United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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X The gold ruble is valtied at 77.2 cents. Silver is the nominal standard, but paper is the actual currency,
and its depreciation is measured by the gold sundard.

^The Veaeznelan bolivar became fixed in value (19.3 cents) on January i, 1893.



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FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

The following table embraces only such weights and measures as are
given from time to time in Consular Reports and in Commercial Rela-
tions:

Foreign weights and tneasures^ with American equivalents.



Denominations.



Where used.



Almude..
Ardeb....
Are.



Arobe

Arratel or libra....
Arroba (dry)

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Arroba ( I Iquid) ....

Arshine

Arshine (square)..

Artel

BariL

Barrel

Do

Berkovet

Bongkal

Bonw

Bu



Butt (wine)

Caffiso

Candy

Do

Cantar

Do

Do..

Caniaro (Canlar)..

Carga

Caity

Do

Do

Do

Centaro.

Centner

Do

Do

Do

Do..

Do

Do

Do

Do.„

Chih.„

Coyan

Do..



Portugal

Egypt

Metric

Paraguay

Portugal

Argentine Republic

Brazil

Cuba

Portugal

Spain

Venezuela

Cuba, Spain, and Venezuela

Russia

do

Morocco

Argentine Republic and Mexico..

Malta (customs)

Spain (raisins)

Russia

India

Sunratra

Japan.

Spain

Malta

India (Bombay)..

India (Madras)

Morocco

Syria (Damascus)

Turkey

Malu

Mexico and Salvador

China

Japan

Java, Siam, Malacca.

Sumatra

Central America

Bremen and Brunswick

Darmstadt

Denmark and Norway

Nuremberg

Prussia

Sweden

Vienna

Zollvcrcin

Double or metric

China

Sarawak

Siam (K.oyan)



American equivalent.

4.42a gallons.

7.6907 bushels.

0.02471 acre.

25 pounds.

I. oil pounds.

25-3175 pounds.

32.38 pounds.

25.3664 pounds.

32.38 pounds.

25.36 pounds.

25.4024 pounds.

4.263 gallons.

28 inches.

5.44 square feet.

1. 1 2 pounds.

90.0787 gallons.

1 1.4 gallons.

zoo pounds.

361.12 pounds.

833 grains.

7,096.5 square meters.

o.x inch.

140 gallons.

5.4 gallons.

529 pounds.

500 pounds.

1 13 pounds.

575 pounds.

124.7036 pounds.

175 pounds.

300 pounds.

1-333^ (>>^) pounds.*
X.31 pounds.
X.35 pounds.
2.12 pounds.
4.2631 gallons.
1 17.5 pounds.
I xo 24 pounds,
zio.xi pounds.
112.43 pounds.
113*44 pounds.
93,7 pounds.
133.5 pounds.
110.24 pounds.
330.46 pounds.
14 inches.
3,098 pounds.
8,667 pounds.



VIII



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FOREIGN WEIGH! S AND MEASUKES.



IX



Foreign 7veights and measures^ with American equivalents — Q)ntinued.
Denominations. Where used.



Cuadra..

Do.>

Do

Do.>

Cubic meter^

Cwt. (hundredweight)..
Dessiatine.

Do.

Drachme...

Dun..„



Egyptian weights and measures..
Fanega (dry)

Do.>

Do.

Do.

Do-



Argentine Republic

Paraguay..

Paraguay (square)

Uruguay

Metric

British

Russia

Spain..

Greece..

Japan

{See Consular Reports No. 144.)

Central America ,

Chile

Cuba

Mexico

Morocco



Do.

Do

Do...

Fanega (liquid) —

Fcddan

FrxiiKratsins)

Fia»co

Do

Fuder-

Gamice ,

Gram.. ,

Hectare..

Hectoliter:

Do-

Liquid..

Joch

Ken



i



Uruguay (double)

Uruguay (s'ngle)

Venezuela

Spain. „

Egypt-

Spain. »

Argentine Republic.

