DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
I — ♦OF - -
DEPAETMENT OF AGEICULTUEE,
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFIOE.
1 S 8 4 .
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
DEPAETMENT OF AGEICULTUEE,
5751 D A
GOVERNMENT P HINTING OFFICE.
18 8 4.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL-
Hon. Geo. B. Lorinci,
Commissioner of Agriculture :
Sir: I have the honor to herewith transmit a report of the results of
the experiments and investigations of the Veterinary Division for the
year 1883-'84. The first Annual Report of the Bureau of Animal In-
dustry-, which will contain a detailed statement of the investigations
made and all the work accomplished since the organization of the
Bureau, in conformity with the act passed at the last session of Con-
gress, will be submitted for your approval at the close of the year.
My work at tlie Veterinary Exi)erimental Station has been greatly re-
tarded during the j)ast three or four months, made necessary in the in-
vestigation of an outbreak of ergotism among cattle in the West, and
later in the supervision of the work necessary for the organization
of the Bureau of Animal Industry. In addition to this I spent the
months of August and September in tracing the cattle infected with
contagious pleuropneumonia in some of the Western Stntes, a detailed
account of which will be furnished you in the First Annual Keport of
the Bureau of Animal Industry.
My report proper contains the results of experiments and investiga-
tions of Pleuropneumonia, Ergotism, Southern Cattle Fever, and Swine
In addition to the above this volume will contain interesting and val-
uable papers on the following subjects : Ergotism among cattle in
Kansas, by M. K. Trumbower, V. S. ; >Syng(i)n us trachealis, or (lape Disease
of Fowls, translated from the French by Dr. Theobald Smith; Proceed-
ings of the International Veterinary Congress, as reported by Dr. James
Law; Hamburg International Exhibition, reported by Mr. J. H. San-
ders and Dr. Rush Shii)pen Huidekoper; a detailed report of the losses
sustained by an extensive outbreak of Southern cattle fever among cat-
tle in Kansas, by Dr. M. K. Trumbower; Investigations as to the Cause
of Southern Cattle Fever, by Dr. J. H. Detmers; Contagious Animal
Diseases, and their Relation to the Public Health, by Dr. Ezra M. Hunt;
results as to the prevalence of trichinte as shown by the reiK)rt of the
recent commission api)ointed by the President; salt used in packing;
extracts from letters of correspondents, and statistical returns as to
losses and general condition of farm animals as reported b^* the regular
correspondents of the Department.
V'eiy respect full \, &c.,
D. E. SALMON,
Chivfof Bureau of A uiuud Industry.
Washington, D. C, Octvlter liS, 1884.
RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS MADE DURING THE
Hon. Geo. B. Lortng,
Commissioner of Agriculture :
Sir : In my last report brief mention was made of the Veterinary Ex-
perimental Station established b^' your direction near this city. Since
then many additions have been made to this Station, and it is now
thonght a more detailed description will i>rove of interest to those en-
gaged in investigations as to tiie canse, transmission, and i)revention of
infectious and contagious diseases incident to domestic animals both in
this and in other countries.
The Station is located on the Benning's Bridge road, about one-fourth
of a mile east of the northeastern boundary of the city. The plat of
ground on which it is lobated consists of 7 acres of rolling land, which
is subdivided by new fencing into three pasture fields. The largest
inclosure contains 4 acres, the second 2 acres, and the third 1 acre.
There are seven outbuildings for tlie accommodation of cattle and the
protection of the necessary implements for keeping the place in proper
condition. Two wooden and two brick structures are used for the ac-
commodation of cattle alone. The interior of the stables are fitted up
with box stalls located on each side of a 4-foot passage-way extending
the entire length of the buildings. The average measurement of each
stall is 8 by 10 feet. One stable contains eight stalls,^a second five, and
a third four. When necessary, two steers or cows can occupy each stall
with comfort. Ample feed-rooms are attached to eacli stable.
