narcotic law enforcement efforts.
Possibly you might ask: Are these notorious international traf-
fickers from Italy. Mexico, or Turkey, or from the Golden Triansfle in
Southeast Asia? No. gentlemen, the great majority of these violators
are from California; but, our story does not beerin there. Although
no one knew it at the time, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love began
with Dr. Timothy Francis Leary at Harvard University in 1963.
It was in 1963 that Dr. Leary was fired from his post at Harvard as
a result of his experimentation with LSD. He soon found a friend in
multimillionaire. "William Mellon Hitchcock, and was allowed to con-
tinue his experimentation with LSD from Hitchcock's 4.000-acre
estate in Millbrook, a quiet community in Dut^'hess County, N.Y.
From 1963 to 1966. Dr. Timothy Leary planted the seeds of "mysti-
cism through drufifs" in the minds of countless thousands of vovmsr
Americans. Even Dr. Leary never realized the f ruitfulness of his crop
or the international ramifications of its harvest.
From Millbrook, Dr. Leary traveled to Berkeley. Calif., and from
Berkelev to a small city in southern California called Laguna Beach.
This village-type community was soon to become the psychedelic drug
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
capital of the world.
In October 1966, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love became a lecral
corporation in the State of California. The brotherhood was also
granted a tax-exempt status on the basis that it claimed to be a reli-
The brotherhood was heavily drug oriented. From its inception, in
addition, intelligence indicates that the group was ceremoniouslv prac-
ticing group sexual freedom in connection with the use of drugs.
From 1966 to 1968. the brotherhood flourished by dealing in mari-
huana smuggled in 100-pound lots from Mexico and bv traffickins: in
LSD obtained from illicit sources and from Sandoz Chemical "Works
in Basel, Switzerland.
Mr. SouRwixE, Do you imply that the LSD obtained from the Basel
firm was legally obtained ?
Mr. SixcLAiR. There was a time when lysergic acid diethylamide was
available commercially. The first person to synthesis it worked for
Sandoz and Sandoz actually manufactured it commercially.
Mr. SouRwixE. Thank you.
Mr. Sinclair. But, that was not enoucrh; and in the latter part of
1967, Glenn Lynd and two other brotherhood members traveled to
Afg:hanistan in search of a permanent source of supply for brother-
Mr. SouRwixE. That is Glenn Lynd, L-y-n-d ?
Mr. Sinclair. That is correct, sir.
Thev purchased 125 pounds of high-quality Afghanistan hashish
from their suppliers in Afghanistan for $15 a pound and smuggled
it back into California where thev sold it for $900 a pound. This was
to be the first 125 pounds of nearly 24 tons of hashish smuff^led into
the United States from Afghanistan, Lebanon, and India by the
Brotherhood of Eternal T>(Ove.
In the summer of 1968, brotherhood members traveled to San Fran-
cisco in an attempt to secure a permanent source of supply for LSD —
which they found. The LSD was to be called orange sunshine and
the laboratory was to be set up in December 1968.
Mr. SouRwixE. May I interrupt for a moment, sir?
Mr. Sinclair. Yes. sir.
Mr. SouRwixE. Here again, you used this 24-ton figure as though it
was the end of the Leary operation. Do you know that 24 tons or any
other amount is all thev were ever going to smuggle in ?
Mr. SixcLAiR. Xo, sir.
Mr. SouRwixE. Have you put them out of the business ?
Mr. SixcLAiR. No, sir.
Mr. SouRwixE. So that is only what you know about that they have
done heretofore ?
Mr. SixcLAiR. That is correct.
Mr. SouRwixE. Go ahead.
Mr. Strange. Two weeks affo there were 923 pounds of hash seized
in Xew York and Las Vegas. That was a brotherhood shipment.
Mr. Soi-rwixe. Where in Las Vegas ?
Mr. Straxge. It came in from Amsterdam through Kennedv Air-
port to New York and from there to Las Vegas. It cleared U.S. cus-
toms in Las Vegas and it was seized on the outskirts of town, being
transported from Las Vegas to southern California in a large Ryder
Mr. SouRwixE. Came in through the McCarran Airport in Las
Vesras. All right go ahead.
Mr. Sixclair. In March 1969, the first batch of "orange sunshine"
LSD was made bv brotherhood membere in a laboratory located out-
side of San Francisco. Slightly under 1 million tablets were produced
in this first endeavor. Numerous millions were to be made in the next
At this point in time, the Brotherhood of Eternal Ix>ve was the larg-
est supplier of hashish and LSD in the Ignited States.
