United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Rule.

Campaign finance reform proposals of 1996 : hearings before the Committee on Rules and Administration, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, on proposals pertaining to the financing of Senate election campaigns, S. 46, S. 1219, S. 1389, and S. 1528, February 1, March 13, online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on RuleCampaign finance reform proposals of 1996 : hearings before the Committee on Rules and Administration, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, on proposals pertaining to the financing of Senate election campaigns, S. 46, S. 1219, S. 1389, and S. 1528, February 1, March 13, → online text (page 1 of 78)
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S. Hrg. 104-542

CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM PROPOSALS OF 1996



Canpaigi Finance Reforn Proposals o... ^SfryS

■FORE THE

:OMMITTEE ON

RULES AND ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED FOURTH CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION

ON

PROPOSALS PERTAINING TO THE

FINANCING OF SENATE ELECTION CAMPAIGNS

S. 46, S. 1219, S. 1389 AND S. 1528




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'So



■i ■



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FEBRUARY 1, MARCH 13, N^ARCH 27,
APRIL 17, MAY 8, AND MAY l5,vl996::



Printed for the use of the Committee on Rules and Administration



S. Hrg. 104-542

CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM PROPOSALS OF 1996



HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON

RULES AND ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED FOURTH CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION

ON

PROPOSALS PERTAINING TO THE

FINANCING OF SENATE ELECTION CAMPAIGNS

S. 46, S. 1219, S. 1389 AND S. 1528




FEBRUARY 1, MARCH 13, MARCH 27,
APRIL 17, MAY 8, AND MAY 15, 1996



Printed for the use of the Committee on Rules and Administration



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
W/\SHINC;T0N: 1996



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-053764-9



COMMITTEE ON RULES AND ADMINISTRATION
JOHN WARNER, Virginia, Chairman



MARK O. HATFIELD, Oregon
JESSE HELMS, North Carolina
TED STEVENS, Alaska
MITCH McCONNELL, Kentucky
THAD COCHRAN, Mississippi
RICK SANTORUM, Pennsylvania
DON NICKLES, Oklahoma
TRENT LOTT, Mississippi



WENDELL H. FORD, Kentucky
CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island
ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia
DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii
DANIEL PATRICK MOYNIHAN, New York
CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut
DIANNE FEINSTEIN, California



Grayson Winterling, Stajf Director

Bruce E. Kasoi.d, Chief Counsel

Kennie L. Gii.L, Democratic Stajf Director and Chief Counsel

John L. Sousa, Democratic General Counsel

Lana R. Slack, Professional Stajf Member



(II)



CONTENTS

February 1, 1996

Opening statement of:

Hon. Mitch McConnell, a U.S. Senator from the State of Ken-
tucky 1

Hon. Wendell H. Ford, ranking member, a U.S. Senator from

the State of Kentucky 4

Hon. John Warner, chairman, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Virginia 28

Testimony of:

A panel consisting of:

Hon. Dianne Feinstein, a U.S. Senator from the State of

California 6

Hon. John McCain, a U.S. Senator from the State of Ari-
zona , 12

Hon. Russell D. Feingold, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Wisconsin 14

Hon. Fred Thompson, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Tennessee 17

Hon. Paul Wellstone, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Minnesota 20

Hon. Bill Bradley, a U.S. Senator from the State of New

Jersey 28

A panel consisting of:

Robert M. O'Neil, Director, Thomas Jefferson Center for

the Protection of Free Expression, Charlottesville, VA 37
Archibald Cox, Carl M. Loeb Emeritus Professor, Har-
vard Law School, Cambridge, MA 41

Joel M. Gora, Professor of Law, Associate Dean of Aca-
demic Affairs, Brooklyn Law School, Brooklyn, NY, on

behalf of the American Civil Liberties Union 45

A panel consisting of:

Bradley A. Smith, Assistant Law Professor Capital Uni-
versity Law School, Columbus, OH, on behalf of the

CATO Institute , 65

David M. Mason, Vice President of Government Rela-
tions, Heritage Foundation, Washington, DC 71

