United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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^^QdvLS<^0*X^



Bouud
MAY1897



l^arbarli College Uttnv^.



PROM THB



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

THROUGH

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CONSULAR REPORTS.



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC



Vol. LIII.



No». 196. 197, 198 and 109.
JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH, AND APRIL, 1897.



WASHINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1897.



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=F=C— 7-



Vol. LI 1 1. No. 196.



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PUBLICATIONS OP THE BUREAU OF STATISTICS, DEPARTMENT OF STATE.

The publications of the Bureau of Statistics, Dep>artment of State, are:
I. — Commercial Relations, being the annual reports of consular officers on the com-
merce, industries, navigation, etc., of their districts.

n. — Consular. Reports, issued monthly, and containing miscellaneous reports firom
consular officers.

III. — Advance Sheets, Consijlar Reports, issued for the convenience of the news-
paper press, commercial and manufacturing organizations, etc., usually three or four times a
month, and containing selected reports of immediate interest.

IV. — Exports Declared for the United States, issued quarterly, and containing the
declared values of exports from the various considar districts to the United States for the pre-
ceding three months.

V. — Special Consular Reports, containing series of reports from consular officers on
particular subjects, made in pursuance to instructions from the Department. •
Following are the special publications issued by the Bureau prior to i8po:
Labor in Europe, 1878, one volume; Labor in Foreign Countries, 1804, three volumes;
Conmierce of the World and the Share of the United States Therein, 1879; Conmierce of the
World and the Share of the United States Therein, 1880-81 ; Declared Exports for the United
States, First and Second Quarters, 1883; Declared Exports for the United States, Third and
Fourth Quarters, 1883. Cholera in Europe in 1884, 1885; Trade Guilds of Europe, 1885;
The Licorice Plant, 1885; Forestry in Europe, 1887; Emigration and Immigration, 1885-86
(a portion of this work was published as Consular Reports No. 76, for the month of April,
1887); Rice Pounding in Europe, 1 887; Sugar of Milk, 1887; Wool Scouring in Belgium,
1887; Cattle and Dairy Farming in Foreign Countries, 1888 (issued first in one volume, after-
wards in two volumes) ; Technical Education in Europe, 1888; Tariff of Central America and
the British West Indies, 1890.

The editions of all these publications except Tarifis of Central America, etc., are exhausted
and the Department is, therefore, unable to supply copies.

Information relating to special subjects— secured by circulars addressed to consular
officers — increased to such an extent that, in 1890, the Department decided to publish such
reports in separate form, to be entitled Special Consular Reports. There are no^ the
following Special Consular Reports:

f J^/. / {i8goy — Cotton Textiles in Foreign Countries, Files in Spanish America, Carpet
Manufacture in Foreign Countries, Malt and Beer in Spanish America, and Fruit Culture in
Foreign Countries.

Vbl, a {i8gi). — Refrigerators and Food Preservation in FcM-eign Countries, European
Emigration, Olive Culture in the Alpes Maritimes, and Beet Sugar £idustry and Flax Culti-
vation in Foreign Countries.

VoLj (iSgi). — Streets and Highways in Foreign Countries.

Vol, 4 \i8g2\ — Port Regulations in Foreign Cwmtries.

Vol, s \18g3). — Canals and Irrigation in Foreign Countries.

Vol 6 Ii8g2). — Coal and Coal Consumption in Spanish America, Gas in Foreign Coun-
tries, and India Rubber.

Vol. 7 (i8g2). — ^The Stave Trade in Foreign Countries and Tariffis of Foreign Countries.

Vo/. 8 \18g2), — Fire and Building Regulations in Foreign Countries.

Vo/. g \18g2 and i8gj). — Australian Sheep and Wool, and Vagrancy and Public Charities
in Foreign Countries.

Vol. 10 {i8g4). — Lead and Zinc Mining in Foreign Countries and Extension of Markets
for American Flour.

Vo/. II (i8g4). — ^American Lumber in Foreign Markets.

Vo/, 12 \i8gjy — Highways of Commerce.

Vo/, 13 \i8g6), — Money and Prices in Foreign Countries.

Of these Special Consular Reports, Cotton Textiles in Foreign Countries, Files in
Spanish America, Malt and Beer in Spanish America, Streets and Highways in Foreign
Countries, Canals and Irrigation, and Fire and Building R^;ulations are exhausted and no
copies can be supplied by the Department.

