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Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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muscles began to relax, the spasms became lighter and less frequent, and
from that time, improvement was so rapid and sustained that on the 23d of
October, sixteen days after the second injection of antitoxin, the patient was
convalescent, and, at his own request, was discharged from the hospital.

This, in the opinion of the physicians in charge, was a typical and con-
clusive case, in which life could not have been saved by any other treatment
previously known, and in which the course of the disease might unquestion-
ably have been arrested and greatly shortened had the antitoxin been used



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ELECTRICITY ON FARMS. 1 29

when the patient first came under medical treatment instead of ten days later,
when the case had become one of acute and fully developed tetanus.

It is, of course, too soon to estimate the exact prophylactic or ther?ipeutic
value of the new remedy. That can only be determined by a long series of
observations in actual practice, which will be made as rapidly as the compar-
ative rarity of the disease itself will i^ermit. Thus far, the antitoxin has been
used experimentally, both in this country and in France, with horses, cattle,
guinea pigs, mice, etc., and from these tests, and the hospital case above
described, the indications are that its use entails no injurious result. The
antitoxin is prepared with extreme care, subjected to rigid inspection and
control at the imperial testing laboratory at Steglitz, and with this guaranty
is placed within reach of bacteriologists and medical practitioners in all
countries.

FRANK H. MASON,

Frankfort, November 16, i8g6. Consul- General,



ELECTRICITY ON FARMS.

The following is a description of an electrical plant as introduced on a
farm in Mecklenburg:

The motive power is furnished by a small brook, which passes the farm
at a distance of about 650 feet and drives a turbine wheel. About 1,650
feet above the wheelhouse, a dam has been erected in the brook for the pur-
pose of obtaining the necessary fall and forcing the water into a canal lead-
ing to the turbine. This canal is partly cut into the ground and partly
banked, so that at the turbine, a fall of 5^ feet is obtained. The volume
of water changes from 18 cubic feet a second in very dry seasons to 106 to
141 cubic feet a second in very wet seasons. With an average of 35 cubic
feet, the turbine is guarantied to furnish 16 horsepower, while in reality it
furnishes 18 and at high water 21 to 22 horsepower. The turbine drives a
Schubert dynamo machine, which develops all the electricity needed. From
this dynamo, the current goes to the so-called switch board, whence it is
distributed to the various stations. Wires of different sizes, strung on poles,
conduct light and power currents to the yard, thence to the dwelling and
main building, stables, barns, other farm buildings, and garden. There are
in the dwelling and main building one hundred incandescent lights; in the
other buildings, seventy ; and in the yard and garden, twelve, besides two arc
lamps. In the turbine house, there is also an accumulator — a battery con-
sisting of sixty-six large glass cells, with plates of lead in diffused sulphuric
acid, which serves to accumulate electricity. During the day, when the
machines are not in operation on the yard, this accumulator is loaded and
contains then sufficient electricity to feed the lights fromi evening, after
working hours, till the next morning. A small machine can also be attached
to the accumulator and worked from its power. By careful handling, the
accumulator has furnished sufficient electricity to last five days without being
No. 196 9.

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I30



ELECTRICITY ON FARMS.



reloaded. To operate the machinery, there are two electric motors, one
of lo horsepower and the other of 2^ horsepower. The small motor is
fixed and drives the pumps for the stables, a straw cutter, a turning lathe, a
grindstone, and a large band saw, which can cut logs of thickness up to 17^
inches, the latter, however, only with the aid of the larger motor. The
larger motor is mounted on iron wheels, and, together with the thrashing
machine, can be put into any barn, to be connected there with the electric
current by a small cable. The silos are built in a semicircle around the last
bam and can be reached, to a distance of 500 feet, by cable attachments.
The distance of the motor from the turbine is then about 1,800 feet. The
system of handling the motors is so simple that any farm hand can readily
understand it. The turning of a lever admits the electric current, which
immediately puts the motor in operation to its full power. One machinist,
who is stationed at the turbine house, superintends the entire plant, handles
the turbine and dynamo, and, from time to time, inspects the motors when
in operation. One intelligent farm hand can attend the thrashing mirhine
and the large motor.

LIGHTS.

The burning time of the electric lights during the year is as follows:



Situation.



