United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Indi.

Native Hawaiian housing and home lands : hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, on housing needs of Native Hawaiians, July 3, 1996, Honolulu, HI online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on IndiNative Hawaiian housing and home lands : hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, on housing needs of Native Hawaiians, July 3, 1996, Honolulu, HI → online text (page 29 of 34)
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50


127


1 29


For Rent


5 52


36 66


5 57


2 90


7 73


1105


Total Percent Vacant


3 00


805


332


1 50


406


540


NATIVE HAWAIIANS














Owner occpd


53


91


38


55


51


55


Renter occpd


47


9


62


45


49


45


Total occpd Units


too


100


100


100


100


100


NON-NATIVES














Owner occpd


54




48


56


60


61


Renter occpd


46




52


44


40


39


Total occpd Units


100




100


100


100


100


Source Special Tabulations of U S Ce


.sus











Native Hawaiians. Only 38 percent of Native Hawaiians own thieir home in central city Honolulu
compared to 48 percent of non-Natives. Homeownershiip rates in urban areas elsewfiere in tfie
state ("balance state urban") also diverge between Native Hawaiians and non-Natives. Tfiere tfie
difference is 9 percentage points (51 percent versus 60 percent)."

Native Hawaiians are mucfi less likely to own tfieir fiomes tfian American Indians and
Alaska Natives residing in Tribal Areas (68 percent). AIAN hiomeownerstiip rates in metropolitan
areas (50 percent) are almost tfie same as those for Native Hawaiians living in Honolulu.
Nonetheless, for the majority of Native Hawaiians as well as the AIAN population, homeownership
is less prevalent than it is for the population as a whole (64 percent) in the U.S.

Vacancy rates in Hawaii have been traditionally low and rank among the lowest of any
state for sale and rental housing. The overall vacancy rate for sale units is 0.7 percent and for



" Annex E reports the estimated probability of homeownership for Native Hawaiians and non-Natives given the
same household characteristics.



3fi4



Housing Problems and Needs of Native Hawaiians



rental units 5.5 percent. The vacancy rate for sale units varies little across different areas, while
the rental vacancy rate varies more. The vacancy rate for rental units is highest in mral areas
outside of Oahu at 1 1.1 percent, and drops to 4.4 percent in Honolulu county.

Age of Housing

Age of housing stock is important because it may be an indication of the structural
condition of the housing. Housing analysts using national and local data bases have revealed
that older housing has, on average, inferior amenities and greater need for repairs. In Hawaii,
where much of the housing is constructed of wood, older structures are prone to experience
termite damage.

Data in Table 4.2 shows that in 1990 the majority of housing units occupied by Native
Hawaiians and non-Natives alike were built between 1 960 and 1 979. Native Hawaiians, however,
are generally more likely to live in older housing than non-Natives across all areas. This is
especially true for renters in the "Balance Rural" portion of the state. However, Native Hawaiians
are most likely to own older housing in Honolulu. In the central city about 22 percent of Native
Hawaiians own housing built before 1949, compared to 9 percent of non-Natives. Over 45
percent of Native Hawaiian owners who live in Honolulu proper live in housing built before 1959,
compared to about 29 percent of non-Native owners who live in the central city. The purchase
of older, inferior housing may be one way that Native Hawaiians manage to house larger families
with lower per capita income.

Native Americans on the mainland also live in older housing than does the non-AIAN
population. Overall, about 35 percent of all AIAN households live in units built before 1949
compared to 22 percent for non-AIAN population. In Hawaii, only 1 5 percent of Native Hawaiians
live in housing built before 1949, which is about 20 percentage points below the share attributed
to American Indians and Alaska Natives. Given that the stock of housing in Hawaii is younger
than the one found in any other state this sharp contrast is not surprising.

Number of Units in Structure

How many units are in the housing structures that a particular group occupies? Do Natives
and non-Natives tend to live in single-family homes or in multi-unit condominium or apartment
complexes?

