United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Indi.

Native Hawaiian housing and home lands : hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, on housing needs of Native Hawaiians, July 3, 1996, Honolulu, HI online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on IndiNative Hawaiian housing and home lands : hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, on housing needs of Native Hawaiians, July 3, 1996, Honolulu, HI → online text (page 11 of 34)
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for telephone survey, February 1995. The subset included all beneficiary records that
included a complete and accurate mailing address. The best estimate is that the
beneficiary files in February 1995 contained unduplicated records for 21,723
individuals. A total of 18,272 (86%) of those records contained mailing addresses.
Those 18,272 records became the sampling frame for all four components of the
surveys conducted for this project.



The Mail Surveys



A total of 18,000 surveys were mailed on January 2, 1995. A total of 6,134 surveys
were completed and returned by the actual cutoff date (March 15, 1995), for a return
rate of approximately 34 percent. Of those, 4,731 were returned by applicants
(77%), and 1,403 were returned by lessees (23%). Records for persons who were
both lessees and applicants were classified as lessees for the purpose of analysis.
Table 1 below compares the characteristics of beneficiaries in the sampling frame and
those of the survey respondents.



Applicant Telephone Survey

The applicant respondent group was very representative of the records in the sampling
frame. Table X-2 compares the characteristics of the two groups. There were slight
tendencies for the respondent group to underestimate beneficiaries with non-
residential applications in rural areas. A weighting system (see Table X-3) was
developed to expand the sample data to the entire 18,272 cases and adjust survey
date for this bias in the process.



Lessee Telephone Mail Survey

The lessee database maintained by DHHL does not contain the phone numbers, thus
the first step in preparing the frame for sample execution was to send the raw list to
GTE Hawaiian Tel and have current phone numbers appended to the database. We
note that this process tends to underestimate persons with unlisted telephone
numbers, since those cannot be distributed by GTE.



T«chnlca) Report: DHHL B«n«ficiaiv Nttda Slijd. 199S Eiat3

SMS Research 1042 Fort St. HonoUu. HI 96813 Ph: 806-537.3357 Fax: 806-537-2686 September. 1095



125



The cases with accurate phone numbers were then randomized and entered to the
sampling program in the CATI system. The CATI system selects numbers in order for
dialing. By randomizing the list, we effectively randomize the selection of numbers
from the sample file. A total of 1,613 interviews were completed, which represents 12
percent of the applicant sampling frame.



The lessee sample was developed in the same manner as the applicant telephone
survey. A total of survey were completed, representing eight percent of lessee
sampling frame. The representativeness of the respondent group for this smaller
sample was also quite respectable. Again a weighting system was developed to
expand the sample data to the sampling frame, and to adjust for biases noted in the
data.



Data Collection

This section describes the method by which data were collected for each of the four
survey types.

The Mail Surveys

Copies of the mail survey instrument were mailed to each sample beneficiary along
with a cover letter from the Director of the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands, and
a pre-addressed, postage-paid return envelope. Instructions told recipients to
complete the forms and mail them to SMS Research. It also provided for returning
them to DHHL's offices if the respondent preferred. Finally, respondents were given
the names and phone numbers of persons at SMS Research and DHHL in case they
had questions about the survey or needed assistance in completing it.

The mail survey generated more than the usual number of call to both offices. It has
been the SMS Research experience that mail surveys to native Hawaiians typically
generate a larger than normal number of calls. Most of the callers were In need of
assistance in determining which sections of the mail survey instrument to complete, or
needed help in understanding a particular question or two. There were some calls
(less than ten) from persons who were concerned about the survey or objected to it in
some way. In nearly all cases, their concerns were eliminated in the ensuing phone
call. Many of the calls were quite lengthy, and respondents spent time relating their
experiences, expectations, and concerns to both DHHL and SMS Research personnel.
Overall, the cooperation was high, the concern of beneficiaries that the process of
awarding land be improved was clear, and the response rate was high.