Ann McBride, President, Common Cause, Washington,

DC 77

Joan B. Claybrook, President, Public Citizen, Washing-
ton, DC 91

Prepared statement of:

Hon. Christopher J. Dodd, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Connecticut 4

(III)



IV

Prepared statements — Continued

Hon. Claiborne Pell, a U.S. Senator from the State of Rhode
Island 5

Hon. Fred Thompson, a U.S. Senator from the State of Tennes-
see 19

Hon. Paul Wellstone, a U.S. Senator from the State of Minne-
sota 22

Robert M. O'Neil, Director, Thomas Jefferson Center for the

Protection of Free Expression, Charlottesville, VA 40

Archibald Cox, Carl M. Loeb Emeritus Professor, Harvard
Law School, Cambridge, MA 43

Joel M. Cora, Professor of Law, Associate Dean of Academic
Affairs, Brooklyn Law School, Brooklyn, NY, on behalf of
the American Civil Liberties Union 47

Bradley A. Smith, Assistant Law Professor, Capital Univer-
sity Law School, Columbus, OH, on behalf of the CATO
Institute 67

David M. Mason, Vice President of Government Relations,

Heritage Foundation, Washington, DC 73

Ann McBride, President, Common Cause, Washington, DC . 81

Joan B. Claybrook, President, Public Citizen, Washington, DC 95

Materials submitted for the record:

Additional materials submitted by Joan Claybrook, Presi-
dent, Public Citizen, Washington, DC 451

Additional materials submitted by Archibald Cox, Harvard

Law School, Cambridge, MA 469

Article by David Broder, "Frontline's Exercise in Exaggera-
tion", The Washington Post, Jan. 31, 1996 480

March 13, 1996

Opening statement of:

Hon. Mitch McConnell, a U.S. Senator from the State of Ken-
tucky 115

Hon. Wendell H. Ford, ranking member, a U.S. Senator from

the State of Kentucky 118

Hon. Christopher J. Dodd, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Connecticut 136

Hon. John Warner, chairman, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Virginia 216

Testimony of:

A panel consisting of:

Hon. Linda Smith, a Representative in Congress from the

State of Washington 120

Hon. Martin T. Meehan, a Representative in Congress

from the State of Massachusetts 124

Hon. Christopher Shays, a Representative in Congress

from the State of Connecticut 127

A panel consisting of:

Charles R. Serio, Linthicum Heights, MD 150

David N. O'Steen, Ph.D., Executive Director, National

Right to Life Committee, Washington, DC 156

Becky Cain, President, League of Women Voters of the

U.S., Washington, DC 167



Testimony of — Continued
A panel consisting of:

Col. Billie M. Bobbitt, USAF-Ret., Sidney, OH 185

John Dye, President, Virginia Rural Letter Carriers' As-
sociation, Lebanon, VA 191

Linda DeVries, RN, CRNFA, American Nurses Associa-
tion, Louisville, KY 194

James Bopp, Jr., Free Speech Coalition, Inc., Terre Haute,

IN 199

Prepared statement of:

Hon. Linda Smith, a Representative in Congress from the

State of Washington 122

Hon. Martin T. Meehan, a Representative in Congress from

the State of Massachusetts 126

Hon. Christopher J. Dodd, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Connecticut 139

Charles R. Serio, Linthicum Heights, MD 151

David N. O'Steen, Ph.D., Executive Director, National Right

to Life Committee, Washington, DC 163

Becky Cain, President, League of Women Voters of the U.S.,

Washington, DC 170

Col. Billie M. Bobbitt, USAF-Ret., Sidney, OH 189

John Dye, President, Virginia Rural Letter Carriers' Associa-
tion, Lebanon, VA 193

Linda DeVries, RN, CRNFA, American Nurses Association,

Louisville, KY 196

James Bopp, Jr., Free Speech Coalition, Inc., Terre Haute, IN 201
Materials submitted for the record:

Supplemental testimony of James Bopp, Jr., Free Speech Co-
alition, Inc., Terre Haute, IN 481

Letters to Chairman Warner from:

Becky Cain, President, The League of Women Voters of

the United States, Washington, DC 495

Donna F. Edwards, Executive Director, Center for a New

Democracy, Washington, DC 497

Charles R. Serio, Linthicum, MD 499

March 27, 1996

Opening statement of:

Hon. John Warner, chairman, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Virginia 218

Hon. Mitch McConnell, a U.S. Senator from the State of Ken-
tucky 219

Testimony of:

A panel consisting of:

Jeffrey Zelkowitz, Senior Attorney, U.S. Postal Service,

Washington, DC 220

Richard A. Barton, Senior Vice President for Congres-
sional Relations, Direct Marketing Association, Wash-
ington, DC 225

A panel consisting of:

Thomas E. Mann, Director, Government Studies, Brook-
ings Institute, Washington, DC 237



VI

Testimony of — Continued

Michael J. Malbin, Director, Center for Legislative Stud-
ies, Rockefeller Institute, State University of New York,

Albany, NY 245

Prepared statement of:

Jeffrey Zelkowitz, Senior Attorney, U.S. Postal Service, Wash-
ington, DC 223

Richard A. Barton, Senior Vice President for Congressional

Relations, Direct Marketing Association, Washington, DC 226

Thomas E. Mann, Director, Government Studies, Brookings

Institute, Washington, DC 242

Michael J. Malbin, Director, Center for Legislative Studies,
Rockefeller Institute, State University of New York, Al-
bany, NY 249

Materials submitted for the record:

Materials submitted by the U.S. Postal Service:

Requirements and eligibility for third-class and non-
profit bulk mail rates 510

Estimated costs of proposals for reduced-rate mailings by

candidates 514

Article by Michael J. Malbin, "Campaign Finance Reform:
Some Lessons from the Data", Rockefeller Institute Bulle-
tin, 1993 520

April 17, 1996

Opening statement of:

Hon. John Warner, chairman, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Virginia 258

Hon. Wendell H. Ford, ranking member, a U.S. Senator from

the State of Kentucky 259

Hon. Mitch McConnell, a U.S. Senator from the State of Ken-
tucky 259

Testimony of:

A panel consisting of:

Haley Barbour, Chairman, Republican National Commit-
tee, Washington, DC 262

Donald L. Fowler, National Chairman, Democratic Na-
tional Committee, Washington, DC 272

A panel consisting of:

James J. Brady, President, Association of State Demo-
cratic Chairs, Washington, DC 291

Robert T. Bennett, State Chairman, Republican State Cen-
tral and Executive Committee of Ohio, Columbus, OH 294
Prepared statement of:

Haley Barbour, Chairman, Republican National Committee,

Washington, DC 267

Donald L. Fowler, National Chairman, Democratic National

Committee, Washington, DC 276

Hon. Christopher J. Dodd, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Connecticut 281

James J. Brady, President, Association of State Democratic

Chairs, Washington, DC 292



VII

Prepared statements — Continued

Robert T. Bennett, State Chairman, Republican State Central
and Executive Committee of Ohio, Columbus, OH 295

Materials submitted for the record:

Biography of Mr. Barbour 527

Biography of Mr. Fowler 528

May 8, 1996

Opening statement of:

Hon. John Warner, chairman, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Virginia 302

Hon. Wendell H. Ford, ranking member, a U.S. Senator from

the State of Kentucky 303

Testimony of:

A panel consisting of:

Larry J. Sabato, Professor, Department of Government
and Foreign Affairs, University of Virginia, Charlottes-
ville, VA 306

Herbert E. Alexander, Director, Citizens' Research Foun-
dation, Professor of Political Science, University of

Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 317

Norman J. Ornstein, Resident Scholar, American Enter-
prise Institute for Public Policy Research, Washington,

DC 327

A panel consisting of:

Frederick Schauer, Frank Stanton Professor of the First
Amendment, John F. Kennedy School of Government,

Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 350

Candice J. Nelson, Assistant Professor of Government,
Director, Campaign Management Institute, The Amer-
ican University, Washington, DC 358

Lillian R. BeVier, Doherty Charitable Foundation Profes-
sor of Law, Elizabeth D. and Richard M. Merrill Re-
search Professor, University of Virginia Law School,