As seen in Table 4.3, about 90 percent of Native Hawaiian owners live in single-unit
stnjctures compared to about 79 percent of non-Native owner households. Native Hawaiian
owners are much less likely to live in multi-unit structures with 5 or more units (7 percent) than
are non-Natives (18 percent). In Honolulu, about 22 percent of Native Hawaiian owner



365



Housing Problems and Needs of Native Hawaiians



TABLE 4.2














AGE OF HOUSING














NATIVE HAWAIIANS AND NON-NATIVES


1990












Home


Honolulu County
Central Balance


Balance of State








Total


Lands


City


County


Urban


Rural


NATIVE HAWAIIANS














Renter Occupied
1 949 or earlier


18


17


17


16


16


37


1950-1959


14


23


18


16


10


8


1960-1979


51


41


56


55


47


30


1980 to March 1990


16


20


9


13


27


25


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


Owner Occupied
1 949 or earlier


13


14


22


7


10


25


1950-1959


15


16


23


16


9


10


1960-1979


50


52


44


55


48


43


1980 to March 1990


22


18


12


23


33


22


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


Total Occupied
1949 or earlier


15


14


19


10


13


30


1950-1959


15


17


20


16


9


9


1960-1979


51


51


51


55


48


37


19S0 to March 1990


20


18


10


19


30


23


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


NON-NATIVES














Renter Occupied
1949 or earlier


16




15


16


13


32


1950-1959


14




17


14


8


8


1960-1979


51




58


50


43


30


1980 to March 1990


19




11


20


36


30



Total

Owner Occupied

1949 or earlier

1950-1959

1960-1979

1980 to March 1990

Total

Total Occupied

1949 or earlier

1950-1959

1960-1979

1980 to March 1990

Total



Source Special Tabulations of U S Census



366



Housing Problems and Needs of Native Hawaiians



TABLE 4.3














UNITS IN STRUCTURE














NATIVE HAWAIIANS AND NON-NATIVES, 1990
















Honolulu


County










Home


Central


Balance


Balance of State |








Tout


Lands


City


County


Uriian


Rural


NATIVE HAWAIIANS














Renter Occupied
1 Unit


S3


92


25


61


66


86


2-4 Urals


9





10


10


9


5


5+ Units


36


8


65


27


24


8


Mobile Home & Other


1





1


1


1


1


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


Owner Occupied
1 Unit


90


• 97


75


89


95


97


2-4 Units


2


1


2


3


1


1


5+ Units


7





22


6


3





Mobile Home & Ottier


1


2


1


1


1





Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


Total Occupied
1 Unit


73


96


44


77


81


92


2-4 Urals


5


1


7


6


5


3


5* Units


21


1


48


15


13


4


Mobile Home & Other


1


2


1


1


1


1


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


NON-NATIVES














Renter Occupied
lUnil


42




22


55


60


80


2-4 Units


11




10


13


8


11


5+ Units


45




66


31


29


7


Mobile Home & Other


2




2


1


2


2


Total


100




100


100


100


100


Owner Occupied
1 Unit


79




62


85


91


95


2-4 Units


3




3


3


1


1


5+ Units


18




34


11


7


2


Mobile Home & Other


1




1


1


1


1


Total


100




100


100


100


100


Total Occupied
lUnit


63




41


72


79


90


2-4 Units


6




7


7


4


5


5+ Units


30




51


20


16


4


Mobile Home & Other


1




1


1


1


1


Total


100




100


100


100


100


Source Special Tatiulation


s of U S Census













367



Housing Problems and Needs of Native Hawaiians



households live in multi-unit structures with 5 or more units compared to 34 percent of non-
Natives.

Even among renters, Native Hawaiians tend to live in single-unit structures at higher rates
than do non-Natives, regardless of area. Overall, 53 percent of Native Hawaiian renters live in
single-unit stmctures compared to 42 percent of non-Native renters. In other rural areas,
approximately 86 percent of Native Hawaiian renters live in single-unit structures compared to 80
percent of non-Native renters. In the more urban area of central city Honolulu, roughly equal
proportions of Native Hawaiian (65 percent) and non-Native (66 percent) renter households live
in multi-unit (5 or more) stnjctures. In the city there are fewer housing type choices for renters,
because renter units tend to be multi-unit structures.

Size of Unit

Housing unit size is a good gauge of household size if one controls for income effects.
Native Hawaiian households tend to live in somewhat larger housing units than non-Native
households, regardless of area. Overall, 22 percent of Native Hawaiian households live in
efficiencies or 1 bedroom units deemed large enough for one or two persons (Table 4.4). The
percentage of non-Hawalians who live in these type of housing units is somewhat larger (24
percent). Among renter households only, these proportions are greater. Approximately 35
percent of Native Hawaiian renter households and 39 percent of non-Native renter households
live in small units.