Mr. SouRWiXE. Let us get the reference. That phrase "point of time"
has meant a lot of things. You are talking about March 1969.
Mr. Sinclair. That is correct, sir.
Mr. SouRWixE. Go ahead.
Mr. Sinclair. The center of their operations was still La^na Beach,
Calif., although they were fast becoming international travelers and
were purchasing property in Hawaii, Canada, Central America, and
several States neighboring California.
From 1966 to 1971, members of the brotherhood traveled throughout
the world using false identities with passports obtained under assumed
names. Their operations were virtually untouchable during this period
Mr. SouRwiNE. Why was that ?
Mr. Sinclair. Because of their mobility, because no one was really
aware of the extent of their activities.
Mr. SouRWiNE. Do they have any untouchability today ?
Mr. Sinclair. No, sir.
Mr. SoTJRwiNE. Their pretentions to be a religion do not do them any
good any more, do they ?
Mr. Sinclair. No, sir.
Mr. SouRWiNE. Go ahead.
Mr. Sinclair. No arrests were made of major figures in the organiza-
tion, and thousands of pounds of hashish and millions of dosage units
of "orange sunshine" LSD were being distributed through outlets in
southern California. Local authorities were aware of the brotherhood's
existence but could not penetrate the organization's outer wall.
The only significant accomplishment by local authorities during this
period was the arrest of Dr. Timothy Leary on December 26, 1968, in
Laguna Beach, Calif., for possession of marihuana. Dr. Leary was
convicted in February of 1970 and sentenced to State prison for a term
of 1 to 10 years. According to one of his companions, I^ary escaped
from prison in September 1970 with the help of the Weathermen fac-
tion of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) who also pro-
vided him with false papers and arranged for his flight abroad.
According to several sources, the brotherhood paid $50,000^ to the
Weathermen to see their spiritual leader set free.
While in Algiers and Switzerland. Leary, despite the fact that he
was in exile, still exercised a major influence over the brotherhood, and
was visited constantly by the higher echelon of the brotherhood
In November of 1971, the brotherhood suffered its first rnaior set-
back when George Oliphant Avas arrested in Lebanon while in pos-
session of 800 pounds of hashish. It was later determined that Oliphant
and otlier members of the bi'otherhood had smu.ofgled approximately
4,000 iKMinds of I^banese hashish into the United States since 1968.
Mr. SoLTiwiNE. Did they make almost $900 a pound on all of that?
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. Oliphant is still in prison in Lebanon.
On December 15, 1971, brotherhood member Donald Alexander
Hambarian was arrested in Lagima Beach, Calif., while operating a
1 In the pxperpt from his hook, "Confessions of a Pooe Fiend." on p. 35, Timothy l^nry
sav.s : "I Kiuldenlv flashed on the meshlnj: of nnderprounrl energy systems. Dope dealers raise
.?25.000 to finance the hreakont. And the hread goes to the manic ffuerrlllas." The suhcom-
mlttee has no way of estnhllshlnjr whether the amount paid to the Weathermen was actually
!i!.50.000 as stated" to the Drup Enforcement Acency by a member of the brotherhood who was
Involved In the fundralslnpr and Is now cooperating with the DEA, or whether It was .$25,000
as stated by Leary in his hook. What does appear certain Is that a very substantial sum was
paid to the Weathermen to arrange Leary's escape from the prison and from the country.
hashish oil laboratory. This hashish oil was to be the first encountered
in the United States. Hambarian was also in possession of 86,000
dosage units of LSD.
Also in December of 1971, the two Afghan sources came to the
United States accompanied by a brotherhood member, Robert Dale
Ackerly, now serving: sentence. Their trip appeared to be nothing
more than a sightseeing tour until it was learned that two shipments
of hashish totaling over 2,000 pounds were on their way to southern
California. The Afghans were overseeing these shipments.
In January of 1972, brotherhood member Michael Lee Pooiey was
arrested in Laguna Beach, Calif., while in possession of 133,000 dosage
units of "orange sunshine" LSD.
Mr. SouRwixE. What did that sell for ?
Mr. SixcLAiR. Well, it depends again on supply and demand. You
can sell tablets for as little as $1 apiece, or you can sell as many as
4,000 of them for $600. It just depends.
Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead, sir.
Mr. SixcLAiR. Later that same month, the first of the Afghan hashish
shipments was seized in Portland, Oreg. This shipment totaled 1,330
pounds and still stands as the largest quantity of hashish ever seized in
the United States.