Mexico

Luxemburg

Russian Poland

Metric

do



American equivalent.

4 3 acres.
78.9 yards.
8.077 square feel.
Nearly a acres.
35.3 cubic feet.
I la pounds.
2.6997 acres.
1.599 bushels.
Half ounce.
X inch.

1-5745 bushels.

2.575 bushels.

1.599 bushels.

X. 54728 bushels.

Strike fanega, 70 lbs.;

full fanega, 1x8 lbs.
7.776 bushels.
3 88S bushels.
i.5<^ bushels.
16 gallons.
1 03 .lores.
5^ pounds.
2.5096 (luarts.
3.5 quarts.
264 17 gallons.
0.88 gallon.
1543a Krains.
2.471 acres.



I



Kilogram (kilo)..

Kilometer..

Klafter.«

Kota-

KoTTce...

Last



Do.,
Do..



Do

Do

Do

League (land)..
U



Libra (pound)..

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Liter ,

Ltvre (pound)...

Do



do

do„

Austria-Hungary

Japan

Metric

do

Russia

Japan..

Russia....

Belgium and Holland .
England (dry malt) ....
Germany



Prussia

Russian Poland

Spain (salt) ,

Paraguay

China

Castilian

Argentine Republic .

Central America

Chile

Cuba...

Mexico ,

Peru

Portugal ,

Uruguay ,

Venezuela..

Metric

Greece

Guuuia ,



2.838 bushels.
26.417 gallons.
1. 422 acres.
4 yards,
2.2046 pounds,
o 621376 mile.
216 cubic feet.

5.13 bushels.
3 5 bushels.
85.134 bushels.
82.52 bushels.

2 metric tons

pounds).
112.29 bushels.
ii>.-f bushels.
4,760 pounds.
4,633 acres.
2,115 feet.
7,100 grains (troy).
J. 0127 pounds.
1.043 pounds.

1.014 pounds.
X 0161 pounds.
1. 01465 pounds.
1. 0143 p>ounds.
I. oil pounds.
1.0143 pounds.
1. 0161 pounds.
1.0567 quarts,
i.i pounds.
Z.0791 pounds.



(4,480



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FOkEIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



Foreign 7veights and measures^ with American equivaUnts — Continued. .



Denominations.



I



Where used.



American equivalent.



Load...



England (timber)..



Manzana .

Marc

Maund

Meter

Mil



Do..
Morgen



Do..
Do..
Do..
Do..



Pic...
Picu!..



Do..
Do..
Do..
Do..



Do

Pik„

Pood

Pund (pound)..
Quarter

Do

Quintal

Do ,

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Rottle

Do ,

Sagen

Salm ,

Se..-



Seer

Shaku....

Sho..

Standard (St. Petersburg)..

Stone

Sucrte



Costa Rica

Bolivia

India

Metric

Denmark

Denmark (geographical)..

Prussia .„

Kgypt

Greece

Hungary

Turkey

Hungary and Wallachia..
Egypt-
Borneo and Celebes..
China, Japan, and Sumatra..
Java,

Philippine Islands (hemp)..
Philippine Isbnds (sugar)..
Argentine Republic.
Castilbn .
Turkey..

Russia

Denmark and Sweden

Great Britain

London (coal) ,

Argentine Republic

Bmzil

Castile, Chile, Mexico, and Peru..

Greece

Newfoundland (fish)

Paraguay ,

Syria

Metric

Palestine

Syria

Russia ,



Malta

Japan

India

Japan

do

Lumber measure...

British

Uruguay



Tael

Tan

To.„

Ton

Tonde (cereals)..

Tondeland

Tsutx)

Tsun

Tunna

Tunnland„

Yaia

Do...

Do..



' Cochin China

\ Japan

I do

Space measure

Denmark

do

Japan

China ,

Sweden

do

Argentine Republic.

Ca-stiic

Central America



Square, 50 cubic feet;
unhewn, ao cubic feet ;
inch planks, 600 super-
ficial feet.

ij acres.