Charlottesville, VA 363

Prepared statement of:

Larry J. Sabato, Professor, Department of Government and

Foreign Affairs, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 312
Herbert E. Alexander, Director, Citizens' Research Founda-
tion, Professor of Political Science, University of Southern

California, Los Angeles, CA 321

Norman J. Ornstein, Resident Scholar, American Enterprise

Institute for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC 332

Frederick Schauer, Frank Stanton Professor of the First
Amendment, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Har-
vard University, Cambridge, MA 354

Candice J. Nelson, Assistant Professor of Government, Direc-
tor, Campaign Management Institute, The American Uni-
versity, Washington, DC 361

Lillian R. BeVier, Doherty Charitable Foundation Professor
of Law, Elizabeth D. and Richard M. Merrill Research Pro-
fessor, University of Virginia Law School, Charlottesville,
VA 368



VIII

May 15, 1996

Opening statement of:

Hon. John Warner, chairman, a U.S. Senator from the State of

Virginia 375

Hon. Wendell H. Ford, ranking member, a U.S. Senator from

the State of Kentucky 377

Testimony of:

A panel consisting of:

Gregory M. Schmidt, Vice President, LIN Television Cor-
poration, Washington, DC 379

Jan Ziska Crawford, Jan Crawford Communications,

Paris, VA 387

Al Bramstedt, Jr., General Manager, KTUU-TV, Anchor-
age, AK 392

A panel consisting of:

Paul Taylor, Director, Free TV for Straight Talk Coalition,

Bethesda, MD 407

Benjamin R. Barber, Walt Whitman Professor of Political

Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 412

Henry Geller, Esquire, Washington, DC 417

P. Cameron DeVore, Davis White Tremaine Law Offices,

Seattle, WA 426

Prepared statement of:

Gregory M. Schmidt, LIN Television Corporation, Wash-
ington, DC; and Al Bramstedt, Jr., KTUU-TV, Anchor-
age, AK 381

Jan Ziska Crawford, Jan Crawford Communications,

Paris, VA 390

Paul Taylor, Free TV for Straight Talk Coalition,

Bethesda, MD 410

Benjamin R. Barber, Rutgers University, New Brunswick,

NJ 416

Henry Geller, Esquire, Washington, DC 420

P. Cameron DeVore, Davis White Tremaine Law Offices,

Seattle, WA 430

Materials submitted for the record:

Additional information submitted by James C. May, National
Association of Broadcasters, Washington, DC 529

Materials Submitted for the Record

Appendix 1. Materials submitted for the record of February 1:
Additional materials submitted by Joan Claybrook, Presi-
dent, Public Citizen, Washington, DC 451

Additional materials submitted by Archibald Cox, Harvard

Law School, Cambridge, MA 469

Article by David Broder, "Frontline's Exercise in Exaggera-
tion", The Washington Post, Jan. 31, 1996 480

Appendix 2. Materials submitted for the record of March 13:
Supplemental testimony of James Bopp, Jr., Free Speech Co-
alition, Inc., Terre Haute, IN 481



IX

Appendix 2. — Continued

Letters to Chairman Warner from:

Becky Cain, President, The League of Women Voters of

the United States, Washington, DC 495

Donna F. Edwards, Executive Director, Center for a New

Democracy, Washington, DC 497

Charles R. Serio, Linthicum, MD 499

Appendix 3. Materials submitted for the record of March 27:
Materials submitted by the U.S. Postal Service:

Requirements and eligibility for third-class and non-
profit bulk mail rates 510

Estimated costs of proposals for reduced-rate mailings by

candidates 514

Article by Michael J. Malbin, "Campaign Finance Reform:
Some Lessons from the Data", Rockefeller Institute Bulle-
tin, 1993 520

Appendix 4. Materials submitted for the record of April 17:

Biography of Mr. Barbour 527

Biography of Mr. Fowler 528

Appendix 5. Materials submitted for the record of May 15:

Additional information submitted by James C. May, National

Association of Broadcasters, Washington, DC 529

Appendix 6. Texts of campaign finance bills:

S. 46 — To amend the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971
to provide for a voluntary system of spending limits and
partial public financing of Senate primary and general elec-
tion campaigns, to limit contributions by multicandidate

political committees, and for other purposes 533

S. 1219 — To reform the financing of Federal elections, and for

other purposes 632

S. 1389 — To reform the financing of Federal elections, and for

other purposes 684

S. 1528 — To reform the financing of Senate campaigns, and

for other purposes 713



CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM



THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1996

U.S. Senate,
Committee on Rules and Administration,

Washington, DC.