Sheep's pen

Horse stable

Cow stable

Pigs' pen

Cattle stable

Repair shop

Yard and garden,



Num-
ber of
lamps.


Total
burning
hours.


3


x,aoo


7


6, too


7


3,000


3


2,100


X4


10,800


I
It


700
6,800



Situation.



Inspector and assistant

Other buildings „

Turbine house

Dwelling and main building.
Yard (arc lamps)

Total



Num-
ber of
lamps.



3
100



Total
burning
hours.



10,000
1,500
2,800
65,000
10,000



Z90,000



MACHINERY.

Owing to loss of power in the conduits, an average of 16 horsepower
is required for thrashing, 12 horsepower for sawing, and 3 horsepower for
running the small motor. With an average crop of 6,600 cwts. of winter
grain and 7,700 cwts. of summer grain and to furnish the needed quantity
of wood, the following power is required :



Description.



Thrashing

Sawing logs

Kindling wood

Pumps

Straw cutter

Repair shop and small jobs....

Total

Add for lights..

Total horsepower used..



Hours.



800
300
xoo

720

630



Horse-
power.

16=12,800
X2= 3,600
3= 300
3— 2,160
3= 1,890
i»a50

22,000
12,000



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ELECTRICITY ON FARMS.



COST OF THE WORKS.



Earthwork, including dam and bridge $1,904

Turbine, including freight and mounting 1*428

Machinery building, including foundation I}I90

Electrical plant 7.140

Sundry expenses 714

Total 12,376

The cost of the electrical plant is distributed as follows:

Machinery, including accumulator $3»332

Mounting, freight, and expenses 1,190

Wires, lamps, fixtures, and apparatus 2,618

Total 7,140

WORKING EXPENSES OF THE PLANT.

Interest on the total cost of $12,376 at 4 per cent $495.04

Interest on earthwork of $1,904, 2 per cent extra 38.08

Interest on machinery building of $1,190, I per cent extra 11.90

Interest on wires, lamps, and apparatus of $2,618, 2 per cent extra 52.36

Amortization on machinery, including turbine, of $4,760, 10 per cent 476.00

Other expenses 69.02

Or an average of about 9^ per cent on the entire cost of $12,376 1,142.40

Salary of machinist 285.60

Total 1,428.00

Therefore, the 34,000 horsepower used during the year cost $1,428, or
about 4^ cents per horsepower per hour ; and, as ten incandescent lamps rep-
resent I horsepower, the burning hour per lamp costs about four-tenths of a
cent. As, with an average working time of nine and one-half hours, 70,000
horsepower could easily be developed during the year, if there were any use
therefor, the cost per horsepower could be reduced one-half.

FORMER WORKING EXPENSES.

Formerly, 8,360 cwts. of grain were thrashed by steam, requiring four
hundred hours, or forty-five days, and 5,940 cwts. by a Goepel machine,
requiring eight horses and six hundred hours, or seventy days. The time
occupied for pumping and straw cutting was about the same. For sawing
logs into boards and kindling wood, $238 a year were paid on an average.
The summary is therefore as follows :

Thrashing by steam, 400 hours, at $1,428 per hour, including coal and board of

machinists $571.20

I team of horses for carrying coal and water, 45 days, at $2.856 128.52

Thrashing by Goepel machine, 2 teams, 70 days, at $5.712 399-84

Pumping, 720 hours (80 days), half team, at $1.428 114.24

Straw cutting, 630 hours (70 days), half team, at $1.428 9996

Sawing 238.00

Lights (petroleum and candles) 138.04

Rebate on fire-insurance premium 23.80

Totol 1,713.60

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132 ELECTRICITY ON FARMS.

This shows a difference of 1 285. 60 a year in favor of the electric plant.
Another advantage is, that now four horses can be dispensed with and the
remaining horses are always ready for use. How great this advantage is,
especially during the harvest, or while the fields are being manured and pre-
pared for the winter, need hardly be mentioned. Other advantages are, that
the electric light is cleaner, safer, and more agreeable. The fact that power
is always ready enables ihe farmer to employ his hands at once in thrashing
in case bad weather or some other reason prevents them from working in
the fields.

