United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labo.

School-To-Work Opportunities Act of 1993 : hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on S. 1361 ... September 28 and October 14, 1993 online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on LaboSchool-To-Work Opportunities Act of 1993 : hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on S. 1361 ... September 28 and October 14, 1993 → online text (page 1 of 28)
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S. HRG. 103-^75



V

THE SCHOOL-TO-WORK OPPORTUNITIES ACT OF

1 993

Y 4.L 11/4: S. HRG. 103-475






The School-to-Uork Opportunities ftc...

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE, ON EMPLOYMENT AND
PRODUCTIVITY

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON

LABOR AND HUMAN RESOURCES

UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS
FIRST SESSION

ON

S. 1361

TO ESTABLISH A NATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
SCHOOL-TO-WORK OPPORTUNITIES SYSTEMS IN ALL STATES, AND
FOR OTHER PURPOSES

SEPTEMBER 28 AND OCTOBER 14, 1993



Printed for the use of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources







JUIV2



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
77-136 CC WASHINGTON : 1994



7 199*



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office ^MO Pftfi

Superintendent of Documents. Congressional Sales Office. Washington. DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-044040-8



S. HRG. 103-475



THE SCHOOL-TO-WORK OPPORTUNITIES ACT OF

1 993

Y4.L 11/4: S. HRG. 103-475



The SchooI-to-Uork Opportunities Ac.



HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON EMPLOYMENT AND
PRODUCTIVITY

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON

LABOR AND HUMAN RESOURCES

UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS
FIRST SESSION

ON

S. 1361

TO ESTABLISH A NATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
SCHOOL-TO-WORK OPPORTUNITIES SYSTEMS IN ALL STATES, AND
FOR OTHER PURPOSES

SEPTEMBER 28 AND OCTOBER 14, 1993



Printed for the use of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources




JUN2



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
77-136 CC WASHINGTON : 1994



7 m<,



^CtagiWHi



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office fO/Jfyr**

Superintendent of Documents. Congressional Sales Office, Washington. DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-044040-8



COMMITTEE ON LABOR AND HUMAN RESOURCES

EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts, Chairman

CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island NANCY LANDON KASSEBAUM, Kansas

HOWARD M. METZENBAUM, Ohio JAMES M. JEFFORDS, Vermont

CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut DAN COATS, Indiana

PAUL SIMON, Illinois JUDD GREGG, New Hampshire

TOM HARKIN, Iowa STROM THURMOND, South Carolina

BARBARA A. MIKULSKI, Maryland ORRIN G. HATCH, Utah

JEFF BINGAMAN, New Mexico DAVE DURENBERGER, Minnesota

PAUL D. WELLSTONE, Minnesota

HARRIS WOFFORD, Pennsylvania

NICK Littlefield, Staff Director and Chief Counsel
SUSAN K. HATTAN, Minority Staff Director



Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity

PAUL SIMON, Illinois, Chairman
TOM HARKIN, Iowa STROM THURMOND, South Carolina

BARBARA A. MIKULSKI, Maryland DAN COATS, Indiana

JEFF BINGAMAN, New Mexico JUDD GREGG, New Hampshire

HARRIS WOFFORD, Pennsylvania ORRIN G. HATCH, Utah

EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts NANCY LANDON KASSEBAUM, Kansas

(Ex Officio) (Ex Officio)

BRIAN KENNEDY, Chief Counsel and Staff Director
TODD AtwatER, Minority Counsel

(ID










CONTENTS



STATEMENTS
Tuesday, September 28, 1993

Page

Hatfield, Hon. Mark 0., a U.S. Senator from the State of Oregon 1

Simon, Hon. Paul, a U.S. Senator from the State of Illinois 7

Wofford, Hon. Harris, a U.S. Senator from the State of Pennsylvania 9

Riley, Richard, Secretary of Education, U.S, Department of Education

Thurmond, Hon. Strom, a U.S. Senator from the State of South Carolina 14

Durenberger, Hon. Dave, a U.S. Senator from the State of Minnesota 14

Pell, Hon. Claiborne, a U.S. Senator from the State of Rhode Island 17

Reich, Robert, Secretary of Labor, U.S. Department of Labor 18

Dow, Jr., John, president, National Academy Foundation, New York, NY;
Ellen R. Williams, senior vice president, American Express Co., New York,
NY; Michelle Yhap, senior, Richmond Hill High School, New York, NY;
and Richard Graziano, director, Academy of Travel and Tourism, and teach-
er, New York City Public Schools, New York, NY 23