0.507 pound.

82^ pounds.

39.37 inches.

4.68 miles

4.61 miles.

0.63 acre.

2.7223 pounds.

3.84 pounds.

3.0817 pounds.

a. 85418 pounds.

2.5 pints.
21 >-^ inches.
135.64 pounds.
»33*3 pounds.

135.1 pounds.
139-45 pounds.
140 pounds.
0.9478 ft)Ot.
0.91407 foot.
27.9 inches.
36.112 pounds.
1 102 pounds.
8.252 bushels.
36 bushels.
101.42 pounds.
130.06 poimds.
101.61 pounds.

123.2 pounds.
112 pounds.
100 pounds.
135 pounds.
320.46 pounds.

6 pounds.
S^i pounds.

7 feet.

490 pounds.

3.6 feet.

1 pound 13 ounces.
10 inches.

1 .6 quarts.

165 cubic feel.

14 pounds.

2,700 cuadras {see cua-

dra).
59075 grains (troy).
0.25 acre.

2 pecks.

40 cubic feet.
3.94783 bushels.
1 36 acres.
6 feet square.
1. 41 inches.
4 5 bushels.
1 .22 acres.
34.1208 inches.
0.914117 yard.
38.674 mches.



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FOKEIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. XI

Foreign weights and measures^ wUh American equivalents — Continued.



DenomtnatioDS.



Cuba..

Cura^o.

Mexico...



Vara.

Do

Do

Do

Do.,.. i Paraguay.,..,

Do... I Venezuela^,

Vedro«. , Russia

Vergces.. Isle of Jersey



Where used.



Chile and Peru 33-367 inches.



American equivalent.



33.384 inches.
33-375 inches.

33 inches.

34 inches.
33.384 inches.
2.707 gallons.
71. X square rods.



Verst „ I Russia I 0.663 ""'*•

Vlocka.. Russian Poland ' 41.98 acres.



NTETRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Metric weights.

Milligram (^^^ gram) equals 0.0154 grain.

Ccntigram( jj^ gram) equals 0^543 grain. •

Decigram (y*^ gram) equals 1.5432 grains.

Gram equals 15.432 grains.

Decagram (10 grams) equals 0.3527 ounce.

Hectogram (100 grams) equals 3.5274 ounces.

Kilogram (1,000 grams) ecfuals 2.2046 pounds.

Myriagram ( 10,000 grams) equals 22.046 pounds.

Quintal (ioo,ooo grams) equals 220.46 pounds.

Millier or tonnea — ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 }K>unds.

Metric dry measure.

Milliliter (yxftnr ^^^®'^) equals 0.061 cubic inch.
Centiliter (y^^ liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch.
Deciliter \^^ literj equals 6.1022 cubic inches.
Liter equals 0.908 quart.
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts.
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.838 bushels.
Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 1.308 cubic yards.

Metric liquui measure.

Milliliter (xTHnr ^*'®'') equals 0.0388 fluid ounce.

Centiliter (j-J^ liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce.

Deciliter (j*^ liter) equals 0.845 g^^^-

Liter equals 1.0567 quarts.

Decaliter (10 liters) equals 2.6418 gallons.

Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.418 gallons.

Kiloliter (loo liters) equals 264.18 gallons.

Metric measures of length.

Millimeter (71^7^ meter) equals 0.0394 inch.

Centimeter (p^^ meter) equals 0.3937 inch.

Decimeter (^ meter) equals 3.937 'nches.

Meter equals 39.37 inches.

Decameter (10 meters) equals 393.7 inches.

Hectometer (100 meters) equals 328 feet i inch.

Kilometer (1, 000 meters) equals 0.62137 mile (3,280 feet 10 inches).

Myriameter (10,000 meters) equals 6.2137 miles.

Metric surface measures.

Centare (i square meter) equals 1,550 square inches.
Are (too square meters) equals 119.6 square yards.
Hectare (10,000 square meters) equals 2.471 acres.



