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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

DIVISION OP nTBUCATIGNS.



FARMERS' BULLETINS

Nos. 526-550 '^'

WITH CONTENTS AND INDEX.



VKBPARKD UNDBR THB SUPERVISION OP

JOS. A. ARNOLD,

EDITOR AND CHIBP.



WASHINQTON:
GO^riRMlCSNT FRINTINQ OFFICB*



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CONTENTS.



Fabmxrs' Bullbtin No. 526.— Mutton and its Yalus nr ths Dibt. Tngb.

Introduction 6

Ck>mpo8ition and nutritive vahie 5

Digestibility of mutton 6

Relative economy in the use of mutton 7

The flavor of mutton 7

The fat of mutton and its characteristics 8

Care of mutton in the home 10

Guts of mutton 11

Judging mutton 13

Waste in various cuts 13

Losses of weight in cooking mutton and other meats. 14

Effect of heat upon the various constituents of mutton 14

Methods of cooking mutton 15

Methods of measuring 15

Making of soups and broths 15

Mutton stews 17

Boiling, steaming, and braising 19

Boasted mutton 23

Broiling 25

Prying 26

Warmed-over mutton 27

Mutton with fruits 30

Corned mutton and its uses 31

Mutton sausages 81

Summary 32

Fa&mbbs' Bulletin No. 527.— Ezpbrimbnt Station Work, LXXIV.

Peonies 5

Advantages of spraying potatoes 7

Marketing wool 11

Retail buying of beef 14

Tobacco dips for sheep scab 19

Sewage disposal for rural homes 19

Fajimbrs' Bulletin No. 528.— Hints to Poui/tbt Raisers.

Selection of a breed 5

Artificial and natural incubation and brooding 8

Poultry houses and fixtures 9

Feeding 10

Egg produ ction 10

Marketing 11

lice and mites 11

Common diseases and treatment 11

Rules 12

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4 C0NTBKT8.

Fabmbrs' Bulletin No. 529.— Vbtoh Growing in ths South Atlantic

States. pi^

Introduction 5

Kinds of vetch cultivated in the South Atlantic States 5

Fertilizing value of vetch 8

Time for planting vetch 9

Quantity of seed required 10

Inoculation of vetch 10

Production of vetch hay 13

Production of vetch silage 14

Palatability of vetch forage 14

Production of vetch seed 14

Vetch honey 16

Rotations with vetch 16

Experiences of farmers with vetch 19

Summary 20

Fabmers' Bulletin No. 530. — Important Poultry Diseases.

Introduction 3

How to prevent disease 4

Lice powders and their application 5

Bismf octants and their application 6

Cholera and cholera-like diseases 7

Roup or contagious catarrh 9

Diphtheria 12

Bird pox (chicken pox) 15

Blackhead (entero-hepatis) 16

Tuberculosis 19

Aspergillosis 21

Cocddiosis 22

White comb (favus) 24

"Going light"(lo« of weight) 25

Infectious diseases of young chicks 26

Worms 32

Mange (scabies) 33

Scaly leg (mange of the leg) 34

Crop bound (impacted crop) 35

Inflammation of the stomach or intestines 36

Limbemeck 36

Liver disease 36

Farmers' Bulletin No. 531.^Lark8pur, or "Poison Weed.'*

Introdu c tion 5

Larkspurs of the western United States 6

Symptoms of larkspur poisoning 10

Effect of larkspur poisoning upon organs of the body ^ II

Period during which poisoning occurs 11

Quantity of larkspur necessary to poison 12

Poisoning of horses 12

Poisoning of sheep 12

Treatment 1 12

Medicinal remedies 13

Pasturing sheep on present cattle ranges 14

Summary ••• • 15



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OOKTBKTS. 5

Farmsrs' Bulletin No. 532.— Extsbimbmt Staxion Wobx, LXXV. page.

Garden Bweet peas 5

'Wmtar-flowering sweet pei» 9

Southern bur clover ., 13

Improving the type of sheep for the Southwest 18

Combating flies 22

Farmbrs' Bullbtik No. 533. — Goon Sbbd Potatoxs and How to Pboducb
Thxm.