Adler, Laurel, superintendent, East San Grabiel Valley Regional Occupational
Program, West Covins, CA; Robert T. Jones, corporate consultant, Washing-
ton, DC; and Linda G. Morra, Director, Education and Employment Issue
Area, Human Resource Division, U.S. General Accounting Office; accom-
panied by Noemi Friedlander and Sigurd R. Nilsen 34

STATEMENTS

Thursday, October 14, 1993

Simon, Hon. Paul, a U.S. Senator from the State of Illinois 43

Durenberger, Hon. Dave, a U.S. Senator from the State of Minnesota 44

Todd, Bruce, Mayor, Austin, TX, and Edward Pauly, senior research associ-
ate, Manpower Demonstration Research Corp., New York, NY 47

Kolberg, Bill, cochair, Business Coalition on Workforce Development, Wash-
ington, DC; Rudy Oswald, director, Department of Economic Research,
American Federation of Labor, Washington, DC; Paul Cole, member, Task
Force on School-To-Work Transition, American Federation of Teachers, Al-
bany, NY; and Thomas Musser, Tri-M Corp., Kennett Square, PA 58

Mikulski, Hon. Barbara A., a U.S. Senator from the State of Maryland 69

Davidson, Kirsten, Trans Cen, Inc., Rockville, MD, accompanied by Carolyn
Post; David Johnson, National Transition Network, University of Min-
nesota, Minneapolis, MN; Paul Weckstein, co-director, Center for Law and
Education, Washington, DC; Donna Milgram, director, Nontraditional Em-
ployment Training Project, Wider Opportunities for Women, Washington,
DC; and Richard Apling, specialist in social legislation, Congressional Re-
search Service, Washington, DC 70

APPENDIX

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Statements:

Richard W. Riley and Robert B. Reich — Responses to questions of Sen-
ators Simon and Durenberger

John Dow, Jr - 93

Ellen Randolph Williams 95

(III)



IV

Page

Statements — Continued

Laurel Adler 96

Robert T. Jones 98

Linda G. Morra 99

Bruce Todd 104

Edward Pauly 105

William H. Kolberg Ill

Rudy Oswald 115

Paul Cole 121

W. Thomas Musser 123

Carolyn Post and Kirsten Davidson 124

David. R. Johnson 124

Donna Milgram 128

Paul Weckstein 135

Richard Apling 139

Lawrence Perlman 142

National Education Association 144

John E. Jacob 146

Gordon Raley 147

John Austin 149

International Brotherhood of Teamsters 154

Girls Incorporated 156

Erik Beyer 159

Nancye M. Combs 160

Stephen Denby 164

James F. Clayborne, Jr 166

GASC Technology Center 174

Letters:

To Jon Schroeder, office of Senator Durenberger, from Tom Triplett,
executive director, Minnesota Business Partnership, dated Aug. 30,

1993 176

To Senator Durenberger, from Minnesota Business Partnership, dated

Sept. 28, 1993 178



THE SCHOOL-TO-WORK OPPORTUNITIES ACT

OF 1993



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 28, 1993

U.S. Senate,
Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity,

Committee on Labor and Human Resources,

Washington, DC.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 2:06 p.m., in room
SD-430, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Senator Paul Simon
(chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Senators Simon, Pell, Wofford, and Thurmond.

Senator Simon. The hearing will come to order.

My apologies first of all to the Secretaries and my colleague Sen-
ator Hatfield. I will postpone making my own opening statement
here, because we are going to be facing a couple of votes in about
a half hour on the floor of the Senate. And if the two Secretaries
do not object too strenuously, I am going to call on my colleague
Senator Hatfield first for an opening statement.

We are pleased to have him as a cosponsor of this legislation and
pleased to have you here as a witness.

STATEMENT OF THE HON. MARK O. HATFIELD, A U.S.
SENATOR FROM THE STATE OF OREGON

Senator Hatfield. Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Senator
Durenberger.

First, I consider it a distinct honor to be in company with the
Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Labor. And I want to
say that Secretary Riley and Secretary Reich certainly are giving
tremendous leadership in an area that is badly needed in this
country. .