In February of 1972, the second shipment of Afghanistan hashish
was seized in Vancouver, British Columbia. This load totaled 729
pounds. According: to outstanding indictments, both the Portland and
the Vancouver shipments belonged to Brothei-hood Chief Robert Lee
Andrist. At this time, intelligence revealed Andrist was in control of
the hashish smuggling arm of the brotherhood, while Michael Boyd
Randall was generally considered to be the head of the "orange sun-
shine" LSD operation. Both Andrist and Randall became fugitives
subsequent to indictment in this matter.
In March of 1972, Gordon Fred Johnson was arrested in Laguna
Beach, Calif., for distributing approximately 50,000 dosage units of
"orange sunshine" LSD. Over $46,000 in cash was found in Johnson's
residence upon execution of a search warrant. Also in March, Eric
Chastain was arrested in southern California for distributing 45,000
dosage units of "orange sunshine" LSD.
Mr. SouRwixE. Chastain is part of this Leary family, too ?
Mr. SixcLAiR. He is part of the brotherhood ; yes, sir.
It became apparent that the mere seizures of hashish and LSD were
doing very little to disrupt the Brotherhood of Eternal Love as a major
drug system. As a result of this observation. Federal, State, and local
narcotic officers formed a strike force, with the brotherhood as their
Mr. SouRwixE. That was done in what year ?
Mr. Six'CLAiR. That was done in early 1972.
This strike force operated under the code name "Operation BEL."
The tool used by Operation BEL agents was the strongest weapon nar-
cotic officers have in their battle against drug traffickers. The con-
On August 3, 1972, the Orange County, Calif., grand jury climaxed
many months of investigation by Operation BEL agents when it re-
turned indictments against 29 members of the brotherhood organiza-
tion. This indictment was aimed primarily at the hashish smuggling
arm of the brotherhood.
On August 5, 1972, at 6 a.m., Operation BEL agents executed
search warrants and arrest warrants in Hawaii, Oregon, and in nu-
merous locations in southern California. Sixteen major brotherhood
figures were arrested, and over $40,000 in cash was seized, along with
a total arrest of 53 individuals.
In November 1972, a DEA special agent of the BEL Task Force
traveled with an IRS agent to Brussels, Belgium, to investigate a lab-
oratory relative to Ronald Hadley Stark. As a result of the investiga-
tion and subsequent followup, Stark was indicted by a Federal grand
jury in April 1973. (Stark is a chemist from New York who in 1964
was worth approximately $1,400 and who in 1968 was reportedly worth
approximately $1,200,000. Stark is a close associate of Nicholas Sand,
and according to some reports, was the first person to ever produce
hashish oil from solid hashish.)
Mr. SouRwiNE. Can you give us lists of the names and whatever you
have in the way of identification of the individuals in these two groups ;
that is, the 29 and the 53 that you just mentioned?
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir, for the record.
Mr. SouRWiNE. Can that be provided for the record later?
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir, it can.
Mr. SouRwiNE. May that be the order, Mr. Chairman ?
The Chairman. So ordered.
[The information referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 79.]
Mr. Sinclair. The investigation continued, and on December 6, 1972,
the Orange County grand jury returned another indictment, this time
aimed primarily at the brotherhood's "orange sunshine" LSD system.
On December 31, 1972, one of the major figures in the LSD system,
Michael Boyd Randall, was arrested in San Francisco. Randall is cur-
rently a fugitive wanted on four separate narcotic and false passport
Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, that statement indicates that something hap-
pened in there to change his status. After he was arrested, how did
he get loose so he is now a fugitive?
Mr. Sinclair. I would like to defer to Mr. Strange in this par-
ticular matter, because he had a great deal of
Mr. SouRwiNE. He will cover it?
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir.
Mr. SouRwiNE. Would you like to talk
Mr. Strange. As you wish. Michael Boyd Randall was indicted
by the Orange County grand jury on December 6, 1972. He was ar-
rested in San Francisco, Calif., on the night of December 31, 1972.
He was brought down to Orange County where his bail was set at
$250,000. It was
Mr. Sourwine. Will you pardon me ? We are going to get into quite
a story here. Let us save it, and let the present witness finish his state-
ment, and then we will come back to you.
Mr. Strange. Yes, sir.