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CONSUIvARJWEPORT^S-




COMMERCE, mNUFACTlimrEXa



Vol. LIII. JANUARY, 1897. No. 196.



LAND TAXATION AND LABOR LAWS IN NEW ZEALAND.*

Notwithstanding my report on land taxation in New Zealand, made to
the Department of State and printed in Consular Reports No. 163 (April,
1894), I have had many hundreds of letters, asking for additional informa-
tion, from all classes of citizens — doctors, lawyers, legislators, would-be
immigrants, farmers, and nearly all kinds of social reformers. I have en-
deavored to reply briefly to each inquiry, but it has been a severe task on
my time and energy; I therefore avail myself of this opportunity to give the
details of each different system under which land may be obtained in this
colony. While doing so, I wish it distinctly understood that, although the
terms look more than reasonable, I can not encourage any man to leave the
United States in search of a home here, for the following reasons, viz :

If a man has money, he can find better land, more accessible to market,
and much richer and more easily cultivated in the United States than he can
here. Most of the land in this country is covered with timber and a dense
undergrowth. To cut and burn the bush and sow the land in grass costs
not less than j£^ to j£^ los. (about I17.50) per acre. This does not by
any means include grubbing out the stumps, which are, in most instances,
allowed to remain for a few years till they are pretty well decayed, when, if
the land is required for agricultural purposes, they are taken out; but if not
so required, they are generally permitted to remain for an indefinite period.
The above cost does, however, include the fencing.

Every practical man, and especially every farmer, who has undertaken to
build himself a home in the forest, will readily realize what a prolonged and
desperate struggle it is; nor need he be told that it is no easier to do so in
New Zealand than it is in our own country.

* This report was prepaured by Consul Connolly as supplementary to his former report on the same subject
primed in Comsulak Reports No. 163 (April, 1894), and in compliance with instructions from the Department
of State^in consequence of the large number of requests receired by the Department for additional information.

No. 196 1, I

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2 LAND TAXATION AND LABOR LAWS IN NEW ZEALAND.

While the conditions upon which land may be obtained are undoubtedly
favorable, a man should have sufficient means to enable him to live while
he is clearing and grassing his land, and then he should have enough left to
stock what he has cleared, as, otherwise, his labor is lost. If a man has
sufficient means to enable him to do all this, he can find better and more
profitable employment for it in the United States.

In addition to the drawbacks already mentioned, there is the want of a
local market, which he can not avail himself of to any extent here; and by
the time he has sent his products to England, which is fully 16,000 miles
away, there is very little return for his time and labor, in consequence of the
great distance, freight, insurance and commissions, and other leakages of
various kinds. Add the discomfort ^rd serious inconvenience of bad roads,
for in the north of the North Island of New Zealand it would be difficult in
the winter season to find worse roads in any country in the world. The
reason of this is that the country referred to consists largely of yellow clay
and pumice, and that, for a hundred miles at a stretch, there is little or no
good road material.

But, notwithstanding these sometimes hard and uninviting conditions, if
a small farmer should happen to get hold of a piece of good land — a thing
which it is very difficult to do at times — he is as happy as most men of his
class anywhere in the world. The conditions of life are not so desperately
hard as they are in many of the countries of the Old World. The climate
is comparatively mild and temperate, there being no great extremes of
heat or cold except in the southern portion of the Middle Island, where
sometimes there is considerable frost and snow in winter. These conditions
are largely enhanced by reason of the fact that no man pays any taxes to the
State (customs duties excepted) until he is worth over ^2,500; neither does
he pay anything for education, or for any other purpose in the way of taxes
to the State, but he is not, of course, exempt from taxation for local pur-
poses, such as highway improvements in the country, and, if in the city, if
he be a property holder, he has, of course, to contribute toward the mainte-
nance of the city government. It is an undoubted fact that it has been the
aim of the Government for many years past to relieve as much as possible
the congestion in the large cities by affording every possible facility toward
placing men on the vacant landfe of the country. This accounts for the
numerous systems under which land may be taken up. The whole aim has
been to encourage the occupation of the land and thereby stimulate a spirit
of thrift and manly independence in those who are otherwise almost wholly
dependent. That there have been many failures in pursuit of this object is
admitted, for it is a most difficult matter to make a sturdy farmer out of
every social reformer who wants to put everybody on the land but himself.
I am assured that nearly all the failures among those who have taken up
land, under one or another of the many land-occupation schemes in vogue
here, came, and still continue to come, from among those who have been
most clamorous for radical reforms in the land laws of the colony.