The disadvantages are, that in a dry summer the water may run low and
thus occasion interruptions in the running of the machinery; but, as during
the dry season few lights are needed and the large motor is not used, this
disadvantage is really trifling. Sufficient water can always be stored to
furnish power for loading the accumulator and working the small motor. In
winter, disturbances may be caused by the clogging of ice, which, however,
if occurring at all, can easily be remedied by a few hours' work.

The currents used are all of low tension and harmless to human life.
High-tension currents require more precaution, but could be used to more ad-
vantage on larger farms. The cost of the machinery would be considerably
greater, but a saving would be effected in the wiring, because high-tension
currents require thinner wires than low-tension currents. Furthermore, the
loss of power in the former is very small, being less than 5 per cent at a
distance of i^ miles, while the loss in the latter is 5 per cent at a distance
of 656 feet, 10 per cent at 984 feet, 15 per cent at 1,312 feet, and 25 per
cent at 1,968 feet. High-tension currents could also be used for driving
plowing and other agricultural machines at a greater distance from the farm.

JULIUS MUTH,

Magdeburg, December j^ i8g6. Consul,



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Electric Tramways and Railways in Ireland. — Consul Ashby writes from
Dublin, November 17, 1896:

Referring to my report of June 18, 1896,* and my supplemental report
of June 29, 1896,* wherein I called attention to the probability that in the
near future electric traction would become general upon the tramways in
Ireland, I have now to report that the Dublin United Tramways have pub-
lished notices of their intention to proceed in Parliament, session of 1897,
with bills to permit extensive construction of new lines and to substitute elec-
tric traction for horse power upon the existing lines. The company have
also given notice of their intention to proceed before the privy council, Easter
sittings, 1897, for authority to extend, vary, and enlarge existing tramway
lines with such changes at passing places or crossings as may be necessary.
All of these notices are the legal preliminaries toward the adoption of elec-
tricity as the means of traction upon existing lines and such new extensions
as they may make. The new extensions contemplate a large number of lines
connecting the various suburban districts with each other and with the city
proper. The Dublin, Wicklow, and Wexford Railway Company have also
given notice of their intention to proceed in the parliamentary session of
1897 with bills to allow extensions of their system of railways and with
power to substitute electricity as the motive power upon their system to such
extent as they may choose. This company now operates about 140 miles of
railway. It is said that it is the intention of the company to substitute at
an early date electric traction for both passenger and goods trains on their
line from Westland Row (Dublin) to Bray, a distance of about 14 miles, most
of the way lying through populous suburban towns. It is alleged that the
competition of the Southern District Electrical Tramway, which parallels this
line for 8 miles, has made this change necessary, as this line, which was
opened in May, has already seriously interfered with the earnings of the rail-
way and is constantly growing in favor with the suburban population. The
municipal council of Bray is also favorably considering the construction of
an electric tramway. Bray is a fashionable seaside resort, with a constant
population of about 10,000, and has at present no tramway system. I also
understand that the Tramways Company of Belfast intend to apply to Par-
liament for power to substitute electric traction on the tramways of that city.
Should the action of Parliament be favorable to these various projects, there
should be a good Irish demand for electrical goods.



• Printed in Consulak Rbfokts No. 191 (August, 1896), pp. 764-768.

^33



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1 34 NOTES.

American Barley in British Breweries. — A large brewer in Dundee,
writes Consul Savage, November 25, 1896, informs me that he recently pur-
chased a quantity of California "Chevalier" barley of the 1895 ^^^P ^^r use
in his business. He submitted a sample to me, which shows that the bar-
ley in question contains a number of half and split grains, which he claims is
a common fault with American barley, and he informs me that in the process
of making the barley into malt, these half and split grains decay and cause
mold, which, especially in mild weather, has a tendency to spread and thus
damage more or less of the whole of the green malt on the growing floor.
He further states that, barring the defect referred to, the barley malted better
than almost any other class of barley he has used, and that a London brewing
expert, to whom he sent a sample, reported very highly in regard to the
same. The price of California ** Chevalier*' on dock at Leith was I7.05 per
448 pounds, whereas for English barley of not so good quality, he is paying
from I9.14 to I9.73 free on board Dundee. It will therefore be seen that,
if this defect could be overcome, even at an increased cost in the thrashing
of the grain, by reason of exercising greater care, where I presume the dam-
age is done, the American farmer would be able to realize a higher price for
his grain and also command a much more extensive market.