Introduction 3

What constitutes good seed 6

Pure seed 6

Seed from productive plants 7

Immature seed 10

Uniformity in size and shape of tubers 10

Development of high-grade seed potatoes 11

Influence of x>otato storage on the quality of the seed 14

Treatment of seed lor scab 15

Summary 16

Fabmbbs' Bulletin No. 534. — Dubith Whbat.

Intioduction 5

OhaiacterisdoB 5

Varieties 6

Area to which adapted 8

Yields 10

Oompaiative value 13

Uses 14

Culture 15

Improvement of the crop 16

Faricbrs' Bulletin No. 535. — Sugar and Its Valub as Food.

Intioduction 7

Chemical composition of sugars 7

Sweet materials other than sugar 11

Commercial glucose and other commercial products made from starch. ... 11

Sources of cane sugar 12

Quality of sugar from different sources 14

Purity of sugar 16

Food value of sugar 16

Digestion of sugar 17

Sugar as a food for muscular work 17

Sugar as a &t former 20

Sugar as a flavor 20

Food value of table sirups and molasses 21

Nutritive value of sugar cane 23

Practical usc of su^ in the ordinary diet 23

Sugar in the dietaries of children 30

Comparative cost of sugar as food 31

General conclusions 31

Fabmers' Bullbtin No. 536. — Stock Poisontno Dub to Scarcity of Food.

Introduction 3

Poisoning probable only when feed is scarce 3

Conclusions 4



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6 CX>]SrTBHT8.

Fabmbbs' Bulmtin No. 6S7.^How to Grow an Acbb op Oorn. p*8b.

Introduction 6

What kind of com to grow 5

When to take up com improvement work 7

Selecting seed for the acre • 8

Preparing the seed f ot planting 9

Selecting an acre for com 10

Fertilizing the acre 11

Preparation of the seed bed 12

Planting 14

Combating cutworms 16

Thinning 16

Cultivation 16

Selecting seed from the acre 18

Drying and caring for seed com 19

Determining the yield 20

Conclusion 21

Farmbbs' Bulletin No. 538. — Sitbs, Soils, and Varibtieb fob Cttrub
Grovbs in the Gulp States.

Introduction 7

Climate 7

Soil 8

Site of the grove 9

Varieties 12

Farmers' Bulletin No. 639. — Propagation op Cftrub Trees in the Q^jlp
States.

Introduction 3

The nursery 3

Propagation by cuttings 9

Budding 10

Farmers' Bulletin No. 640.— The Stable Fly.

Introductory 6

Distribution and abundance 6

The severe outbreak of the stable fly in 1912 7

Hosts 8

Chazacter of injury and losses 9

Action of animals attacked 11

Summary of life history 12

Development and habits 16

Seasonal history 19

Agricultural practices in relation to fly abundance 20

Natural control 21

Artificial control 23

Farmers' Bulletin No. 641. — Farm Butter Making.

Cause of change in milk and cream 6

Cleanliness 6

Temperatures 9

Methods of controlling temperature of milk and cream 10

The ripening of cream '. 11

Starters 11

Methods of determining the ripeness of cream 12

Coloring the butter 13

Churning 13



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COlirFBNTS. 7

Farmebb* Bullbtin No. 541.— Farm Buttbr Makinci — Gontinued. Page.

Washing the butter 16

Salting the butter 16

Working the butter 17

Pnnting and packing the butter 18

Marketing the butter 18

Dairy equipment 19

Gondufiions 27

Farmbrs' Bulletin No. 542.— Oui/turb, Fertilization, and Frost Fro-
TEcmoN OF Citrus Groves in the Gulp States.

Inlxoduction 6

Preparation of the land 5

Setting out trees ^6

Catch crops 7

Pruning 7

Fertilizers 8

Protection against cold , 12

T6i>-working 18

Crown-working 19

Farmers' Bulletin No. 543. — Common White Grubs.

The outbreak of 1912 5

Possibilities of an outbreak in 1915 6

life history and habits 8

Grubs likely to be mistaken for common white grubs 12

Natural enemies 13

Methods of control 16

Farmers' Bulletin No. 544.— Potato-tuber Diseases.

Introduction 3

The principal diseases and their control 4

The choice of seed potatoes ^ 14

What form of legal regulation of the seed trade is best? 15

Field inspection and certification 16

Farmers' Bulletin No. 545. — Controlling Canada Thistles.