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LAND TAXATION AND LABOR LAWS IN NEW ZEALAND. 3

This is not to be wondered at when we reflect that men unaccustomed to
the hardships of country life have for the first time, perhaps, taken an axe,
spade, or other farm implement in their hands and begun a struggle for
which they are physically incapacitated. But it is to their credit, it may be
said, that a large percentage of the genuine workers among the unemployed
and laboring element generally who have gone upon the land have remained
and manfully struggled and succeeded in accomplishing that which they set
out to do. Through sheer force of character and unceasing perseverance,
many a man who is now living in comparative independence, cultivating his
own piece of land and rearing and educating his family, could never have
known the blessings of such a home were it not for the bounty of a thought-
ful Government, which placed the land so easily within his reach. What if
there are a few failures among the agitator, corner-orator, and ne'er-do-weel
class who could not make a success of anything in life, if, through such
means as have been adopted by the New Zealand Government, hundreds
of worthy, industrious men have been created into honest, sturdy farmers to
the one who, through inexperience or want of desire, has failed ?

It may not be generally known that by treaty with the British Govern-
ment all the lands of the colony were vested in the Maoris (natives), and
can not be alienated except by their consent; but early in the history of the
colony, the "Pakeha** (European), with his usual earth hunger, began to
manifest his superior intelligence over the poor unsophisticated Maori by
acquiring large areas of the very best land in the colony for almost nothing.
Thus, from the very beginning of British settlement and for twenty or thirty
years afterwards, this scheme of despoiling the natives of their birthright
continued until the most fertile and easily developed lands had been alienated.
The population being sparse, this condition of affairs was not noticeable till
immigration set in on an extensive scale, when it was found that the eyes had
been picked out of the colony — so far as good and easily cultivated land was
concerned. It is true there was any quantity of land still available, but the
best lands had been largely acquired both by individuals and companies —
sometimes in blocks of 100,000 acres and over. It is charged against the
church missionaries that they were as great sinners in the acquisition of
valuable lands as were the laymen.

Most of the lands thus acquired remain unimproved — held, for the most
part, by wealthy people for speculative purposes. However, as population
increased, the demand for good land became greater, till, finally, the people
became thoroughly aroused and exasperated at the "dog-in-the-manger"
policy pursued by the large holders, and a course of action was determinedly
resolved upon, having for its aim the passing of legislation which would
bring about a radical change in the land policy of the country. It was this
unsatisfactory state of things that induced nearly all the subsequent land
legislation which had for its purpose the "bursting up'* of those immense
estates and thereby afford every man in the colony who desired it a piece
of land upon which to build himself a home.



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4 LAND TAXATION AND LABOR LAWS IN NEW ZEALAND.

Of course, as might naturally have been expected, a cry of alarm went
up and this class of legislation was condemned far and wide as being revo-
lutionary and un-English and those who favored such laws were denounced
as "socialists" and "spoliators." Be this as it may, the people adhered to
their settled policy, and the hand of the clock has not been turned back as
yet — the course of legislation still goes on.

The honest convictions of those who were disinterested spectators and
had a knowledge of the facts were, and still are, that no moral wrong had
been committed in compelling the selfish large landholders to either sell,
improve, or subdivide their holdings. In my own judgment, the real trouble
has been that the progress made was, in many respects, in advance of the
demands of the people. The situations changed with such rapidity that
they were unable to grasp the full import of the new laws which were daily
being thrust upon them. And in this they were not so much to blame, if
they, at times, manifested some concern, for the entire fundamental law of
the colony had undergone almost a complete change, especially in respect to
land and labor legislation.