Most forms were nailed back to SMS Research. A few hundred were mailed to DHHL
and those were subsequently delivered to SMS Research. The returned envelopes
were opened, logged, and delivered to the editing department. Form were first edited
for completeness, contingency observation, and other forms of errors that might cause

T«ctinfcal Rwnrt: DHHL Bcntflclafv W«ed« Slixtt 199S EMt*

SMS R«Mwc«i 1042 Foit St. HonoWu. HI 98813 Ph: 808-537-3357 Fax 808^37-2686 Sfftmbm. 1S86



96



126



problems for data processing and analysis. Forms were then delivered to the coding
staff, who affixed appropriate geographic and identification codes. The edited and
coded fornns were then entered to machine readable files using key-to-disk entry
software with some edit-on-entry capabilities. Finally, a series of software routines
were used to double check all data to identify any errors that may have slipped
through quality control measures to this point. The resulting clean data files became
the basis for analysis in this study.



The Tdephone Surveys

The applicant and lessees surveys were administered sequentially. For both surveys,
all call were made from the SMS Research Honolulu Calling Center using the CATl
system. According to the survey instrument screening items, interviewers would first
contact the appropriate household, then locate the appropriate respondent, and
complete the interview.

Data entered to the CATl system are edited on entry, and checked by software
routines on a daily basis. When the files are complete, a final comprehensive check of
the data is made, and the resulting files become the basis for analysis.

Analysis

The analyses for the project has taken many months and has been done in
consultation with the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands. The initial analyses were
done according to a plan, and considerable data mining occurred after that point.
Certain aspects of the data analysis plan will be of interest to all readers.

Much of the data that appear in the report are weighted. The data weights were
calculated to expand the survey population to the population represented in the
sampling frame. Sampling precision was quite high, and the unweighted data did not
seriously distort the major characteristics of either applicants or lessees (See Tables
below). The sample weights adjusted the data for even those small differences. The
survey data may not accurately represent those applicants and lessees for whom
completed addresses were unavailable in the files. Thus the sample population of
1,613 applicants and 400 lessees is a fair and accurate representation of the 12,999
applicants and 5,272 lessees in the sampling frame. Those 18,272 beneficiaries may
or may not be representative of the entire population of 21,273 applicants and lessees
on the DHHL lists in February of 1995.

Focus Groups

A total of twelve focus group discussions have been conducted throughout the State
among DHHL beneficiaries during the past two months:

TeOinical Rroort: DHHL Btnefcarv Nt«te Study 1995 -P^

SMS Research 1042 Fort St, Honofciu. HI 96613 Pli: 808-S37-33S7 F«c 808-537-2686 Stftmtm. 1«S

97



127



Five groups were held on Oahu at the SMS Focus Group Facility, including
one group with leaders of the State Council of Hawaiian Homestead
Associations (SCHHA).

Three groups on the Island of Hawaii - two groups were held on the
University of Hawaii Hilo Campus and one was held at the Waimea Public
Library.

Two groups on Maul were conducted at the Maui Community College.

One group on Kauai was conducted at the Anahola Clubhouse.

One group on Molokai was conducted at the Ho'olehua Recreation Center.



Participants were randomly selected from DHHL beneficiary lists and were recruited by
telephone to attend the groups. Approximately 8 to 12 beneficiaries attended each
focus group. Each session lasted about 90 minutes. Participants were paid a gratuity
of $25 for their time and a light meal was served. All of the focus group discussions
were video taped.

The general approach for these focus groups was to discuss in detail the 'wa/ things
are', from the beneficiaries' point of view, and then ask for suggestions in designing
the "way things ought to be". The overall format of the discussions was intentionally
designed to be flexible.

We asked participants to consider these Issues along two important dimensions. The
first dimension is the level of responsibility that should be taken bv DHHL . On one
end of the scale, DHHL is responsible for all the land and housing needs for all
Hawalians for all time - on the other end of the scale, DHHL should turn over the land
to the beneficiaries and close up shop. The second dimension we asked them to
consider is the relative financial capabilities of beneficiaries . On one end, there are
beneficiaries who can afford to own multiple properties - on the other end, there are
beneficiaries who are struggling or unable to pay even low amounts of rent. As
various issues are raised (such as, "types of housing that should be developed", or
"the costs for Infrastructure") we have attempted to frame our analysis along these
two dimensions.