The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:34 a.m., in Room
SR-301, Russell Senate Office Building, Hon. John Warner,
chairman, presiding.

Present: Senators Warner, McConnell, Cochran, Inouye, and
Feinstein.

Staff Present: Grayson Winterling, Staff Director; Edward H.
Edens IV, Professional Staff Member; Bruce E. Kasold, Chief
Counsel; Virginia C. Sandahl, Chief Clerk; Mary Louise Faunce,
Assistant Chief Clerk; Kennie L. Gill, Democratic Staff Director
and Chief Counsel; and John L. Sousa, Democratic General
Counsel.

Senator McConnell. [Presiding.] This hearing will come to
order. Our chairman. Senator Warner, is in traffic between the
National Prayer Breakfast and the Russell Building and asked
that I go ahead and begin the hearing for him. We will start with
opening statements. I understand that Senator Feinstein and
Senator Inouye may have to leave at 10 o'clock, and hopefully
they will be able to come back.

I want to thank Senator Warner for agreeing to have these
hearings. It seems to me sort of an endless issue. I feel like I have
been dealing with this all of my life, going back to part-time
teaching days in the mid-seventies, and it is a subject, of course,
of enormous interest to many of us.

While the issue before us today was not in the Contract With
America and has not been an agenda item of my party, it does
continue to attract inside-the-Beltway and editorial board
interest, in my view, all out of proportion to the pressing
concerns of the rest of the country. And besides, no election year
would be complete without this debate. It seems like we have it
every election year.

Senator Warner will point out that this is the first in a series
of hearings we will be having on this subject, giving everybody
an opportunity to be heard. It will provide a forum for
organizations whose ability to participate in the political process

(1)



would be severely impacted by some campaign finance
proposals before Congress. The hearings will illuminate the
tremendous ramifications that proposed changes in the
campaign finance laws would have on the American people's
freedom to participate in elections and influence their
government.

"The era of big government is over," so said the President last
week, to thunderous applause from both sides of the aisle. Big
government, he said, is over. You would not know it from
looking at the particular proposal before us today.

S. 1219, like all the spending limit proposals which preceded
it, is the ultimate big government boondoggle. It is nothing less
than a government takeover of the electoral process. It would
have the government micromanaging every nuance of campaign
politics. Its complicated spending limit formula would
effectively quantify speech, putting the Federal Government in
the business of doling out First Amendment rights as it sees fit.
Government bureaucrats would be charged with crawling all
over every congressional campaign to administer and enforce the
new "reforms." Some have said the FEC would soon be the size
of the Veterans' Administration.

Incidentally, I use the term "reform" loosely because it is a
moniker which the bills before us, in my view, do not deserve.
Reform suggests improvement, and no spending limit bill can
ever be an improvement because the whole approach is
inherently big government, undemocratic, and, in the case of S.
1219, grossly unconstitutional, as we will hear from witnesses
later today.

Claims that this bill is bipartisan, it seems to me, with all due
respect to my friends and colleagues of my party who sit at the
table, are a bit overblown. I think it is important to note that the
Republican National Committee and the Republican Senatorial
Committee are opposed to this bill. The Democratic chairman
and the chairman of the Democratic National Committee are in
favor of this bill. That seems to me at the outset to give one pause
as to whether or not this is a bipartisan bill.

In addition, the American Civil Liberties Union, from whom
we will hear later in the day, the National Right to Life
Committee, the National Rifle Association, the National
Association of Broadcasters, the National Taxpayers Union, and
the Direct Marketing Association will all be testifying against
this bill. Also, while they don't take positions on specific
legislation, the Cato Institute and the Heritage Foundation are
highly critical of this legislation.