Mr. Sinclair. On January 14, 1973, Dr. Timothy Leary was located
by DEA agents in Kabul, Afghanistan; and on January 18, 1973, he
was returned to Los Angeles, Calif. State and Federal agents arrested
Leary on the BEL charges and for escape from a California prison
farm in 1970. Leary was arraigned on BEL charges in State court on
January 30, 1973, and bail was set at $5 million. Leary Avas convicted
of the escape and, on April 23, 1973, was sentenced to 5 years in State
prison. , , r. i
On January 19, 1973, brotherhood chemist Nicholas Sand was ar-
rested in St. Louis, Mo., and his laboratories seized. These illicit labo-
ratories proved to be the largest of their kind ever seized in the United
States, with a value of approximately $500,000. The tableting press
for the "orange sunshine" LSD was also seized along with 50,000
dosage units of the drug already tableted. Powdered LSD capable of
producing over 14 million tablets of "orange sunshine" was found at
two locations, along with the formulas and raw materials for the pro-
duction of over 100 different psychedelic drugs.
On Easter Sunday, April 22, 1973, BEL Task Force agents arrested
four members of BEL in Santa Cruz, Calif. Three of those arrested
were fugitives from other jurisdictions. Some contraband was seized,
along with seven phony passports. Huge stores of false identification
Avere seized, indicating this was a point of contact of BEL fugitives
desiring false identification and papers.
On April 25, 1973, Nicholas Sand, Timothy Scully, Michael Randall,
and four other major figures in the LSD operation were indicted by a
Federal grand jury in San Francisco, Calif. Four of these higher
echelon members are still fugitives.
Mr. SouRwixE. Now, for the record, would you identify the four
that you did not name, and indicate which of the eight are the four that
are still fugitives ?
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. The individuals referred to are David Lee
Mantel; Charles Druce, currently a fugitive; Lester Friedman; and
Ronald H. Stark, currently a fugitive. In addition to these four in-
dividuals, one of those previously mentioned, Michael Randall, is also
a fugitive. i t j i
That, briefly, is a chronological summary of the Brotherhood of
Eternal Love investigation. Overall statistics of Operation BEL con-
cerning arrests and seizures are nearly unbelievable. To date, the
brotherhood investigation has resulted "in the arrests of over 100 in-
dividuals, including Dr. Timothy Leary who is currently serving 15
years in Folsom prison. Four LSD laboratories have been seized, along
with over 1 million "orange sunshine" LSD tablets, and LSD powder
in excess of 3,500 grams, capable of producing over 14 million dosage
units of the drug. In addition, the source of diversion for the raw ma-
terials needed in the production of LSD was identified in Europe.
A total of six hashish oil laboratories were seized, along with over
30 gallons of hashish oil and approximately 6,000 pounds of solid
Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, those hashish oil laboratories were m this
Mr. Sinclair. Some were.
Mr. SouRwiNE. Some were not.
Mr. Sinclair. That is correct.
Mr. SouRwiNE. Would you differentiate that for the record when
you correct it ?
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir ; I will.
[The information requested follows :]
Of these six laboratories, four were being operated within the United States,
three of which were in California and one in Hawaii. Two others were being
operated within foreign countries ; one in Costa Rica, and one in Afghanistan.
Mr. SouRwiXE. And with regard to the diversion of raw materials,
the source of diversion in Europe, would you identify, that for the
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir ; we will.
[The information requested follows :]
That individual is Charles Druce. a British citizen, indicted on April 25th for
conspiracy in connection with the illicit manufacture of LSD.
Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead, sir.
Mr. SixcLAiR. Grand jury indictments were obtained on Amanullah
and Hayatullah Tokhi, two brothers who are alleged to be the sources
of Afghanistan hashish for the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. The
Afghanistan Government has been advised of these indictments.
Mr. SouRWiXE. Now, where were they indicted ?
Mr. Sinclair. In Orange County, Calif.
Mr. SouRwixE. Had they been in Orange County ?
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir, they had.
Mr. SouRwixE. All right.
Mr. SixcLAiR. Other drugs and articles seized were 104 grams of
peyote, 8 pounds of amphetamine powder, 13.64 pounds of cocaine.
2 marihuana canning operations, "Orange Sunshine" pill press, 7
vehicles, 546 acres of property in southern California, and over $1.8
million cash either seized or located in foreign banks. The Internal
Kevenue Service and the California Franchise Tax Board have as-
sessed the Brotherhood of Eternal Love corporation for over $70
million in back taxes.
Mr. SouRWixE. Which would indicate that the brotherhood accord-
ing to the IRS, must have made something over $200 million in its
Mr. SixcLAiR. That is right, yes, sir.
Mr. SouRwiXE. Go ahead.
Mr. SixcLAiR. On September 23. 1973, the State Department pub-
licly announced that a tougher screening process would be used in the
issuing of passports due to the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. State
Department officials working with Operation BEL agents uncovered
120 cases of passport fraud within the period of 1 year.