T«etinic»l Report: OMHL BtnHicaiv N««.h Shidy 1995 . . , EM^

SMS Wii«irch 1042 Fort St. Hondukj. HI 96B13 Pti: 806-537-3357 Fac aae-S37-26e6 Septan**. 1««6



98



128



TaMa 1
Characteristics of Surveyed and Non-Surveyed Applicants





Beneficiaries


Beneficiaries






Characteristic


Surveyed


Not Surveyed


Total Group




num


pet


num


pet


num


pet


AGE














under 18


1


.1%


4


.0%


5


.0%


1 8 to 24


69


4.3%


371


3.3%


440


3.4%


2S to 34


290


18.0%


2,219


19.5%


2,509


19.3%


35 to 44


393


24.4%


3,405


29.9%


3,798


29.2%


45 to 54


419


26.0%


2,614


23.0%


3,033


23.3%


55 to 64


272


16.9%


1,683


14.8%


1,955


15.0%


65 to 74


145


9.0%


833


7.3%


978


7.5%


75 and over


22


1.4%


201


1.8%


223


1.7%


no age data


2


.1%


56


.5%


58


.4%


Group Total


1,613


100.0%


11,386


100.0%


12,999


100.0%


First Application Type














agricultural


770


47.7%


5,322


46.7%


6,092


46.9%


pastoral


140


8.7%


890


7.8%


1,030


7.9%


residential


703


43.6%


5,174


45.4%


5,877


45.2%


Group Total


1,613


100.0%


11,386


100.0%


12,999


100.0%


First Application island














Oahu


589


36.5%


3,895


34.2%


4,484


34.5%


Maui


342


21.2%


2,166


19.0%


2,508


19.3%


Hawaii


483


29.9%


3,718


32.7%


4,201


32.3%


Kauai


133


8.2%


1,123


9.9%


1,256


9.7%


Molokai


66


4.1%


484


4.3%


550


4.2%


Group Total


1,613


100.0%


11,386


100.0%


12,999


100.0%


Year First Applied














before 1970


65


4.0%


524


4.6%


589


4.5%


1970 to 1979


168


10.4%


1,441


12.7%


1,609


12.4%


1 980 to 1 984


92


5.7%


1,061


9.3%


1,153


8.9%


1985 to 1989


656


40.7%


5,110


44.9%


5,766


44.4%


1990 to 1995


632


39.2%


3,250


28.5%


3,882


29.9%


Group Total


1,613


100.0%


11,386


100.0%


12,999


100.0%



T«ctinle.l Rwort DHHL BtntlMan N««ds Sludy 199S



PIWT



10<2 Fort St, Honolulu. HI 86813 Ph: tOi-S3T-33ST fmc 808-537-2686



99



129



Table 2
Characteristics Used to Calculate Weight



First Island List



Beneficiaries

Surveyed

num pet



Beneficiaries
Not Surveyed
num pet



Total Group
nunfi pet



Oahu

Year First Applied
before 1970
1970 to 1979
1980 to 1984
1985 to 1989
1990 to 1995
Group Toul

Maui

Year First Applied
before 1970
1970 to 1979
1980 to 1984
1985 to 1989
1990 to 1995
Group Total

Hawaii

Year Rrst Applied
before 1970
1970 to 1979
1980 to 1984
1985 to 1989
1990 to 1995
Group Total

Kauai

Year Rrst Applied
before 1970
1970 to 1979
1980 to 1984
1985 to 1989
1990 to 1995
Group Total



53


3.3%


385


3.4%


438


3.4%


130


8.1%


1,038


9.1%


1,168


9.0%


52


3.2%


485


4.3%


537


4.1%


114


7.1%


914


8.0%


1,028


7.9%


240


14.9%


1,073


9.4%


1,313


10.1%


589


36.5%


3,895


34.2%


4,484


34.5%



3


.2%


28


.2%


31


.2%


6


.4%


62


.5%


68


.5%


4


.2%


68


.6%


72


.6%


203


12.6%


1,355


n.9%


1,558


12.0%


126


7.8%


653


5.7%


779


6.0%


342


21.2%


2,166


19.0%


2,508


19.3%



3


.2%


73


.6%


76


.6%


20


1.2%


213


1.9%


233


1.8%


28


1.7%


375


3.3%


403


3.1%


245


15.2%


1,965


17.3%


2,210


17.0%


187


11.6%


1,092


9.6%


1,279


9.8%


483


29.9%


3,718


32.7%


4,201


32.3%


2


.1%


21


.2%


23


.2%


7


.4%


88


.8%


95


.7%


6


.4%


92


.8%


98


.8%


65


4.0%


608


5.3%


673


5.2%


53


3.3%


314


2.8%


367


2.8%


133


8.2%


1,123


9.9%


1,256


9.7%



Molokai

Year First Applied
before 1 970
1970 to 1979
1985 to 1989
1990 to 1995
Group Total