Mr. Chairman. I would like to have my full statement placed in
the record, and then I will highlight it.

Senator Simon. We will enter it in the record.

Senator Hatfield. Mr. Chairman, as you know, the United
States is the only industrialized country in the world that lacks a
comprehensive system to help our young people learn the knowl-
edge, skills, abilities and information to move into the labor market
and to be an effective person in that labor market for a career in
that labor market.

Now, lest one identify this as purely an educational problem, it
is not. This is now a global matter. It is not just a local, State or
national issue alone. It is a global issue, because being the only Na-
tion that does not have this kind of system or network, we are not
maintaining a competitive role in the world marketsplace.

(1)



I would like to also focus on the fact that most of our educational
programs in the secondary level are geared to the so-called college
prep. When I launched the community college system in my State
many years ago, I took notice of the educational snobbery that had
grown up to infect our curriculum at the secondary level, so that
those who were not preparing to go to college would end up in "the
shop" in the back of the high school I attended. Ours was as brick
building and the shop was as grav cement building looking some-
what like a prison. Tnat was the kind of delineation we made and
we have not changed that much over the years.

Yet, when you consider that only 15 percent of those who enter
college today in America complete the baccalaureate program and
take even, say, 6 years — rather than in just a 4-year period, the so-
called normal period of matriculation — -but for a 6-year period fol-
lowing high school, and then you look at the other end of that scale
and you find that people today in America, adults in their late 20's,
the statistic that I have seen most recently is that 50 percent of
the adults in their late 20's have not yet found steady jobs. So I
think we ought to not only look at this problem from the human
point of view, but also the domestic economic, and global.

I want to also indicate that in my full statement I have outlined
the so-called Oregon program that has taken some very bold steps
to try to correct this problem, and we have, a rich history in at-
tempting to address the problem faced by the noncollege-bound stu-
dent and their educational opportunities.

Let met also indicate that the legislation that we have before us
does focus on the noncollege-bound student, and it also takes some
very major steps in taking the whole political system and reviewing
the regulatory parts of the Federal system as it relates to States
and local governments.

If the Senator recalls, I have sponsored the so-called Edflex bill,
which will give more flexibility in the educational institutions. I am
glad to see that this same feature is a part of this bill that I am
honored to cosponsor of this bill under the requests of the Sec-
retary of Labor and the Secretary of Education.

I think we also understand that this bill increases our focus the
on interdependence between the educational programs and the
labor market or the interdependence of those two, from school to
job transition, and that to me is the guts of the whole matter.

Recently, I had the GAO launch a study that I hope will be com-
pleted shortly on the overlapping and duplication among the 151 —
Mr. Chairman, 151 — education and training programs currently
run by 14 different agencies of the Federal Government.

With our timber workers in great distress in my part of the coun-
try, we are especially aware of these programs and the multiplicity,
the overlapping, and this bill I think does much to at least bring
a sharper focus to the Federal role.

I would like to also make a comparison on the practicality of the
current labor force in the market. Mr. Chairman, this is not a bill
that is total. This bill is a major step, a giant step, but there are
parts of this bill that I hope maybe we can modify or at least add
to, which will address the current labor force.

Let me delineate between the bill's focus of the prospective labor
force and what we face today in the current labor force. To best il-



lustrate that point, today the Japanese worker in the automobile
assembly business, he gets 315.5 hours of training as a newly hired
automobile worker. That compares to 45.7 hours in the United
States. So we are even at this very moment falling behind in the
competitiveness for efficiency and high skills.

Last year, Senator Kennedy and I introduced a bill which was
the result of the study made by former Secretary of Labor Marshall
under President Carter and former Secretary of Labor Brock under
President Reagan. The bill that we introduced was the High-Skills
Competitive Workforce Act of 1991.

One point that I want to make in raising that bill at this time
is that it is not low wages that will determine the profits for Amer-
ican industry to become more competitive in the world market, not
lower wages, but higher skills. Because we are still following the
Taylor model of our business industrial life in this country, we
must divest ourselves of that approach of the small elite of man-
agers and a whole workforce out there on the front lines saying,
in effect, the only way we increase productivity is to do that routine
faster, faster, and faster.

Well, that is not the answer. The rest of the world has found it.
We have not found it yet. And I would refer that bill to you to be
considered on the matter of bringing higher skills of the current
workforce in order to be more competitive.

