in America. We have been told that it we had
access to certain files that this wouid be shown.
I think as chairman of this committee that I owe it to you and to
the con ry to tell you that four of thefive members of tl^^s eomniittee,
in trprelence of Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, the head of the FBI had a
complete summary of vour file made available to them Mi. HooAe.
Mm elf prepared those data. It was quite lengthy. And at the con-
clusion of the reading of that summary in great de ail, it was the
nfveial opinion of all of the members of the committee present, anc
a others in the room, of which there were two more, that theie was
noth ' n hat file to show that you were a Commnmst or had ever
eP^M Communist or that vou Avere in any way connected with any
es^nag^Zm^^ or cliarg.s, so that the FBI file puts you com-
iiletelv up to this moment, at least, m the clear.
^Senatol- Hickenlooper. Mr. Chairman. T want to uuike the record
clear that I have not been afforded an opportunityâ€”â€” -rr- u.,.
Senator TvmNGS. I have already arranged tor Senator H cken-
loopTi- who was absent-let me make my .statement if you will-the
1 vv we went to the Departmei:t of Justice to see this file to see it
imself, aga n with me, some day next week, where he wdl have the
sal^e information that was made available to the other four members
''^* kluTiih^'ipt you. You have been taking the whole afternoon,
an^ he cm â„¢ asked any questions at all. It is getting on
?o 5 o'clock I would like to proceed. There have been lots of times
when I would have liked to have asked questions.
Senator Hickenlooper. May I say that I was absent T <lid not
know about the meeting to look at these files I hope o be aWe to
^ee them I tried to see them this week. It seems that I-ai!1 not
now be able to see them until next week. I can come to no conclu-
sZs about them, and this is the first time that I have received an
affirmative assurance as to the conclusions about that meeting
Senator TvmNGS. I would like to say this nuht there, tliat I would
not have made this statement had not my colleague. Senator Henry
c'borLocTge. Jr., of Massachusetts, after he had seen the fie, on the
floor of the Unit Jd States Senate, in a public speech, made the state,
ment that up to now none of the charg(^ had been proved as true. 1
think therefore, coming from a Republican member of this commit-
tee, a'very distinguished and an able and honest and P^^triotu- mem^
ber of this committee, the chairman can likewise now a> ad himself
of breaking the silence which already has been liroken.
Dr Lattimore, are you familiar with the fact that in the House ot
Representatives recently, by a vote of the House ot Representa Lives,
aid for Korea was denied ? , , . , i ^i -
Dr. Lattimore. Yes, Senator; I had heard that. . t .t i
Senator Tydings. Bv a vote, 1 think, of 102 to 101 and I hmk
the date was January iO. That would, more or less, while not being
STATE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE LOYALTY INVESTIGATION 485
a specific part of the mechanics you recommend, be tantamount to
the same end, only takiuij: it rather abruptly; would it not?
Dr. L.vrTotoRE. Yes; it woidti, Senator. But I didn't tell them
to do it.
Senator Tydings. I mioht like to analyze that vote for you â€” not
that it is important, but those v.-ho voted for aid were 170 Demo-
crats and 21 Republicans; tliose Mho voted against aid were 01 Demo-
crats and 130 Republicans and 1 member of the American Labor Party,
nuiking 192 to 191. Of course, later on, at the instance of the Presi-
dent, as you know, that action was reconsidered and the aid was voted.
Rut I can't help but draw the conclusion, from some of the questions
asked here, that our investigation is going to have to extend over to
the House of Representatives before we get through.
Have you seen any fact produced in the charges, which I assume
you have read, made by Senator McCarthy, aside fi-om allegations,
wliich the committee could more fully exaniine to show that you have
any espionage connections with the Russians?
Di-. LvTTnroRE. I think T have covered them all. Senator.
Senator Tydixgs. Are you familiar with the fact that a great many
of the people who favor a strong policy in China opposed a strong pol-
icy in western Europe, such as tho Marshall plan when it was voted on?
Dr. LvTTiMORE. I am very much aware of that. Senator.
Senator Tydixos. That is all.
Dr. Lattimore. INIight I add, Senator, that I myself have always
been very strongly in favor of the iMarshi^ll plan in Eurojie.
Senator Ttdixgs. I understand that your philosophy is that if a
test is to come, our resources must be husbanded so that with other
areas that are able to contribute to the ultimate struggle, these areas
will be kept close to us, and be available to throw their weight with