Bangeof the Canada thistle 5

Description of plant 5

Other weeds mistaken for the Canada thistle 6

Methods of distribution and means of preventing it 7

Methods of killing Canada thistles 8

Summary 13

State laws relating to Canada thistles 14

Farmers' Bulletin No. 546.-— How to Manage a Corn Crop in Kentucky
AND West Viroinia.

Selection of land 5

Preparation of seed bed 6

Fertilizer 6

Seed 6

Planting 6

Cultivation 7

Harvesting 7

Sources of information regarding com growing 7



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8 CONTENTS.

Fabmbbs' Bullbtin No. 547.— Thb Tbllow-vbybb Mobqutio.

How to recognize the yellow-fever mosquito 3

Different names by which it has been called 4

Domesticity of the species 4

Habits of the adult 5

Breeding habits 8

Geographic distribution 12

Original home IS

Discovery of the relations of this mosquito to yellow fever 13

Subsequent demonstration 16

Benwdies 16

Fabmbbs' Bullbtin No. 648.— Stobing ahd Mabkbting Swbbt Potatobs.

Intioduction 3

Oonstruction of a sweet-potato storage house 4

Material required for a 20 by 40 foot storage house 9

Varieties of sweet potatoes for nuurket 10

Harvesting sweet potatoes 11

Marketing sweet potatoes 13

Summary 14

Fabmbbs' Bullbtin No. 549.— Exfbbimbnt Station Wobk, LXXVI.

The farm water supply 5

Storage of potatoes 9

Hie meadow lark from the farmers' standpoint 15

Egg-laying contests and breeding for egg producticm 16

Sprouting oats for poultry 18

Carbolic add for contagious abortion in cattle 20

Cooling cream without ice 22

Fabmbbs' Bullbtin No. 550. — Cbimson Clovbb: Gbowing thb Cbop.

Inlxoduction 3

History and pteeeiDi distributicm of crimson clover 3

Requirements for obtaining and maintaining a stand of crimson clover. ... 5

Various methods of seeding crimscm dover 9

Treatment of crimson dover stands after seeding 15



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16U

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.



FARMERS' BULLETIN 526.



MUTTON AND ITS VALUE
IN THE DIET



. BY

C.'F. LANGWORTHY. Ph. D.,

Chief af Nutrition Investigations ^ Office of
Experiment Stations,

AND

CAROLINE L. HUNT, A. B.,

Expert in Nutrition, Office of Experiment
Stations,



WASHINGTON
GOTEBNMENT PBINTINa OITIOK

1917



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MUTTON AND ITS VALUE IN THE DIET.



IKTEODVCTIOH.



Mutton has from early times been a popular food both in the Ori«it and
among western nations. The ease with which the sheep is raised and the fact
that its flesh Is not, like some other meats, excluded on religious grounds from
the dietary of any large group of people, combine with Its palatability to bring
it into widespread favor. The terms "lamb" and "mutton" are somewhat
loosely used to designate the meat obtained from the younger and older ani-
mals. In some localities mutton is used to apply to the flesh of all but young
Iambs ; in others its use is limited to the flesh of full-grown sheep. The latter
is perhaps the commonest usage in the United States.

The preference tor lamb or for mutton, like the use of the terms» varies with
the locality. Of late years a preference for lamb to older mutton has been
noticeable, particularly In the United States. In England, on the other hand,
mutton has always been more commonly used. The popularity of one or the
other will probably always be determined by taste, fashion, or market condi-
tions, for both are jmlatable and nutritious foods.^

The general belief that mutton and lamb are wholesome has been str^igthened
recently by such work as that of the United States Departm^it of Agriculture,
whose reports of meat inspection show that it has been necessary to reject
relatively few mutton carcasses as unfit for food, and that the sheep is particu-
larly free from diseases which render meat undesirable.

COXPOSmOK ANB HTTrRITIVE VALVE.