Now, obviously, there is no doubt that the bill's proponents
have good intentions. Unfortunately, even the best of intentions
can have the worst of results.

The First Amendment is the premier political reform. The
First Amendment should be the touchstone of all political reform
efforts, not opinion polls, not editorials, not partisan advantage.



not personal interest. The First Amendment should be the
touchstone of campaign finance reform, but it would not be
under this proposal.

Sadly, too often the First Amendment is regarded as merely a
nuisance, frustrating campaign finance reform efforts, an
impediment which must be overcome at all costs, even to the
extent of changing the Constitution itself. We have even had
votes on that on the floor here over the last few years.

S. 1219 is the latest in a series of efforts to do an end run
around the Constitution. It would have the government coerce
citizens, some of whom may be candidates, into forfeiting
freedoms which the Constitution dictates cannot be stripped by
congressional edict.

S. 1219's proponents claim that the bill's limits on spending
and speech are voluntary, as if repetition makes it a fact. The
truth is S. 1219 is voluntary in name only. The limits on spending
and speech are about as voluntary as an armed robber's request
for someone's wallet or a carjacker's request for som^eone's
automobile.

For that reason, were S. 1219 or any permutation of it ever to
become law, the Supreme Court, of course, would be the final
arbiter. And there is no doubt among any recognized
constitutional experts on this subject with whom I am familiar
that S. 1219 would be struck down as unconstitutional.

Some may argue that, precedence notwithstanding. Congress
should push the constitutional envelope because pollsters tell us
campaign spending limits have popular appeal. Let Congress
issue the pro-reform press releases, and let the Court sort out the
collateral constitutional damage. So goes the argument.

Poll results are the most compelling argument advanced in
support of S. 1219. Yet the entire debate is rife with mis-
information, distortion, and hyperbole. Were people aware that
we spend on politics in this country about what we spend on
bubble gum every year, the poll results would be different. And
as any seasoned political observer knows, poll results hinge on
poll questions. Garbage in, garbage out.

Campaign finance polls prefaced with a discussion of
constitutional freedom and citizen participation would yield
results very different from those often cited in support of S. 1219.
Senators take an oath to support and defend the Constitution of
the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic. We
did not swear true faith and allegiance to polls.

My personal quest and the goal of this and subsequent
hearings will be to thoroughly examine and air all the issues in
the campaign finance debate. The facts overwhelmingly argue
against undemocratic, unconstitutional bills like S. 1219 that are
put forth in the name of reform. I expect that the hearing we will
be having will bear that out.

The American people should be fully informed that what is
being advanced is a new entitlement program for politicians.



They should know that in political campaigns spending limits
are speech limits. They should know that the phrase "legalized
bribery" is an oxymoron, useful to incite rather than to
enlighten.

Finally, the American people should know that S. 1219, in my
view, would be to democracy what the Clinton health care bill
would have been to medicine.

With that statement of ambivalence about this bill —

[Laughter.]

Senator McCONNELL. — let me now call on my friend and
colleague. Senator Inouye, for any opening statement he might
want to make.

Senator iNOUYE. Mr. Chairman, first, our regrets and apology.
As you know, much as we consider the subject matter being
discussed as most important to our democracy, we will not be
able to stay any longer because of a caucus that has just been
called. But 1 can assure you that the members will read the
testimony of our colleagues and others with great care.

I ask unanimous consent that an opening statement by our
ranking member. Senator Ford, be made part of the record.

Senator McCoNNELL. Without objection.

[The prepared statement of Senator Ford follows:]

Opening Statement of Hon. Wendell H. Ford, Ranking Member, a
U.S. Senator from the State of Kentucky



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on RuleCampaign finance reform proposals of 1996 : hearings before the Committee on Rules and Administration, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, on proposals pertaining to the financing of Senate election campaigns, S. 46, S. 1219, S. 1389, and S. 1528, February 1, March 13, → online text (page 1 of 78)