Of the monthly Consular Reiorts, many numbers are exhausted or so reduced that the
Department is unable to accede to requests for copies. Of the publications of the Bureau
available for distribution, copies are mailed to applicants without charge. In view of the
' scarcity of certain numbers, the Bureau will be grateful for the return of any copies of
the monthly or special reports which recipients do not care to retain. Upon notification
of willingness to return sudi copies, the Department will forward franking labels to be used
in lieu of postage in the United States, Canada, the Hawaiian Islands, and Mexico.

Persons receiving Consular Reports regularly, who change their addresses, should give
the old as well as the new address in notifying the Bureau of the fact.

In order to prevent confusion with other Department bureaus, all conmiunications relating
to consular reports should be carefully addressed, " Chief, Bureau of Statistics, Department of
State, Washii^n, U. S. A."



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CONTENTS.



103
106

- Maratta

no

"5



Page.

I. — Land Taxation and Labor Laws in New Zealand ) i

\ Connolly
IL — United States Trade with New Zealand J 93

IIL — Banking in New South Wales Bell 97

IV. — ^** Squatters'* and Station Life in Australia

V. — Australasian Wool Clip of 1896-97

VL — Wine-Growing Industry of Victoria

VII. — New Sewerage of the City of Melbourne

VIII. — Saxon Land Credit Association Pelers 123

IX. — Tetanus Antitoxin Mason 126

X, — Electricity on Farms Muth 123

XI.i — Notes (Electric Tramways and Railways in Ireland — American Barley in
British Breweries — Shipbuilding in Glasgow — Opening for American Fire
Apparatus in Switzerland — Fire Engines in Martinique — Process for De-
tecting Adulterations in Silk and Wool — Commerce of Switzerland with
France — Cable to Manaos, Brazil — American Settlers in Brazil — Rubber
Exports of Nicaragua — Freight by Sailing Vessels to Nicaragua — Mahogany
Trade Between Boston and Nicaragua — Failure of the Blueiields Banana
Company — Fiber Bast in Santo Domingo — Spanish Census Statistics —
Spanish BullBghts — Trade in Tobacco at Gibraltar — Pearl Fisheries of
Mozambique — Steam Communication between Belize and New York —

Consular Reports Transmitted to Other Departments) 1 33

XII. — Foreign Reports and Publications (British Trade Returns) 143

1



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RKPORTS BY COUNTRIKS.

Australasia : Page.

Wool clip of i896-97« io6

Australia :

New sewerage of the city of Melbourne 115

** Squatters" and station life in 103

Brazil:

American settlers in 137

Cable to Manabs...'. 136

British Honduras:

Steam communication between Belize and New York 142

France :

Commerce with Switzerland v 136

Germany :

Electricity on farms in 129

Process for detecting adulterations in silk and wool 135

Tetanus antitoxin in , 126

Gibraltar :

Trade in tobacco at 141

Great Britain :

American barley in breweries in 134

Shipbuilding in Glasgow 134

Ireland:

Electric tramways and railways in 133

Martinique :

Fire engines in 135

Mozambique:

Pearl fisheries of 141

New South Wales :

Banking in 97

New Zealand:

Land taxation and labor laws in I

United States trade with 93

Nicaragua :

Failure of the Bluefields Banana Company 139

Freight by sailing vessels to 138

Mahogany trade between Boston and 139

Rubber exports of. 138

Santo Domingo:

Fiber bast in 140

Saxony :

Land credit association in 123

Spain :

Bullfights in : 140

Census statistics of. 140

II



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REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. Ill

Switzerland: Page.

Commerce with France 136

Op>ening for American fire apparatus in 134

Victoria:

Wine-growing industry of no



F'ull directions for t^lndliiK the Consular Reports are siven in No.

13Z, pcfcfEe 663.



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VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.

The following statements show the valuation of foreign coins, as given by
the Director of the United States Mint and published by the Secretary of the
Treasury, in compliance with the first section of the act of March 3, 1873,
viz: **That the value of foreign coins, as expressed in the money of account
of the United States, shall be that of the pure metal of such coin of standard
value,'' and that **the value of the standard coins in circulation of the vari-
ous nations of the world shall be estimated annually by the Director of the
Mint, and be proclaimed on the ist day of January by the Secretary of
the Treasury.'*

In compliance with the foregoing provisions of law, annual statements
were issued by the Treasury Department, beginning with that issued on Jan-
uary I, 1874, and ending with that issued on January i, 1890. Since that
date, in compliance with the act of October i, 1890, these valuation state-
ments have been issued quarterly, beginning with the statement issued on
January i, 1891.

These estimates "are to be taken (by customs officers) in computing the
value of all foreign merchandise made out in any of said currencies, imported
into the United States."