Now, however, the people are rapidly beginning to realize the beneficial
effects of the new era that had been inaugurated a few years back and are
becoming reconciled to the innovations they were wont to condemn hereto-
fore.

This restoration of confidence is the result of largely increased and con-
tinued prosperity, which, in a measure, they attribute to the new order of
things, and, in this, they are to some extent warranted, for there is no doubt
there has been considerable improvement in nearly every branch of trade
and industry.

In any case, there was ample justification for the changes which were
made in the land laws, while the wisdom of the alteration in the incidence
of taxation from land and personal property to land and income tax has now
been fully demonstrated.



LAND TENURE.



But before proceeding further with this feature of the subject, I desire to
submit here a few selected articles from the New Zealand Official Year Book,
which is printed and published under Government authority and compiled
by the administrative heads of the lands and other departments.



SELECTfeD Articles from the New Zealand Offiqal Year Book, 1895.

SECTION I. — ^THE LAND SYSTEM OF NEW ZEALAND.
By S. Percy Smith, F. R. G. S., secretary for Crown lands and surveyor-general.

The Crown lands of New Zealand are administered under *'the land act, 1892,^' and the
regulations made thereunder.



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LAND TAXATION AND LABOR LAWS IN NEW ZEALAND. 5

The distmgaishing features of the present land system are the outcome of ideas which have
been gradually coming to maturity for some years past in this colony. These features involve
the principle of State ownership of the soil, with a perpetual tenancy in the occupier. This,
whatever may be the difference in detail, is the prevailing characteristic of the several systems
under which land may now be selected. In New Zealand, this tendency to State ownership
has taken a more pronounced form than in any other of the Australasian colonies, and the
duration of the leases has become so extended as to warrant the name, frequently given to
them, of ** everlasting leases." In point of fact, most of the Crown lands are now disposed of
for terms of 999 years. The rentals are based on the assessed value of the land at the time
of disposal, without increase or recurring valuations. Under this system there is a fixity of
tenure practically equal to freehold, and which, like freehold, necessarily carries with it
the power of sale, sublease, mortgage, or disposition by will. Since all lands held under the
Crown "by lease in perpetuity" are subject to the land tax, the necessity for the periodica]
revaluations under the perpetual-lease system is done away with, the State reaping the ad-
vantage of the unearned increment through the before-mentioned tax. At the same time, the
improvements made in the soil by cultivation, etc., are secured to the tenant.

The advantages of this system to the selector are manifest. When it is taken into con-
sideration that, with few exceptions, the Crown lands are, in their prairie condition, incapable
of producing anything until brought into cultivation, the advantage to the settler of setting
free his capital to develop the capabilities of the soil, rather than having to expend it in the
purchase of a freehold, is very apparent One of the most striking benefits of this system is
the advantage it gives to the poor man, who, with little more capital than hb strong right arm,
is enabled to make a home for himself, which, under the freehold system, he is frequently
unable to accomplish.

The values placed on the Crown lands are, as a rule, low, for the State does not so much
seek to raise a revenue directly therefrom as to encourage the occupation of the lands by the
people ; this secures indirectly an increased revenue, besides other advantages, resulting from
a nnmeroos rural population.

Again, underlying the whole of the New Zealand land system is a further application of
the principle of *' the land for the people," viz, the restriction in area which any man may
hold. This subject has been forced upon the attention of the legislature by defects in former
systems, under which one individual with means at his command could appropriate large
areas, to the exdusbn of his poorer fellow-settler. Under conditions where the price at which
the land is offered is fixed and where choice of selection is by ballot, the poor settler has the
same chance as the rich one and may, should he wish it, hold as much land. The limit that
a selector may hold is so fixed as to encourage the class of small farmers, and up to that limit
the amount he may select is left entirely to himself. The act defines the amount of land any-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 2 of 82)