One last point is that we find today some alarming statistics of
what is happening to our labor force, the current labor force, and
that is from the National Center on Education and the Economy.
Since 1969, they have studied and found that earnings have fallen
12 percent, the wage earnings. Furthermore, the income of our top
30 percent of earners have increased, while the other 70 percent
have spiraled downward and a lot of those have plummeted down-
ward, and that division between our economic society, in my view,
is another serious issue we must address.

I want to again say thank you for permitting me to testify here
today. I want to indicate to you that on our appropriations bill that
we now have on the floor, Labor-HHS — education bill — we have in-
cluded, Mr. Chairman, $100 million in anticipation of this commit-
tee's action on this bill in order to launch this initiative under the
leadership of Secretary Reich and Secretary Riley.

Thank you very much for the privilege to testify.

[The prepared statement of Senator Hatfield follows:]

Prepared Statement of Senator Hatfield

Mr. Chairman: I thank you and the members of this subcommit-
tee for the opportunity to appear before you to discuss S. 1361, the
School-to- Work Opportunities Act of 1993.

For years, I have been deeply concerned that America is address-
ing the requirements of its workforce in the wrong way. Today, the
vast majority of this nation's companies divide complex jobs into a
myriad of simple repetitive tasks performed by mostly ill-prepared
or under-educated front-line workers. Under this "Tayloristic" sys-
tem, workers are directed by a small, well educated, highly com-
pensated, group of managers and supervisors who make virtually
all the decisions and solve all the problems for the entire company.



Regrettably, we have become so over dependent on this small
cadre of decision makers and managers that our ability to increase
our quality and variety of products, processes and services is di-
minishing. Therefore, our capacity to adapt to new consumer needs
in this global economy and sustain a high standard of living has
suffered. If we continue to ignore our front-line workers' abilities,
I believe that our folly ultimately will relegate us to second class
status in the global marketplace.

According to the Commission on the Skills of the American
Workforce: "the world is prepared to pay high prices and high
wages for quality, variety and responsiveness to changing
consumer tastes." If we are to continue as the world's economic
leader, we must develop the best educated and best trained
workforce in the world in order to command those high prices and
afford those high wages.

American employers must recognize that they need — and must
insist on having— workers who are versatile. U.S. workers must be
able to adapt to changing conditions not only by learning new skills
but also by changing their roles in the workplace. They must be ca-

Eable of solving problems, and they must be encouraged to do so
y working in teams and by helping for ward- thinking management
meet its responsibilities. The legislation before us today does not
address the skill development of our current workforce. It will,
however, help our competitiveness in the future by assisting states
to prepare our youth for the critical transition from school-to- work.
As the global marketplace has evolved, why have our competi-
tors' standards of living improved when ours has stagnated — or
even declined — over the last few decades? This troubles me. Accord-
ing to the National Center on Education and the Economy, since
1969, real average weekly earnings in the United States have fall-
en by more than 12 percent. Even more disconcerting is that the
incomes of our top 30 percent earners increased while those of the
other 70 percent have spiraled downward. And as we all know, the
income of non -competitive, displaced workers does not just decline,
it plummets — with shock waves rippling through our communities,
states and nation.

I believe that our lagging standard of living can be explained in-
part because our competitors have created multi-track systems
which address the educational needs not just of college bound stu-
dents. For the non-college-bound students, many of our toughest
competitors have created career-oriented educational programs that
prepare students to enter the workforce. These programs expose
young people to the workplace and teach them occupational skills
along with related educational training. Furthermore, our competi-
tors have often set up standards that enable these workers to
choose career tracks that allow the ambitious and talented to con-
tinuously increase their skill levels, and thus, advance further up
the corporate and economic ladder. They have recognized that edu-
cation and skills development are the keys to high wages and full
employment.

Clearly, this is a revolutionary departure from the way we think
of education in America. As it stands, our most academically gifted
students are directed into the college-prep track. The rest — at least
those who are not ignored — are sorted into either a vocational or



general track that does little service to students and employers
alike.

American high schools direct most of their attention toward pre-
paring student for college. However, of those who enter college,
only about 15 percent go on to graduate and then obtain a four
year college degree within six years of high school graduation. Yet
we continue to allow our educational system to essentially ignore
the educational needs of the remaining 85 percent. We abandon
them to muddle between different educational and employment op-
portunities. Furthermore, about 30 percent of youth aged 16 to 24
lack the necessary skills for entry-level employment. This problem
becomes shockingly vivid when one sees that 50 percent of adults
in their late twenties have not found a steady job.