With these astonishing statistics, one might get the impression that
the brotherhood organization is a thing of the past. Nothing could
De further from the truth. Out of the 52 brotherhood members in-
dicted by State and Federal grand juries, 22 are fugitives, including
the No. 1 man in both hashish and the LSD operations.
Brotherhood members continue to operate from outside the United
States. On September 15, 1973, 923 pounds of hashish concealed in
false bottom commercial sound speakers was seized in Las Vegas, Nev.
It is now known that this hashish shipment was enroute to southern
California components of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love.
No doubt, the brotherhood organization was dealt a severe blow by
Operation BEL, but not a terminal one. At the moment, it remains
disorganized and severely crippled. Hopefully, continued enforce-
ment effort can be brought to bear until this complex drug distribution
system is completely eliminated.
In concluding my remarks, Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer for
the record a copy of an interview with Jennifer Dohrn, sister of
Weathermen leader, Bernardine Dohrn, describing her meeting with
Timothy Leary and Eldridge Cleaver in Algiers in October of 1970.
The article appeared in the Underground publication, Good Times,
for January 8, 1971. I believe it is interesting because of the light it
throws on the lifestyle and motivations and associations of these
Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr, Chairman, I would like to suggest that this
it€m be incorporated into the record as an appendix.
The Chairman. So ordered.
[The article referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 80.]
Mr. SouRwixE. If I understand your figures correctly, however, is
it not true that the brotherhood in terms of its operations and its power
and its financing is now several times as strong as it was 10 years ago
from which it built up to $100 million operation within the space of
less than 10 years.
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir.
Mr. SouRwiNE. Xow, I do not know whether this is the proper place
to raise this question, but the committee is in possession of a flyer put
out by the California Department of Justice giving the photographs
and descriptions of 26 members of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love.
Have you gentlemen seen it? I presume you have.
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. We furnished the committee with that
Mr. SouRWiNE. Well, now, I think it would be very useful, if the
Chair agrees, if these pictures and descriptions could be put in our
record but we cannot reproduce them from this. Can you furnish us
with glossies of these pictures that we can use to reproduce in our
hearing record ?
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir.
Mr. SouRWiNE. May that be the request, Mr. Chairman ?
The Chairman. So ordered,
[The photographs follow :]
CA-LIKORNIA. DEFA-RTMENT OF JUSTICE
BUREAU OF NARCOTIC ENFORCEMENT
The individuals shown below are active members of the BROTHERHOOD OF ETERNAL LOVE. This is a pseudo-religious
organization responsible for the importation and sale of large quantities of hashish and manufacture and distribution of LSD
on a worldwide level.
On August 3, 1972 the Orange County Grand )ury indicted these individuals, charging them with a variety of narcotic
violations and 182,I,V Penal Code (Conspiracy to Violate California State Narcotic Laws).
Since these fugitives extensively utilize false identification, every effort should be made to notify California Department of
Justice of their fingerprint classification as soon as possible, to obtain a positive identification before releasing subject.
MAY, Edward Joseph
PADILLA, Gerald James
ANORIST, Robert Lee
ACKERLY, Robert Dale
BECKER, Dale Andrew
STAMTON. Mark Patrick
SMITH, Brenice Lee
DAW, John Robert
SIMMONS, Peter David
Dafgp - r«ghi Itg
ASHBROOK, Travis Grant
SCOTT, Charles Fredrick TOKHI, Hayatullah
TIERNEY, Robert Edward TOKHI, Amanullah Salam
SEXTON, Gordon Albert
HALL, David Alan pratT Sunford Leon DRURY, Donald Karl HARRINGTON, )ohn Joseph Jr.
GERMAN, Lyie Paul
The Orange County Sheriffs Office holds Superior Court Bench Warrant Number C 28976 for the arrest of these individuals.
If you have any information concerning the location of these persons, please contact:
WARRANT DETAIL ■ ORANGE COUNTY SHERIFF'S OFFICE ■ (714) 834-3061
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ORGANIZED CRIME AND CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE BRANCH, SACRAMENTO
(LARRY D. MILES) (916) 322-2438 - 24 HOUR NUMBER
Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, I think we have one more prepared statement,
have we not ?
Mr. Sinclair. No, sir.
Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, then, it may be proper to ask some of these
You made it pretty clear that the brotherhood case is an illustration
of the inadequacies of existing criminal justice procedures in coping
with contemporary high level drug; violators. This is interesting to us
because it is one of the central points that was made by Gen. Lewis
Walt in his report to the subcommittee last September on the world
drug situation and its impact on security.
Among other things General Walt recommended that Congress
consider the imposition of new restraints on the granting of bail to