The fourth building is a wooden structure 25 feet wide by 31 feet in
length, with interior free of compartments. This building is used for
the protection from inclement weather of the cattle, which are allowed
to graze on the largest pasture field, and has been left open on the sojith
Four rows of pigpens are located at different points on the premises.
One of these pens is GO feet in length by 10 feet in width, and is subdi-
vided into ten compartments. Two others are 30 feet in length, and
contain five pens each. The fourth is divided into four pens. Ten or
twelve pigs can be accommodated with comfort in eacli pen. They are
supplied with cast-iron water-troughs, and the floors of each, as well as
those of the stables, are laid in concrete, which prevents the absorption
of water and facilitates disinfection.
6 CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS.
Iii addition to the pens and stables a large cliickeii-house, 25 feet in
length by 12 feet in width, has been provided for experiments with con-
tagions diseases incident to fowls. A small building, midway between
the pens and stables, has been fitted np for post-mortem examinations,
and is supplied with all the necessary instruments for making autopsies.
A brick dwelling house, about 40 feet square and two stories in height,
is located near the northern extremity of the grounds, and is occupied
by W. H. Eose, V. S., superintendent of the Station. The w^ater for the
Station is supplied by two excellent wells conveniently located. Plates
I, II, and III, accompanying this report, give accurate views of the
buildings and grounds from different points.
INVESTIGATIONS OF PLEURO-PNEUMONIA.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
Xo systematic inspection of cattle has yet been made in the District
of Columbia, but we have secured a number of sick cows which have
been slaughtered and examined in order to determine the nature of the
disease from which they were suffering. Other cases have been brought
to our attention by Dr. Townsheud, the able health officer of the District,
in regard to which we have made all the investigations that were pos-
sible. During the year we have in this way found the disease in ten
stables in which more than one cow was kept, and in three others in
which the diseased animal was the only one owned. In one stable two
have died ; in a second, one had died and two were sick ; in a third,
five had died and six were more or less affected ; in a fourth, two had
been lost; in a fifth, six had been lost ; in a sixth, five had died ; in a
seventh, three had died ; and in the remaining three stables the loss, so
far as we are aware, has been one animal each.
The total number of animals referred to above is twenty-seven which
have died, and eight which were sick at inspection. In these cases the
symptoms and post-mortem appearances of the animals examined were
those of contagious pleuropneumonia, and the history, when it could
be obtained, also pointed in this direction. The following instance is
an illustration of this :
A cow belonging to Mrs. Flanigan, of Benning's road, was discovered
sick, May 22, 1883. The symptoms were a severe, dry cough emacia-
tion, arched back, extended head, and turning out of the elbows. Per-
cussion and auscultation showed that there was dullness and loss of
respiratory murmur over the right lung.
This animal was preserved until August 27, and then slaughtered.
The anterior portion of the right lung was found to contain a large
encysted mass of hcpati/ed lung tissue, tally 5 inches in diameter,
which was beginning to disiutegrate aud break down into pus. The
CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS. 7
left lung was affected with chrouic bronchitis, and many of the bronchi
were filled with a thick, white, tenacious pus.
The disease was brought to this stable in the latter part of December,
1882, by a cow dealer who lives near the navy-yard. She presented
symptoms of disease in about two weeks after purchase and lingered
for six weeks with symptoms of acute lung disease. Three weeks after
the death of this first cow a second became sick, with similar symptoms,
and died after four weeks' illness.
Two others were successively affected in a similar manner and died ;
and, finally, the fifth came down with the disease about the 1st of May,
On May 29, 1883, we received at the Veterinary Experiment Station a
€0W from the stable of Catharine Bresuahan, of Lincoln avenue. This
animal was somewhat tympanitic and stood with arched back, elbows
turned out, and extended head. With each expiration there was a loud
moan. Examination over the lungs revealed dullness, tenderness, and
loss of respiration on the right side.