The term " mutton " is here used to apply to the flesh of a sheep one year or
more old. Such meat differs in composition from the flesh of a lamb very much
as meat of any other mature animal differs from that of a young animal of the
same kind, as beef differs from veal, for example, or fowl from chicken, I. e., it
has, in general, a smaller percentage of water and larger percentages of fat,
protein, and extractives or flavoring substances. Poimd for pound, mutton has
a larger amount of tissue-forming substances and a higher energy value than
Iamb.

So far as nutritive value is concerned, mutton is usually classed with beef.
Analyses reported in an earlier bulletin of this series' show that they have nearly

iThe stmcture, composition, and general qualities of different kinds and cuts of meat
are c^^sldered in an earlier publication. (U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers* Bui. 34, Meats: Com-
position and Cooking.) The value of meat as food, ways of reducing expense in the use of
meat methods of jseat cooker>% directions for utilizing cheaper cuts of meat in palatable
dishes, and other like topics, are discussed In a similar publication. (Farmers' Bui. 391,
Economical Use of Meat in the Home.)

* U. S. Dept Agr.-, Farmers' Bui. 34.

526 3



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4 MUTTON AND ITS VALUE IN THE DIET.

the same composition. The percentage of waste differs vei*y slightly in the two,
being on the average a little less than 20 per cent In each. In the edible portion
the percentage of protein is practically the same; It averages about 18 per cent
In the beef and 16 per cent iii the mutton. It is only when the fat is considered
that any considerable difference Is noted. • This averages about 20 per cent of
the edible portion in medium fat beef and a little over 30 per cent In the
corresponding kind of mutton. As might be expected, water Is corresi>ondlngly
low in the mutton and high in the beef, being about six-tenths, or 60 per cent, of
the total in the beef and about five-tenths, or 50 per cent, of the total in the
mutton. Because of the larger amount of fat, the fuel or energy value is greater
in mutton than in beef, being usually stated as 1,500 calories per pound, while
that of beef is given as about 1,145 calories. The fact should be kept in mind,
however, that these figures refer to the average of many samples of the two
kinds of meat The variations in different samples of either meat are wider
than the diffePMices between these average values, and for this reason the
custom of classing beef and mutton together when their nutritive values are
concerned may be considered fair.

DIGESTIBILITY OF XTTTTOK.

Mutton and lamb are commonly believed to digest readily without causing
disturbance, and both experience and the results of scientific investigation seem
to bear out this belief. To this may be ascribed the common use of mutton
and lamb in invalid dietetics, as well as in the daily fare.

The question of the thoroughness of digestion of meat has been studied in
connection with the nutrition investigations of this office.* which reported a
number of experiments made for the purpose of determining the effect of dif-
ferent methods of cooking upon the ease and thoroughness with which various
kinds and cuts of meat are digested. There was nothing in the results of tiie
experiments to Indicate that any one variety of meat or any one cut of meat
has any very large advantage over others in this resi)ect. Meats as a whole
j*ank as very digestible foods, 97 per cent of the meat protein and 95 per
cent of the fat being retained in the body, while 87 p&e cent of the en-
ergy of the meat is available for body uses. The figures for mutton may,
however, prove interesting here, though the results differ little from those
obtained with other meats. Five cuts of mutton, 1. e., the shoulder, flank,
leg, loin, and ribs, were all prepared in the same way, that is, by being
boiled for three hours in water. In most cases several samples of the same cut
were tested. After being cooked the various kinds were digested artifldally.
The results showed that at the end of one hour 78 per cent on an average of
these cuts had been digested. The amount of digested material gradually in-
creased until, at the end of 24 hours, less than 5 per cent of any one remained
undigested. In the case of the leg the undigested portion of every sample was
less than 2 per cent

Experiments in natural digestion were also made. The subjects were men in
normal health and the experimental ration was a simple mixed diet which
included roast mutton. The results showed that over 99 per cent of the pro-
tein and over 98 per cent of the fat of the mutton were digested — figures which
were practically identical with those obtained with roast beef. In other words,
mutton, like beef, was almost completely assimilated.

^ U. S. Dept. Agr., Office Expt. Stas. Bal. 198.
526



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MUTTON AND ITS VALUE IN THE DIET. 5

EELATIVE ECfONOlCy IK THE ITSE OF HUTTOH.