4


.2%


17


.1%


21


.2%


5


.3%


41


.4%


43


.3%


29


1.8%


268


2.4%


297


2.3%


26


4.6%


118


1.0%


144


1.1%


66


4.1%


484


4.3%


550


4.2%



Tdwtal RtBOt OHHL B«t»flci«v N««(l« StKK. 1985



10«2 ftH St, HonokAi. HI 9eS13 Ph: m»SST-33ST Fac a(»«37-2686



100



130



Survey Instruments



TMhnle«l Rtoert: DHHL B«n«ftct«v Naedt StmM. 1995 ■ . .^ ^^ . . . f fSi

SMS R«savch 1042 Fort St. HonoMu. HI 96813 Ph: eoM37-33S7 Fbc eOM37-26e6 Scoten**. 19S6



101



131



Mail Survey



lo



132

JANUARY 7. 1995

Dear Hawaiian Home Lands Beneficiary,

Governor Cayetano has appointed me as the new Chairman of the Hawaiian Homes Conunission,
and our goal is to place as many native Hawaiians on the land as possible over the next four years. As a
part of this effort, the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands is conducting a study to find out how the
department can best serve your needs. This study will include a mail-out survey, a telephone survey, and a
series of state-wide focus groups. SMS Inc. has been selected to conduct this very important multi-phased
study.

In order for us to plan better, we need to hear fi^om you. Please take the time to read the
instructions below, and answer the questions that apply to you. A self-addressed, postage-paid envelope is
provided for you to mail back this survey. Please complete and return it by February 28. 199S . If you
have questions regarding this survey, you can call Tun Dannemiller of SMS Inc. at S37-33S6.

Thank you for your Kokua.

Warmest aloha.



Kali K. Watson, Chairman
Hawaiian Homes Commission



INSTRUCTIONS
If you are.....

1) A Hawaiian Homestead Lessee (You received a lease award) .............. Fill out pg 2 & 4

2) An Applicant for a Homestead Lease (You have not received ao award) ......Fill out pg 2 & 3

3) Lessee/Applicant (You received an award and are on the waiting list) ..........Fill out all pages

Everyone is \?eIcome to fill out the "COMMENT" section at the bottom of page 4.



TwUniMl HtBvn. OHHL Sv^fKOn Nw<H 5W», 199?



SMS Research 1042 Fort S< . HoooMu. HI 96813 Ph; e08-S37-33S7 Fa»: 806-537-2686 September. 1995



/^3



133



DEMOGRAPHICS

Mahalo Tor taking the time to HII out this conndential questionnaire.
Instructions: Please answer each question by either circling or writing in the answer.



1. How old aic you? (4ge at last birthday)..

2. What is your zip code?



3. Are you: Male. 1 4. Marital Status? Single, never married 1

Female... 2 Married, living with spouse 2

Divorced, sqiaiated. 3

"V Widowed. „ _....4

5. What is your cunent employment status? flf Married and livine wish ipouse. please Indicate your spouse 's
employment status also)

Yoarielf Spouse

Employed, 35 houis/week <x more. I Employed, 35 boots/week or more 1

Empk^ed, lest than 35 bours/wedc 2 Employed, less than 35 hours/week. 2

Uoemployed - kmidng for woric. 3 TAien^kjyed - looking for woik. 3

Unemployed not looking Ua woric 4 Xinempk^ed not locddng for woric 4

Ketiied „ 5 Retired. , - „ .5

Homemaker, not woridng outside honie..6 Homemaker, not walking outside iiome....6

6. How much Hawaiian do you believe you and your spouse are? (Vrttt xr If no spouse or spouse not living ■with you)
Yourself % Spouse Vo

Household Information. These questions relate to everyone living in the household that you currently live in.
It includes the tipplicant or lessee, spouse, dependent children and any other adults who reside with you.



7. lododing yourself^ how many pet^le live in your household?.