There is very little difference between the share of Native Hawaiian (31 percent) and non-
Native (30 percent) households who rent larger units with 3 or more bedrooms. Conversely,
Native Hawaiians who own tend to live in larger units. Approximately 70 percent of Native
Hawaiian ov/ners live in a housing unit with 3 or more bedrooms compared to 64 percent of non-
Natives. In other mrai areas ("balance state rural"), 72 percent of Native Hawaiians live in large
units in contrast to 64 percent of non-Native owners. Given the propensity for large families
among Native Hawaiians, this result is not surprising.

Native Hawaiian households who live on the Home Lands tend to live in large units. About
72 percent of ail Home Land residents own a three bedroom or larger housing unit while only 1 1
percent own a zero or one bedroom unit. This is in sharp contrast to housing units built on tribal
lands where only 53 percent of the units have three or more bedrooms. Overall, Native
Americans on the mainland live in slightly smaller housing units than Native Hawaiians. These
distributions reflect the historical policies of the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands to construct
housing of this type, as well as the reported preferences of applicants on the waiting list for a
homestead lease, as revealed in applicant sun/eys (tabulations reported by SMS Research).



368



Housing Problems and Needs of Native Hawaiians



TABLE 4.4














SIZE OF UNIT














NATIVE HAWAIIANS AND NON-NATIVES. 1990














Honolulu County
















Balance of State 1






Homo


Central


Balance








Total


Lands


City


County


Urt>an


Rural


NATIVE HAWAIIANS














Renter Occupied
None or 1 Bedroom


35


23


53


26


30


23


2 Bedroom


34


32


33


36


32


34


3 or more Bedrooms


31


45


14


38


38


43


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


Owner Occupied
None or 1 Bedroom


11


11


15


9


9


9


2 Bedroom


20


15


22


19


22


19


3 or more Bedrooms


70


73


63


72


69


72


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


Total Occupied
None or 1 Bedroom


22


12


38


16


19


16


2 Bedroom


26


17


29


26


27


26


3 or more Bedrooms


52


71


33


57


54


59


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


NON-NATIVES














Renter Occupied
None or 1 Bedroom


39




55


20


38


27


2 Bedroom


32




30


34


33


31


3 or more Bedrooms


30




15


46


29


42


Total


100




100


100


100


100



Owner Occupied
None or 1 Bedroom

2 Bedroom

3 or more Bedrooms

Total

Total Occupied
None or 1 Bedroom

2 Bedroom

3 or more Bedrooms

Total



Source Special Tabulations of U S Census



369



Housing Problems and Needs of Native Hawaiians



Sewage and Source of Water

Attachment to a public sewer and to a public water main is often found to be associated
with good health conditions. In Hawaii many households have individual septic tanks and wells
that are generally adequate. Other types of systems such as for rain catchment and storage are
somewhat common in Hawaii but pose health risks (such as lead contamination), and if not
adequately maintained cease to function property.

Table 4.5 shows type of sewage system for Native Hawaiian and non-Native households
in 1990. Virtually ail housing units occupied by Native Hawaiian households are either attached
to a public sewer or have a private septic tank. Only about 1 percent rely on "other" means of
sewage disposal. There is generally little difference between Natives and non-Natives in these
respects. There is an appreciably higher rate of use of "other" sewage disposal systems for both
Natives and non-Natives living in rural areas outside of Honolulu county than for those living in
Honolulu or other urban areas.

As shown in Table 4.6, 10 percent of Native Hawaiian households lack access to either
a public water supply or a well — a figure more than twice as high as that for non-Natives (4
percent). Use of some other source varies little by tenure and area, except that the rate is
somewhat higher for both Natives (17 percent) and non-Natives (14 percent) in rural areas off of
Oahu. The high rate of use of "other" sources of water by Native Hawaiian households living in
Honolulu proper is striking. Non-Natives in central city Honolulu have the highest rate of hookup
to a public system (97.8 percent), and the lowest rate of reliance on other sources (1 .7 percent).
In contrast. Native Hawaiians in this area experience a high likelihood of using other sources such
as rain catchment (12 percent).

Native Hawaiians residing on the Home Lands are much less likely to be connected to a
public sewage system than Native Hawaiians living elsewhere.^" Only about 33 percent access
public sewage systems since the greater majority use septic tanks to dispose sewage. Neariy
all (96 percent) of the housing units are connected to a public water system, while the remainder
access water using an individual well. Few Home Lands houses are reported to draw water from
a source other than a well or a public system — reflecting the policies of the Home Lands to supply
housing in community developments that are served by modern utilities.