The following statements, running from January i, 1874, to .A.pril i,
1894, have been prepared to assist in computing the proper values in Ameri-
can money of the trade, prices, values, wages, etc., of and in foreign coun-
tries, as given in consular and other reports. The series of years are given
so that computations may be made for each year in the proper money values
of such year. In hurried computations, the reductions of foreign currencies
into American currency, no matter for how many years, are too often made
on the bases of latest valuations. When it is taken into account that the ruble
of Russia, for instance, has fluctuated from 77.17 cents in 1874 to 37. 2 cents in
April, 1894, such computations are wholly misleading. All computations
of values, trade, wages, prices, etc., of and in the " fluctuating-currency coun-
tries" should be made in the values of their currencies in each year up to
and including 1890, and in the quarterly valuations thereafter.

To meet typographical requirements, the quotations for the years 1876,
1877, 1879, 1 881, and 1882 are omitted, these years being selected as show-
ing the least fluctuations when compared with years immediately preceding
and following.

To save unnecessary repetition, the estimates of valuations are divided
into three classes, viz: (A) countries with fixed currencies, (B) countries
with fluctuating currencies, and (C) quarterly valuations of fluctuating cur-
rencies.



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VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.



A. — Countries with fixed currencies.

The following oflScial (United States Treasury) valuations of foreign coins do not include " nies ofexchange."
It follows, therefore, that when foreign money orders are required, the post-office authorities, to save the De-
partment from incurring loss in such transactions, add the rate of exchange to these valuations.



Countries.



Argentine Republic*...,



Austria- Hungary f. .

Belgium

Braril



British North America
(except Newfound-
land)).

Chilet



Cuba-..



Denmark-

Egypt



Finland..
France...



Germany- ,

Great Britain..



Greece..



Haui-
Italy..



IJberia-

Netherlands! -..

Newfotmdland..

Portugal

Spain



Sweden and Norway..
Switzerland.



Standard.



Monetary unit.



Gold and silver...



Gold

Gold and silver...

Gold ^ ,

.... do



Gold and silver...,
do..:



Gold

do.-..



do

Gold and silver...



Gold ...
do.-



Goldand silver....



..do-,
..do..



Gold

Gold and silver....



Gold

Gold

Gold and silver....



Gold

Gold and silver...,



Turkey I Gold

Venezuela Gold and silver....



Peso.



Crown..
Franc...
Milreis .
DoIUr..



Peso..
do..



Crown

Pound (zoo pias-
ters).
Mark



Franc.



Mark

Pound sterling..



Drachma..



Gourde..
Lira



Dollar...
Florin....



Dollar..
Milreis .
Peseta..,



Crown .
Franc...



Piaster..
Bolivar..



Value in

terms of

United

States

gold.



.ao,3

•19.3
.54,6
1. 00

.91,3

• 99.6

.96,8
4.94,3

•19,3

•19.3

• 23.8
4.86,6^



•96,5
•19.3

1.00
.40,2

101,4
1.08
.I9»3

.26,8
•»9,3

•04,4

.>9,3



Coins.



Gold — Argentine (1^.82,4) and %
Argentine ; silver — peso and oi-
visTons.

Gold— 20 crown<( (^.05,2) and xo
crowns.

Gold — 10 and 20 franc pieces ; sil-
ver — 5 francs.

Gold — 5, 10, and 20 milreis; sil-
ver — 5^, X, and 2 milreis.



Gold — escudo (lx.82,4), doubloon
(14.56,1), and condor (|q.x2,8);
silver — peso and divisions.

Gold — doubloon (^5.01,7) ; silver —
peso.

Gold — 10 and ao crowns.

Gold — 10, 20, so, and xoo piasters ;
silver— X, 2, lo, and 20 piasters.

Gold — xo and 20 marks ($x.93 and
$3.85.9).

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and xoo francs;
silver— 5 francs.

Gold -5, 10, and ao marks.

Gold— sovereign (pound sterling)
and half sovereign.

Gold — 5,10,20, 50, and 100 drach-
mas; silver — 5 drachmas.

Silver — gourde.

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 lire;
silver— 5 lire.

Gold — xo florins; silver — \^, i,and
2j4 florins.

Gold — $a (^.02,7),

Gold — 1, 2, 5, and 10 milreis.

Gold — 25 pesetas; silver — 5 pese-
tas.

Gold— 10 and 20 crowns.

Gold — 5,10, 20, 50, and 100 francs;
silver — 5 francs.

Gold — 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500
piasters.

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50. and 100 boli-
vars ; silver — 5 bolivars.