S. How mat? people in your househoU are less than 18 years old?..

9. How many bedrooms are there in your home? „

10. How many bathrooms are there in your home?.



11. Since you first became a DHHL Applicant or Lessee, how many times have ytMi: {Write numbers in)

Been contacted by the depaitment .... Contacted the de|»itn>ent yourself.

C3ianged your classification/list . Changed your address^ _.„

Inquired about your status.. Made a complaint

12. Consideringallyciurcontacts with the Depaitment ofHawaiian Home Lands, which statement below
best describes your communications with them?

Excellent, they really tiy to help ...I Poor, they don't care about mypniblem$.....4

Good, Oiqr do their jobs pretty well...._ 2 Can't say, haven't talked to themnnich. 5

Fair, they don't go out of their way to hdp...3

1 3 . Applicants who regulariy defer awards mainrain their position on the list for many years, preventing other
applicants &om being oBatd an award. Should appUcaots who regularly defer awards be canceled firom the

waiting Ust and be required to re-apply? Yes

No

14. Should lessees be allowed to pass on a lease to their children or grandchildren even if they are less than

25% Hawaiian? Yes

No



TtchntMl Rtoort: DHHL Stnttlcmv Kttm Study 199S .^

SMS RMMTCtl 1042 Fori St . Honkjlu. HI 96B13 Pt< 808.S37.33S7 Fax: 808-537-2686






134



APPLICANTS



I. Which Homestead Lose Award hive you applied for? (Circle all thai apply)

ReaidenliaL 1 PastoiaL 3

AgricultnraL 2

2.' On which island are you applying fiw the award? (Indicate locailon of award, not current residence. Circle all that apply)

Oahu. _ I Kauai 4

Miui 2 MoJokai..._ „ 3

Hawaii. 3

3. What kind of housing unit do you live in now?

Single family home I Apartment „ 3

Townhouse, dnplex, multiplex. 2 Olba (Speelfii) .....4



4. Doyou: Own the home you reside in.. _ I Occupy without payment J

Rent the home you reside in... 2

In thefoUotwtg quetSoia, the phrase 'Homatead Fatuity' r^ers to aO iiersotu wAo wig be IMne witit vou
after you move to tie Ho me s tea d.

5. When awarded a lease, how many people would move with yon to the Homestead?

6. Tndoding yourself how mniy adults in your HomaUad FamOy are cnnenlly emplqyod? „...„

7. NOT incliiding yourscli^ bow many other members of your Homestead FamSy are DHHL applicants?..

8. What is the total income ofyou and your spouse, before taxes, from all sources for die calendar year 1994?

Uss than $10,000 1 $50,000 to $59,999 6

$10,000 to $19^9 2 $60,000 to $79,999 7

$20,000 to $29,999- „ 3 $80,000 to $99.999 8

$30,000 to $39,999 4 $100,000 or more 9

$40,000 to $49,999 _....5

9. How moch do you and youripouse pay monthly for rent or mortgage, excluding utilities?

Less fljan $300 1 $1,000 to $1,199 3

$300 to $499.._ _ _....2 $1,200 to $1,499 6

$500 to $699. 3 $1,500 to $1.699 7

$700 to $999 _ 4 $1,700 or more. 8

10. Approximately bow much money have you saved or could you obtain for a down payment?

Less than $2,500 1 $10,000 to $24,999. 4

$2,500 to $4.999_ „ 2 $25,000 or more. 5

$5,000 to $9.999 _ 3

11. What would be the source of that money? ^trc/e a// Mar oprp/y^

Savings. 1 Stodts/Real estate equity _..3

Gift (parent/others). ._ 2 Other iSpeafy) ^-...4

12. If you were offered a Homestead Lease Award in the near finnre, which of the following types of property would
you prefer?

Uninq>rDved/iaw land 1 Improved land with house unit on iL 3

Improved land without house on it. .2

13. tf you were offered a Homestead Lease Award in the near future, which of the following types of housing unit
would you prefer?

Sin^e family borne 1 Apartment 3

Townhouse, duplex, multiplex. 2 Other (^Jpec/jJ;; 4

14. Since you first applied for a Homestead Lease from DHHL, how many times have you:

Attended a lot selection meeting. ■

Deferred a lease offering to wait for other offerings _ - — .

Been deferred because you couldn't qualify for a mortgage. — ~ - -.