This animal died during the night of June 3, and was examined the
following day. The right lung was found to be firmly attached to the
ribs and diaphragm over nearly the whole surface of contact. This lung
was almost completely hepatized; the posterior part was gangrenous;
the median portion showed old hepatization, in which there was little
difference in color between the lobular and the interlobular tissue,
while the anterior portion was freshly hepatized and presented the dis-
tinctly marbled appearance seen in acute pleuro-pueumonia, and thought
by some to be characteristic of tliat disease. The condition of this lung
showed bej'ond questionthattheintlammation was a progressive one, and,
beginning in the posterior portion of the organ, had successively in-
vaded the median and anterior portions.
The existence of intiammation of different ages, showing the i)ro-
gressive character of the disease, is now regarded by the leading author-
ities of Europe as the most satisfactory means of distinguishing between
contagious pleuropneumonia and the sporadic intlammations of the res-
piratory organs. The pleural cavity contained about a quart of effusion,
and the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes was of a deep red
This animal presented, consequently, all the s^nnptoms and post-mortem
appearances described as peculiar to pleuropneumonia. The only his-
tory that could be obtained was that a number of cows had previously
been affected in this stable with similar sym])toms.
September 18, 1883, I examined a cow on Nineteenth street, which had
rapid and difficult breathing, with extended head and elbows turned out
as in cases of pleuro-pneuinonia. There was dullness over the lower half
of both lungs, with resonam',e above, but no res[)iratory murmur could
be detected over the left side from the shoulder backward. This ani-
mal died on the morning of September 21, and on examination the left
8 CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS.
lunjr was found solidly attaclied to tbe ribs and diai)lirag'm. There wa»
an abundant effusion of liquid into the pleural cavity ; the pericardium
was greatly distended and attached to the costal pleura. On section
the lun[)earance before death and the condition of her
lungs when examined were very similar to that of the third cow men-
May 1, 1884, a sick cow was reported at Miss Fannin's, on M stree^^
10 CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS.
in this city. Slie was examiaed the same day and found to be moaning
with each expiration; her breathing was labored ; there wassaliv^ation,
extended head, and elbows turned out. Tlie bronchial breathing was
loudest on the riuht side; the left side was very dull on percussion up
to and somewhat above the median line. The right side had a dull
area at lower portion of thorax and another above the median line.
Mayo, this animal, now sinking rapidly and already tympanitic, was
slaughtered. The autopsy revealed the left lung completely solidified
with the exception of a very small part of the anterior lobe. Various
stages of inflammation were to be seen in the different pirts of the lung.
There were thick false membranes and solid adhesions to the dia-
phragm and costal pleura. The right lung was extremely emphysema-
tous, and parts of it adherent to the costal pleura, but there was no
hepatization of its tissues.
In the latter part of August, 18S3, I investigated an outbreak of dis-
ease at Salem, Conn., which had affected cattle on the farms of H. B.
Williams and Captain Seaman, of that place. The history of this out-
break may be summarized as follows: Hon. E. H. Hyde, of the State
Commission on Diseases of Domestic Animals, first visited the farm of
Mr. Williams on August S, and at that time found a young bull in the
lot partially recovered from an attack of disease, and a cow and an ox
were both very sick with what he considered to be the typical symptoms
of pleuro pneumonia. At Captain Seaman's a cow was very sick and
presented the same symptoms as were seen with the affected cattle be-
longing to Williams.
Tlie next morning Dr. Rice, of Hartford, was called, and on arrival,
Williams' cow was found to have died daring the night.
A post- mortem examination was made and the lung found attached to
the walls of the chest; when cut across it was seen to be solidly hepatized,
of a marbled appearance, and presented all the characters of contagious
l)leuro-pneninonia. The Commission advised slaughter, which was ob-
jected to, but the same day after the departure of the State officers, the
sick ox belonging to Williams and the cow belonging to Seaman were
slaughtered. These animals were not examined jn'ofessionally, but the