•In 1874 and 1875 the gold standard prevailed in the Argentine Republic. Its currency docs not appear
in the statements again until 1883, when the double standard prevailed, and the peso attained a fixed value of
96.5 cents.

t On reference to the table of " fluctuating currencies," it will be seen that Austria had the silver standard
up to and including the quarter ending July i, 1893. The next quarter (October x) inaugurated the gold stand-
ard (/^rrnote under table of " fluctuating currencies ").

Illie gold standard prevailed in Chile until January i, X890. The value of the peso has been the same
under both standards.

gThe Netherlands florin, as will be seen in the " fluctuating " table, became fixed in value (40.2 cents) in
1880.



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VI



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.



B. — Countries with fluctuating currencies^ 1874- go.



Countries.



Standard. | Monetary unit.



Austria- Hungary*.
Bolivia



Central America..

China

Colombia

Ecuador

Egyptt



India...

Japan

Mexico..

Netherlands |..

Peru

Russia

Tripoli



Silver Florin

, do... Dollar until

1880: bolivi-
ano there-
after.

do ' Peso ,

.... Silver Haikwan tael....

....' do I Peso

...J do ' do

.... Gold.... Pound (xoo

I piasters).
....' Silver 1 Rupee

.{ ^.f'' }!v.o ■{!

( Silver..„ J ' I '

do Dollar '

,...' Gold and silver.. Florin I

....| Silver I Sol t

...} do Ruble



Value in ternu of the United Sutes gold dollar on
January 1 —



1874.



96,5



.96,5
1.61
■96,5
•96,5



.45,8
•99»7



..do....



Mahbuh of 3o
piasters.



I- 04, 74
.40,5
-92»5
•77»»7
.87,09



1875-



<o-45.3
96.5



.91,8
1.61

.96,5
.91,8



1878.



x88o. 1883. I 1884.



<o-45,3 |o-4i,3
96,5 .83,6



.91,8 1 .83,6



.43,6
•99,7



•9^,5
.91,8

4-97,4

.43.6
•99,7



.83,6

•83,6

4-97,4

•39.7
•99,7



.99,8 I

-38,5
.91,8



•73,4
.82,9



•99.8 I
.38.S I
.91,8 '
-73,4
.83,9 ,



.90,9
.40,2
•83,6
.66,9
-74,8



$0.40,1
.81,2



^-39.8
.80,6



.81,3
.81, a
4.90

.38,6



.80,6
.80,6
4.90

.38.3



-87,6



.86,9
.87.5



.81, a

.65

.73,3



.80,6
.64.5
•72,7



Count nes.



Standard. Monetary unit.



Value in terms of the United States gold dollar on
January i —



I



1S85.



1886. 18S7.



J



Austria-Hungary*., Silver....
Bolivia do.....



.1 F*lorin fo.

. Dollar until'
1880 ; bolivi- |
j ano there-
aftcr.

Central America do ' Peso

Colombia do do

Kciuidor do do

Egypif Gold Pound (100



39,3
79,5



io-37.i
-75.»



piasters).
Rupee..



India ' Silver

f Gold

J^^P^" 1, Silver ,

Mexico do Dollar,



•79,5 i
•7;.5 '

.37.8



.75,1
.75.^
4.90

-35.7



ipo-35.9
•72,7



Yen...



Peru Silver..

Russia ' do...

Tripoli do...



Sol

Ruble

Mahbub of ao
piasters.



.85,8
.86,4
■79,5
.63,6
•71,7



.81,6
•75.1
.60,1

•67,7



•72,7
-72.7 I

I 4-94,3

I

-34,6
•99.7
.78.4
-79
.72.7
.5S.2
. .65,6



<o-34.5
.69,9



69,9
69.9
94,3 I

33,2

99,7

75,3 '

75.9

^9,9

55,9

63



1889.


1S90.


fo.33.6


10.4a


.68


-85


.68


-85




68


.85




68


•85


4


94,3


4.93.3




32,3


•40,4




99,7


•99,7




73,4


•9',7




73,9


.92,3




68


.85




54,4


.68




61,4


.76,7



•The silver standard prevailed in Austria-Hungary up to 1892. The law of August 2 of that year (set
Consular Rei^okts, No. 147, p. 623) csublishcd the gold standard,
fl he Eg>ptian pound became fixed in value at #4.94,3 in 1S87.
X The Netherlands florin fluctuated up to the year z88o, when it became fixed at 40.2 cents.



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VALUES OF FOREIGN CO'lNS.



VII



Countries.



Bolivia..

Central America..



C. — Quarterly valuations of Jluctuatin^ currencies.



Monetary unit.



I



1894.



I Jan. I. I April 1. ! July 1. Oct. i. Jan. i. April 1. 1 July 1. Oct. 1.



China*....



.90,1
1.00,4



Colombia..