T«ehnle«l Reoort: DHHL B«n«rflei«iv Ncedi Sludv 1995



SMS R««Mn* 1042 Fort SI . HonoMu. HI 96813 Ph: 80«-S37.33S7 Far 806-537-2686






135



LESSEES

1. What kind of lease or leases have you received from the OHHL7 (Circle all that apply)



ReadenliaL _ 1 PaitoaL-

Agricultunl 2

2. What land of lease are you presently cesidiog on? (Orcfe off Aar^ijptfK'



Residential....^ „ I Pistora]

AfricultunL _ _ 2 elsewhere...



3. Hoy many mrmhris of your hmwrhn l d are DHHL applicanU on waiting list?

4. NOT indndingyounel^ bow many other members ofyoar household are DHHL lessees?

5. What are you currently p^ingmonflJyfiar rent or mortgage, ntrfnrlinggtilities?

LessthanS300 1 $1,000 to S1,I99„ 3

$300 to $499 „ _„.2 $1,200 to $1,499 „.„ „ _.6

$300 to $699 „.J $1,300 to $1,699 „ 7

$700 to $999. 4 $1,700 ormore. „ „ -....8

6. What is the total income of yon and your qxiuse,be£Me taxes, from all sources for the calendar year 19947

Less than $10,000.„ _ 1 $30,000 to $39.999 „ _ 6

$10,000 to $19,999 2 $60,000 to $79,999. _ 7

$20,000 10 $29,999 3 $80,000 to $99,999 8

$30,000 to $39,999 4 $100,000 or more 9

$40,000 to $49,999 _....3



COMMENT

Please provide your comments or suggestions on how the department should distribute 4, 000 homestead lease
awards aver the next four years given its limited resources .



TtctncMl R«Dert: DHHL a«n«feliv N«€<te Study. 1995



SMS Rammtty 1042 F»1 SI . Honokiu. HI 96813 Ph 808-S37-33S7 File 808-537-2686 Stfiiimttr. 1995






136



Applicant Telephone Survey



/^7



137



PROJECT 3410 - APPLICANT SURVEY - APRIL 1995

Hello, I'm with SMS Research, a Hawaii research company. He are doing a

survey for Che Department of Hawaiian Home Lands to find out how to get more
land award made.

(PRESS [ENTER] TO BEGIN INTERVIEW).. 1
(IF THE ANSWER IS 1, THEN SKIP TO QUESTION 3]
PHONE NUMBER AND NAME



(YOU ARE CALLING: tt
May I speak with



(IF THERE IS NO DHHL APPLICANT AT THIS NUMBER, THANK AND TERMINATE
WITH CODE 14. IF RESPONDENT IS NOT AVAILABLE, TAB 999 TO SCHEDULE
CALL BACK. ENTER A [1] TO CONTINUE).

PROCEED. .1



Which island do you live on?



Hawaii 1

Oahu 2

Maui 3

Molokai 4

Lanai S

Kauai 6

live outside the State of Hawaii.. 7



What kind of Homestead Lease Award are you signed up for —

residential, agricultural, or pastoral?

(PROBE) Any others? (ASK FOR BEST GUESS IF NECESSARY)



residential 1

agricultural 2

pastoral 3

residential t agricultural 4

residential t pastoral S

agricultural t pastoral 6

all three (res, ag, pastoral)..?



(IF THE ANSWER TO QUESTION 5 IS 1, THEN SKIP TO QUESTION 9]



T«c»inic»l Rt ooit DHHL B«n«licarv Ne«di Slutfy ia^



SMS RM«n» 1042 Fort St.. HomUu. HI 96813 Ph: 806-537.3357 Fuc 808.537.2686



108



138



If you were Co receive an agricultural or pastoral award this year,
how long do you think it would be before you were able to start using
the land?

right away, this year 1

within two years 2

within three years 3

within four or five years.. 4

six to ten years 5

more than ten years 6

not use, give to kids 7

not sure 8

refused 9



What type of crops or livestock do you Intend to raise on the land?



Do you Intend to build a house on the land, or just use it for
crops or livestock?



build a house 1

both (house t farm) 2



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on IndiNative Hawaiian housing and home lands : hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, on housing needs of Native Hawaiians, July 3, 1996, Honolulu, HI → online text (page 11 of 34)