Shipbuilding in Glasgow. — Under date of December 14, 1896, Consul
Morse transmits the following statistics covering shipbuilding on the Clyde :

I have the honor to report that shipbuilding on the Clyde has increased
over last year. Sailing vessels built, 97, of 46,814 tons; steam vessels built,
280, of 374,027 tons; total tonnage in 1896, 420,841; total tonnage in
1895, 36o»i52.



Opening for American Fire Apparatus in Switzerland. — Consul Germain
writes from Zurich, December 12, 1896:

In September, 1895, 1 received a catalogue from the Vajen & Bader Com-
pany, Indianapolis, Ind., describing their patent fireman's smoke protector.
I submitted it to the chief of the Zurich fire department, who, at that period,
did not seem to interest himself in this life-saving appliance. A few days ago,
however, I received a communication from him advising me that he had
called the attention of the Swiss board of fire commissioners to the above-
named article, and they had concluded to supply all of the Swiss fire depart-
ments with this smoke protector if, upon trial, it proves practical. Mr.
Schiess has this day ordered one smoke protector to experiment with. As
soon as it arrives and trials have been made, I shall report results. Mr. Schiess
also informs me that he wishes to be put in communication with American
manufacturers of firemen's portable electric lamps and other firemen's elec-
trical appliances and supplies, and the object of this is to ask the Department,
if deemed expedient, to call the attention of our manufacturers in the above



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NOTES. 135

lines to this probable outlet and say that Mr. H. Schiess, Feuerwehr- Inspector
(chief of the fire department), at Zurich, is desirous to give American fire ap-
pliances, electrical and others, as well as firemen's life-protecting inventions,
a trial with a view to business. Mr. Schiess invites correspondence. I would
therefore advise the sending of descriptive catalogues and price lists to the
above-named gentleman, gotten up, if possible, in the German or French
language. All the fire departments of Switzerland belorg to the Union of
Swiss Fire Departments, and whatever new fire appliances one department
should conclude to* supply themselves with will be followed, if proven satis-
factory, with orders from the other Swiss fire departments. I may add that
no steam or chemical fire engines are in use in Switzerland, and that the old
hand engines are still being used. With proper efforts, perhaps, this also
opens a new ground to prospect.



Fire Engines in Martinique. — Referring, in his annual report, to the
antiquated fire engines and apparatus in Martinique, Consul Tucker, of St.
Pierre, says that in an interview with the mayor of that city (population
30,000) that official complained of the impossibility of obtaining reliable
information from catalogues printed in English — alluding more particularly
to steam fire engines, the city being desirous of purchasing one of these. He
would also be glad to receive catalogues (in French) of all sorts of station-
ery. To send catalogues printed in English to this French colony, as is
constantly being done, is simply a waste of stamps and material, adds the
consul.



Process for Detecting Adulteratioos in Silk and Wool. — A newly discov-
ered and almost infallible method of detecting adulterations in silk and
wool, writes Consul Sawter, of Glauchau, Germany, November 2, 1896,
has recently been receiving much attention and experiment in Germany.
The materials employed in adulterating silk and wool are, as a rule, cotton,
linen, and china grass, and so reliable and exact is this new system of
detection, when used, that eveni per cent of any of the above-named
spurious substitutes is immediately discovered and recognized. The method
is as follows: A small piece of the suspicious material is taken and well
cleaned, particular care being exercised to remove from the sample every
particle of starch or gum dressing, a precaution which is most important to
insure the success of the experiment. The prepared specimen of silk or
wool is then steeped for from six to ten hours in sulphuric acid, with which
some water is used to reduce its strength. After this part of the process
and the required delay, the acid fluid is poured off and the acid-soaked piece
of cloth or silk placed in a porcelain vessel, to which is added sufficient
alkali to turn a piece of litmus paper a deep violet in color; upon this is
poured a few drops of a weak solution of archil, or orchil — a violet dye
obtained from several species of lichen. The concoction is then heated for



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136 NOTES.

some minutes to 82° Celsius. If, after carefully observing all the above-
mentioned directions, i per cent or fraction thereof of spurious part com-
p<isition or vegetable fiber exists, the violet hue produced by the archil will
have disappeared; if, on the other hand, the violet effect remains, it is con-
sidered absolute evidence and proof of the addition of vegetable fiber in
adulteration of the material tried in whatever per cent is indicated by the
experiment.