Ecuador

.India

Japant-

Mexico

Peru

Ru«sbt

Tripoli

Venezuela \^



Silver boliviano. |o.6i,3 ;$o.6i

Silver peso 61,3 1 .61

Shanghai tael.... I .90,6
Haikwan taeL.. i.oi

Tientsin tael

Chefootacl -'

Silver peso 1 .61,3

do-~ I .61,3

Silver rupee.-...! .99,2

Silver yen.. .66,1

Snvcr dolUr.....! .66,6

Silver sol 61,3

Silver ruble ' . 49, x

Silver mahbub.. .55,3
Silver bolivar..„.



>.6o,4
.60,4
.89,a
•99,4



•.53,«
.53,1
.78.4
.87,4



►.51,6
.51.6
.76,2
.84,9



fo.46,5

.46,5
.68,6

.76.5



*o.45,7
•45,7
.67,6

•75.3



.61

.61

.29

.65,8

.66,2

.61

.48,8

.55



.60,4
.60,4
.28,7
.65.1
.65,6
.60,4
.48.3
•54,5



^•46,4
.46,4
.68,5
.76,3
•72,7
•71,7



.53,1^
•f3,»

.25,2

.57,3 '

•57,7 I
•53,1
.42,5
•47.9



.51,6


.46,5


.45,7


.46.4


.51.6


•46,5


•45.7


•46,4


.24,5


.22,1


.21,7


.22


.55,6


•50,1


•49.3


.50


.5^


•50,5


•49.7


•50.4



I



•51.6 I

•4^3 1
•46,5 1



.46.5 I

.37.2

.4».9



•45,7
.36,6

.41.3



.46,4.
.37.«
.4t,8



Countries.



Bolivia

Central America. ...

r



China*.



Silver boliviano

Silver peso

Amoy tael

Canton tael

Chefoo tael

Chinkiang tael..

Fuchau tael

Haikwan tael...

Hankow taeL...

Ningpo tael

NiuchMrangtael.

Shanghai tael...

Swaiowtael.„...

Takao tael

Tientsin tael

Silver peso

do..

Silver rupee

Silver yen..

Silver dollar

j Silver kran

Peru j Silver sol

Russia! Silver ruble

Tripoli Silver mahbub.



Colombia.

Ecuador

India

Japant-

Mexico.

PersU



1895.



Monetary unit.



' Jan. 1. April I. July x. Oct. x.

«o.45.5 «o.44,i 10.48,6 .48,6
.45,5 I .44,1 .48,6 .48,6



X896.



Jan. X, ' April 1. July i. Oct. x



^.49,1 $0.49,3 fo.49,7
49,1 ' -49,3 I -49.7



.70,4 I .68,3 I .75,1 .75,2



.74,9 -75,6 ^ •So .80,0



•67.3 I .65,2 ( .71,8 I .71,



,.!.,



.7«.4 I
•45.5 I
■45.5
.21,6

•49,« I
•49,5 ,



.69,2
•44,1
•44,«

.21,0
•47,6
•47,9



.45.5
.36.4
.4«,i I



•44,1
•35,3
3-9,8



.48,6
.48,6
•23.x
•52.4
.52.8
.08,9
.48.6



. 76,2
.48,6
.48,6
.23,1
.52.4
.52.8
.09,0
.48,6

•38,9
.43.8



75,9 •76,3 , .76,9



.80,8 .81,2 .81,9



72,5 , -72.9 -73.5



.76,9
•49.1
■49.^
•23,3
•52,9
.53.3
.09

• 49.1
•39»3



.77.3 I

•49.3 '

•49.3 '
• 23.4

.53.2 '
•53.6

•09,1 ,

.49.3 ,
•39.5



•44.3 I -44.5



.78

•49.7 i

•49-7 ■

•23.6 I
.53,2

•54 I

.09,2 t

.49.7 I

•39,8 I

•44,9 I



50.49
•49
•79.3
•79
.75,3
•77.4
•73.3
.80,6
•74.2
.76,2
•74.3
•72,4
•73.2
•79.f
.76,8

•49

•49

•23,3

• 52.8

.53.2

.09

•49

•39.2

•44.2



* China (silver). The Haikwan tael is the customs tael, and the Shanghai tael that used in trade. Con-
sul-General Denny (Consular Reports No. 43, p. 516) says: '* Ihc value of the tael varies in the difTercnt
pKMts of Chixu, and every port has two taeLs, one being the Government, or Haikwan, lacl, in which all duties
have to be paid, and the other the market tael."

fOold is the nominal standard in Japan, but silver is practically the sundard. The fixed value ol the
gold yen is 99.7 cents.



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 1 of 82)