Mr. Chairman, I say to you with all the seriousness I can mus-
ter: Rigidity will not produce prosperity, or even stability, in re-
ality. We must change the way we think. We must virtually revolu-
tionize the way we address the current educational system for
those who will never enter the best higher educational system in
the world. We must help students understand why they are learn-
ing the particular subject matter so that they think more about ap-
plied academics and connect education to the world of work. We
must help them to make a successful transition from school-to-
work.

Allow me to take a moment to explain why and how my state has
become a leader in the area of addressing the needs of its
noncollege bound student population. In 1988, Governor Neil
Goldschmidt asked leaders from all sectors of business, labor, edu-
cation and government to help plan a strategy for Oregon's devel-
opment over the next two decades. The 180 task-force members
had a single charge: examine and recommend how Oregon should
shape its economic future with the guiding principle being that we
wanted well-paying, productive jobs, providing an economic base
that would enrich all aspects of Oregon life. The report became
known as "Oregon Shines."

Shortly after this report was published, the State legislature cre-
ated the Oregon Progress Board. It was directed to translate the
strategies in Oregon Shines into tangible and measurable goals of
achievement — a road map of progress if you will. In 1991 the Or-
egon benchmarks were presented to the state legislature, which
unanimously adopted a strategic vision. It is envisioned that by the
year 2010, Oregon would distinguish itself as one of the few places
that has maintained its natural environment, built communities on
a human scale, and developed an economy that would provide well-
paying jobs to its citizens.

One major focus of the benchmarks is a recognition that our fu-
ture as individuals and a state depends on an increasingly able,
skilled, and productive citizenry that can respond to new tech-
nologies and the increasingly competitive global marketplace. To do
this, the benchmarks set MEASURABLE goals to raise Oregonians'
fundamental skills including our ability to read and understand,
solve problems, function in the work place and to take advantage
of occupation-specific training.

The governor and the state legislature did not stop at this point.
They were determined to carry out this vision. Following the rec-



ommendations contained in America's choice: High Skills or Low
Wages, whose authors included former Secretaries of Labor Wil-
liam Brock and Ray Marshall, several legislative packages were en-
acted in an effort to develop a work force equal to any in the nation
by the year 2000 and equal to any in the world by the year 2010.
One component of this strategy was the establishment of the
Workforce Quality Council. Its duty is to set and monitor work
force development strategies for the state. Another key component
of this endeavor was to help youth make the transition from school-
to-work.

One of the most significant parts of this whole effort was the pas-
sage of the "Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century." This leg-
islative package completely restructured my states' educational sys-
tem. Specifically, it established certificates of initial mastery and
advanced mastery as new high-performance standards for all stu-
dents and has created new partnerships among business, labor,
and the educational community to develop academic and profes-
sional technical standards. Furthermore, the governor and the leg-
islature, even with limited available funding, have been generous
in their attempts to fund model education and workforce programs.

Understandably, Oregon has received national recognition for our
efforts. With the passage of the Educational Act for the 21st
Centuryl we are transforming Oregon's public schools, focusing on
the critical school-to-work transition. Oregon's new Education Act
makes a striking break with traditional American education by re-
quiring every student to demonstrate mastery of educational
knowledge and skills comparable with world class standards.

Once basic mastery is demonstrated, and no one advances until
fundamental skills are absorbed — students will select a broad ca-
reer area to provide the context for further study. This prepares
them for post-secondary education or further skills training for a
family wage iob. I stress the last three words: Family-wage jobs.
Work based learning opportunities will be provided to interested
students so that necessary skills and competencies can be learned
in the work environment as well as in the classroom. This is vital,
it drives home to students the inter-relationship between education
and work.

Oregon's school reform strategy recognizes the interdependence
between places of learning ana places of work. Education and
workforce reform movements also recognize that to improve the
performance of students and the productivity of workers requires
new partnerships among business, labor, education and govern-
ment.

Oregon is well positioned because we have approached our walk



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on LaboSchool-To-Work Opportunities Act of 1993 : hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on S. 1361 ... September 28 and October 14, 1993 → online text (page 1 of 28)