" The 1 990 figures for sewage hookups may now be somewhat dated. Since the late 1 980s, health concerns have
led state and county officials to require homeowners with septic tanks and alternative means of sewage disposal to
establish lateral connections to public sewer mams. These policies should result in significant improvement in the
quality of sewage disposal systems for Native Hawaiians and non-Natives.



370



Housing Problems and Needs of Native Hawaiians



TABLE 4.S

1 YPfc OF SEWAGE SYSTEM

NATIVE HAWAIIANS AND NON-NATIVES,


1990














Honolulu


County








Total


Home
Lands


Central
City


Balance
County


Balance of State |


Urt>an


Rural


NATIVE HAWAIIANS














Renter Occupied
Public Sewer
Septic Tank
Other


75
23
2


41
59



99

1



80
19

1


56

42

2


27
67

7


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


Owner Occupied
Public Sewer
Septic Tank
Other


62
37

1


33

66

1


98
2



81
19



34
65
2


17
79
3


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


Total Occupied
Public Sewer
Septic Tank
Other


68

31

1


33

65

1


98
1



80
19
1


45
54
2


21
74
5


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


NON-HAWAIIANS














Renter Occupied
Public Sewer
Septic Tank
Other


87
12

1




99

1



91
8

1


63
35
2


37
59
4


Total


100




100


100


100


100


Owner Occupied
Public Sewer
Septic Tank
Other


78

21

1




98
1

1


91
9



38
61

1


26
70

4


Total


100




100


100


100


100


Total Occupied
Public Sewer
Septic Tank
Other


82
17

1




99
1



91
9



48
51
2


30
66
4


Total


100




100


100


100


100


Source: Special Tabulations of US Census











371



Housing Problems and Needs of Native Hawaiians



TABLE 4.6

SOURCE OF WATER

NATIVE HAWAIIANS AND NON-NATIVES.


1990














Honolulu


County
















Balance of State |




Total


Home
Lands


Central
City


Balance
County


Urban


Rural


NATIVE HAWAIIANS














Renter Occupied
Public System
Indiv Drilled Wall
Ottier


78
11
11


82
15
3


79
9
12


81
10
9


76
11
13


63
19
18


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


Owner Occupied
Public System
Indiv. Drilled Wall
Other


83
8
9


98

1
1


77
11

12


85

7
8


81
9
10


76
8
16


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


Total Renter/owner
Public System
Indiv Drilled Wall
Other


80
9
10


96
3

1


78
10
12


83
8
8


78
10
12


70
13
17


Total


100


100


100


100


100


100


NON-HAWAMANS














Renter Occupied
Public System
Indiv Drilled Wall
Other


94
1
5




97

3


95
1
4


89

1
9


83
1
16


Total


100




100


100


100


100


Owner Occupied
Public System
Indiv Drilled Wall
Other


96

1
3




99

1
1


99
1
1


92

1
7


86
1
13


Total


100




100


100


100


100


Total Occupied
Public System
Indiv. Drilled Wall
Other


95

1
4




96

2


97
1
2


91
1
8


85
1
14


Total


100




100


100


100


100


Source Speaal Tabulations of U S


Census











372



Housing Problems and Needs ot Native Hawaiians



Summary

In Section 3 we showed that Native Hawaiians purchase their housing with lower per
capita income than do non-Natives. In this section we described how, other things being equal,
Native Hawaiians prefer larger units and single family units — typically more expensive housing.
How are they able to afford this more expensive kind of housing? Part of the answer is that they
do not purchase equal housing.

Native Hawaiians tend to live in older housing units that are cheaper and may be
structurally inferior. The distribution of Native Hawaiian households in different areas (reported
in Section 2) also suggests that they are more likely to live in parts of the state where housing
tends to be slightly cheaper outside central city Honolulu, if on the island of Oahu, and on other
islands. Indeed, the median value of Native Hawaiian housing, state-wide, is about 68 percent
below that of housing occupied by non-Natives for single-family structures.^' (This difference
in house value holds up across all areas except for Hawaii county.) Does this imply that the
structural quality of Native Hawaiian housing is of a lower standard than non-Native housing?
This question and ones similar to it will be answered in the section that follows.



*' These data are computed using the Census microdata (PUMS).