While mutton and beef do not differ materially in percentage composition or
digestibility, mutton has an advantage in that it is capable of somewhat more
economical use. The mutton carcass, unlike the beef carcass, ia of such slsse
that a quarter or a half, either of which supplies a variety of cuts, can be con-
veniently utilized in a household of moderate size with ordinary refrigerating
facilities, and the price per pound is commonly less when the meat is bought
in this way. There is a certain advantage, too, in the fact that the leg, which
has the smallest percentage of waste of any of the cuts of mutton, is of suitable
size for family use. for a piece of meat which has not been cut up keeps
better than one which has been cut. On the other hand, the rather general be-
lief, which, however, seems unfounded, that all kinds of mutton fat are unsuit-
able for culinary puriK)ses, has tended somewhat to an uneconomical use of this
meat This subject receives further treatment in a later paragraph. (See
p. 6.)

THE FLAVOR OF inrTTOK.

The sex, age, and feeding of the animal are all factors which help to deter-
mine the natural flavor of mutton. It is said by experts, too, that di-essed
mutton is peculiarly liable to absorb odors and to have its own flavor modified.
tij the .flavor of other substances with which it comes in contact. For this
reason, careful and quick slaughtering and dressing and good facilities for
refrigerating are considered even more essentia] in the satisfactory preparation
of mutton for market than in the case of beef or pork. Since methods of feed-
ing are being investigated and standardized, and all the processes of handling
and storage are being rapidly perfected, there is reason to look for a continual
improvement in the quality of mutton found upon the market and a correspond-
ing increase in its popularity as a food material.

The characteristic flavor and odor of mutton are said to have their origin in
the fat. Lewkowitsch, an authority upon the chemistry of fats, quotes an early
Investigator as ascribing the odor to the presence of "hircinic acid,'* but
this, he states, wi:s later shown to be merely a mixture of well-known vola-
tile fatty acids. If the characteristic mutton flavor is due to volatile fatty
acids, we can understand why it is lessened by cooking with water, since such
acids are volatile in steam. CJooking the fat with a little vinegar or stronger
acids seems to lessen the characteristic flavor somewhat, though perhai)s the
eflPect is only to mask the mutton flavor by that of the acid. If a little vinegar
or lemon juice is placed in the water in which mutton Is boiled or stewed, a
flavor is obtained which is different from mutton cooked without the acid, and
by many considered very agreeable.

In some conntries it is the custom to prepare mutton by soaking it in highly
spiced vin^ar and water for a day or longer, and then to roast or boil it, and
sen'e it with a sour sauce made usually with sour cream. (See p. 21.) As
vinegar is a preservative, we may imagine that this method, like that of com-
ing meat, was first employed as a means of preservation. For such n reason,
we, with our improved refrigerating processes, would seldom need to make
use of it The fact should not be overlooked, however, that during the time
when this mode of preparation was frequently necessary, the dish was per-
fected and made appetizing. Besides l)eing of historical interest, therefore^
it may have a practical value, and those who have limited facilities for keep-
526



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6 MUTTON AND ITS VALUE IN THE DIET.

ing food, or who for any reason seek variety In their diet, may be glad to
know of It.

Whatever the reason, the habit of using acids or acid fruits and vegetables
In the preparation of mutton seems to be very widespread, particularly in
foreign countries or where foreign methods prevail. Creole cookbooks recom-
mend that. In addition to the sour sauce which almost invariably accompanies
the meat, a few drops of lemon juice be added to each slice of boiled mut-
ton before It Is served. In Turkey, a favorite dish is prepared by cooking
chopped mutton and rice In grape leaves which are slightly acid. In some
countries, quinces or sour apples are cooked with mutton. In the United
States, the addition of currant jelly to the gravy of roast mutton is very
common, and capers or the liquor In which they have been bottled, chopped
pickles, vinegar, lemon juice, and tomato juice are often used for the same
purpose. Sour apples cooked under roast mutton have been found to impart
an agreeable flavor to the gravy.

THE FAT OF MVTIOV AJSTD ITS CHAmACTEKISTICS.

Fats from various Bources, animal and vegetable, dlflfer In hardness and In
their melting and solidifying points, as well as in other physical characteri»-
tics. The melting point of mutton tallow, for example, is usually given as
between 111° and 122° P.; while that of the corresponding beef fat, usmiUy



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