Commerce of Switzerland with France. — In a dispatch dated November
24, 1896, Consul Germain, of Zurich, says:

French statistics show that for the ten months ended October 31, 1896,
Switzerland's exports to France foot up ^12,712,400, as against 110,930,800
for the same period of 1895. Those of France to Switzerland for the same
period amount to 129,905,000, as against 125,516,600, the figures of last
year. The Swiss export increase, amounting to about J 1,800,000, was due
principally to the increased sales of the following articles: Silk goods,
cheese, watches, jewelry, cotton goods (inclusive of embroideries), machin-
ery, chemical products, and wood. The French export increase is credited
to the enhanced Swiss demand for sugar, wine, cattle, copper, woolen goods,
watches, machinery, fancy Paris articles, etc. This is a good showing for
Switzerland, since Swiss exports to France for the first ten months of 1895
showed an increase of but |6oo,ooo over 1894, and those of France to
Switzerland, J4, 200,000 for the same period. Both states exported an excess
of 17 per cent over last year's figures, while Switzerland's increase in 1895
over 1894 was but 6 per cent and that of France 20 per cent.



Cable to M*anaos, Brazil. — Consul Mathews writes from Para, November
17, 1896:

The cable to Manaos, which was laid last February at a cost of ^210,000,
was in operation only thirty-one days, since which time it has been impossi-
ble to send messages. The contractors were under agreement to operate
the cable for thirty days free of breakage before they could receive remuner-
ation, which they gained by only one day. Since that time, it has never
been repaired so that they could send messages, notwithstanding they have
been almost continually at work upon it. They now have it repaired above
Obiduo and will reach Manaos certainly by the last of December. It is
claimed by engineers that the cable up the Amazon can not be made a suc-
cess on account of the very strong current and the many obstructions found
in the bed of the Amazon River. They are now laying the cable near the
bank in the shallow water, where it is believed by many it will prove more
successful. The general opinion when the cable was first projected to Manaos
was that it would be a serious blow to Para, and would materially affect her
commercial importance. But in contemplation of that, the rubber crop of
the islands of the Lower Amazon was increased 33 per cent over the previous



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NOTES. 137

year, thus providing a reserve supply and proving beyond a doubt that
Para's commercial future is secure and will not in any way be jeopardized
by the cable to Manaos. The banking facilities of Manaos are very poor
and the greater portion of the exchange to cover business done there is
placed with the banks of Para. That will be changed when the cable
is established and they can have exchange quotations from Rio de Janeiro
daily to guide them.

American Settlers la Brazil. — Consul Mathews writes from Para, Novem-
ber 17, 1896:

For the benefit of those who constantly write letters inquiring what
Americans can do in Brazil without capital, but with ** energy and push,**
and as a warning to my indigent countrymen, a class arriving here every
month in the year, I beg to submit the following information: No Ameri-
cans coming to Para without the means to maintain themselves while acquir-
ing the language and seeking employment can have much chance of success.
A knowledge of the Portuguese language is absolutely necessary to enable
one to find employment. Para, like all commercial centers, has more ap-
plicants than positions. Salaries are small and living the most expensive in
the world. Nearly everything consumed here is imported and pays a very
high import duty. Salaries paid clerks are from J 15 to $45 per month.
The uncertain and ever-changing value of the money has a very injurious
effect upon trade. None suffer more from it than they who work for wages,
for while the cost of living is made dearer by the financial condition of the
country, salaries undergo little or no change as the money fluctuates in value.
As to outdoor labor, no white American who exposes himself, as he would
be compelled to do, to the sun's burning rays and daily rains that fall here
during the wet season could hope to escape the yellow fever and perhaps
death. It is true, money is plentiful and the exportation of natural prod-
ucts guaranties a permanent prosperity to this part of Brazil ; but no one can
successfully deal in rubber unless he has a large capital. The competition
among the rubber buyers is very great, and on that account the business is
surrounded with greater difficulties now than formerly. In the rubber field,
men without money can play no part, unless they become rubber gatherers,



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 20 of 82)