973



SectcictS

HOUSMG PfWeLEUS AMO NSOS
OF NATIVE HAWAIAMS



The preoeSri; secwr
. ig standard measures -3* housifvg •^•€©46 deffihec' &/ aflttorte&iii^', nweraCTr ft nigL ar; fecifti*









DEFINING HOUSING



5 A%:7 VEE£)S:>fl FRAMEWORK



As Stated in tie companian study on AIAN housing fiesds and progcam s . htmsng
problems have been assessed along various dmenskms twisting w.

■ AflbrdiabSitK- AffofdabSty problems are cenbal to intxtsmg needs. S h ortages of
housirtg catjsed by inadequate supply ot inputs (suci^ as land, labor, mafienaks. and



374



Housing Problems and Needs of Native Hawaiians



regulations) have a severe impact on price. As housing demand outstrips supply,
prices rise, affecting the ability of households to afford housing appropriate for their
needs.

■ Overcrowding. Overcrowding has long been recognized as a major contributor to
stress-related health problems and is often related to other housing problems such
as affordability and quality.^^ Overcrowding can occur for several reasons.
Housing units in any given area can be, on average, too small for the typical
household or, because of market-level supply constraints, may have to
accommodate more than one household. And, affordability problems can lead to
doubling up with multiple families residing in a single unit as a way to share
housing expenses.

■ Structural Quality. Structural quality is the most controversial measure because
of the variation in measures of housing quality standards. These standards vary
due to the impact of environmental and cultural factors. Nonetheless, there are
basic measures that can be used as a proxy to assess structural quality to
measure facility, condition, and design problems.

■ Availability. Availability of shelter for protection from the environment is the most
fundamental housing need. The plight of the homeless has focused considerable
attention on this need.

In order to assess housing needs for Native Hawaiians, this study used standard indicators
of affordability, overcrowding, and quality. Below we discuss each of the methods used to
measure Native Hawaiians' housing problems and needs.

Affordability

From the eariy 1960s to the early 1980s, HUD's standard of affordability for program
purposes was based on a family paying more than 25 percent of its income for housing expenses.
Later, this standard was changed to 30 percent; a measure still in use today. If a household pays
over 30 percent of its gross income toward housing costs, it is identified for the purpose of these
analyses as having an affordability problem. Because the Census special tabulations used this
measure of affordability, we are able to provide an estimate of this type of housing problem for
all the areas identified in Hawaii, including the Home Lands. Further, this measure lends itself
to comparison with other population groups for which this affordability measure has been
computed, including the American Indian and Alaska Native households living on the mainland.



" For an analysis of the relationship between health and housing in Hawaii see Schmitt (1955).



375



Housing Problems and Needs of Native Hawaiians



Overcrowding

Housing analysts today commonly use a measure for overcrowding that is based on
whether a housing unit houses more than one person per room (1.01). For the purpose of this
report, this measure is deemed an appropriate indicator of overcrowding, though analysts also
evoke a more restrictive measure of more than 1 .5 persons per room.

Quality

Housing quality is difficult to define and measure reliably. Past indicators have relied on
subjective criteria such as "not needing major repairs" or "dilapidated."^^ These measures lack
precision. The American Housing Survey (AHS) uses a composite measure of housing conditions
that assesses quality using a categorical indicator (severe or moderate inadequacy).^* Housing
analysts promote this measure because it can capture many structural defects in a single
measure, including interior and exterior housing conditions. However, one limitation of using this
iridicator is that it relies on many composite measures, restricting its use to AHS or primary
sun/ey analysis that collects information on composite indicators. The U.S. Census Bureau relies
on a more straightforward measure of housing quality that records whether the housing unit is
equipped with a kitchen or plumbing facility.

For the purpose of this report, we use the Census measure of housing condition. Given
the tremendous improvement in housing conditions over the last four decades in the United
States (including Hawaii), the study team was satisfied with a simple measure that is based on
the presence or lack of basic kitchen and plumbing facilities.

Availability

Homelessness is a growing concern for many communities in America. Hawaii is not
exempt from this acute manifestation of housing need. Counts of the homeless are frequently
subject to debate because of the difficulty in assuring that all the homeless have been identified
and because there are many different definitions of homelessness (Burt 1994). For the purpose



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on IndiNative Hawaiian housing and home lands : hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, on housing needs of Native Hawaiians, July 3, 1996, Honolulu, HI → online text (page 29 of 34)