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in which case they would have ten chances for death against one for life.
On some of the rivers, 50 per cent of the natives die who go there.

The value of the inilreis is the lowest in the history of Brazil, as it now
requires over 6)4 milreis to buy $1 (United States), which, in the middle
of the coffee and rubber season, is an unlooked-for condition. None of the
brokers have been able to assign a reason for the present rate of exchange.
No one seems to be able or willing to forecast the future. The uncertainty
and the fluctuating value of money prevent merchants from buying more
than is absolutely necessary. Agents representing foreign houses are con-
tinually complaining about the difficulty of obtaining orders. But I believe
that the money will improve in value in the near future, and business also.



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.138 NOTES.

Rubber Exports of Nicaragua. — Consul O'Hara, of San Juan del Norte,
under date of November 9, 1896, writes:

Referring to the note at the bottom of page 243 of the October, 1896,
number of Consular Reports, I beg to state that the tabulated statement
shows the value of rubber shipped during each calendar year mentioned.
The report was made August 5, and the value of rubber reix>rted for 1896,
viz, $62,118.35, w^ t^*t o^ rubber shipped from San Juan del Norte to the
United States between January i and June 30, 1896, being for six months,
which was not stated in the table and hence caused what looked like a dis-
crepancy. The value of rubber shipped from the port to the United Stages
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1896, was $134,584. 25, as reported
in my dispatch of August 5, and also in my dispatch of July 11, printed in
the same number of Consular Reports on pages 248 and 249.

Writing November 11, 1896, Consul O'Harasays:

Referring to my dispatch of August 5, I have the honor to report that
by Presidential decree of September 22, the decree of July 13, prohibiting
the exportation of rubber from Nicaragua from January i, 1897, has been
amended so as to permit the exportation of rubber until January i, 1898.
The decree provides that all rubber exported during the year 1897 shall be
subject to the payment of an export tax of 10 cents in Nicaraguan currency
(4.9 cents in United States currency) per libra (1.043 pounds).

Under date of November 14, 1896, Consul O'Hara transmits an extract
from the Bluefields Recorder of November 7, which says :

Rubber growers and others engaged in the business will be interested to learn that a new
and less destructive method of getting rubber has recently been discovered. Heretofore the
trees have been cut down or the liquid made to exude from incisions at the foot of the tree,
but it has been found that the leaves of the rubber tree yield a purer and more abundant
supply.



Freight by Sailing Vessels to Nicaragua. — Under date of October 17,1 896,
Consul O* Hara writes from San Juan del Norte :

Although an Atlas Line steamer arrives here from New York every four-
teen days, much of the freight from New York is now brought by schooners.
A schooner of 205 tons burden was chartered recently for |i,6oo (United
States currency), the charter party providing for twelve lay days and de-
murrage of $25 a day. The cargo consisted of kerosene, lumber, soft coal,
and two steam boilers and was valued at 15,351 (United States currency).
The vessel was here eighteen days. The same vessel is reported to have
sailed yesterday from New York with a full cargo for this port of kerosene,
fence wire, flour, and provisions. The last vessel that came from New York
was here twenty-eight days. The number of lay days was not expressly
agreed upon, the charter party providing that the question of demurrage
should be determined according to the ** usage of the port." The master of
the vessel will insist hereafter upon something more definite, for, said he,
"as nearly as I can find out, the only usage or custom at Greytown is to



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NOTES. 1 39

unload as best you can, and one might be here three months and not be able
to collect a cent demurrage." The cargo consisted of 200 tons of coal,
2 iron-hull lighters, 4,953 pieces of lumber and timber, and 5,068 packages
of general merchandise. The list of articles comprising the miscellaneous
cargo will serve to show what is imported here. The list is as follows : Alco-
hol, axes, axe handles, axles, bacon, beer, blacking, bluing, boiler tubes,
brooms, candy, canned goods, condensed milk, cartridges, castings, cutlery,
corned beef, corn, corn meal, cheese, codfish, crackers, cod-liver oil, coffee
mills, coffee hullers, dry goods, drugs, edge tools, earthenware, furniture,
flour, fish, florida water, glassware, glue, gunpowder, hardware, harness,
hay, hops, herrings, hams, inks, iron tubes, iron pipes, iron kettles, kerosene,
lard, lamp chimneys, manila paper, medicines, machinery, mule carts, nails,
oakum, oil stoves, oats, oleomargarine, onions, perfumery, pease, pepper,
potatoes, peanuts, pork, pilot bread, patent medicines, paints, photograph-
ers' materials, pianos, salt, starch, sugar, soaps, sarsa'^arilla, shoes, scrub
brushes, straw paper, straw hats, sewing machines, school furniture, scales,
sadirons, staples, solder, shaft couplings, sheet iron, sheet steel, tobacco,
twine, trunks, tinware, tea, tallow candles, toilet brushes, telegraph climbers,
vermouth, whiting, whisky, and zinc.



Mahogany Trade between Boston and Nicaragua. — Consul O'Hara, under
date of October 12, 1896, says:

The administrator of taxes for the district of Zelaya reports that during
the six months ended June 30, 1896, G. & D. Emery, of Boston, Mass., cut
and shipped 3,349 mahogany logs, for which the Nicaraguan Government
received $1 gold per log. Mention is made of the Emery concession in the
report of Sefior Don Santiago Callejas, a translation of which was forwarded
to the Department with my dispatch of December 30, 1895.* ^^^ shipments
of mahogany from this coast for the ensuing two months will be unusually
heavy. The British Trade Journal of September i reports the arrival in
England during the last week in August of 202 logs of Nicaraguan mahogany.
The logs were shipped from Boston.



Failure of the Bluefields Banana Company. — In a report dated November
16, 1896, Consul 0*Hara, of San Juan del Norte, says:

The failure of the Bluefields Banana Company is announced. I have no
definite information regarding the assets and liabilities of the company. For
some years, the company has been engaged in the steamship business between
Bluefields and New Orleans, and is said to own about twenty- two banana
plantations on the Bluefields River. The company, I believe, is a corpora-
tion organized under the laws of Texas, its principal stockholders being citi-
zens of that State. It is generally believed that the creditors will eventually

• Printed in Consular Reports No. 187 (April, 1896), p. 523.



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140 NOTES.

be paid in full. The failure of the company and the withdrawal of its
steamships from the fruit trade will naturally give Bluefields a temporary
backset, but it is extremely improbable that the company's banana planta-
tions will be permitted to go to waste. Should these plantations be kept in
their present condition, there is no apparent reason why there should be any
material decrease in the shipment of bananas from Bluefields.



Fiber Bast in Santo Domingo. — In compliance with a request from the
Department of Agriculture, the consul at Santo Domingo has reported upon
a sample of fiber bast sent to him for that purpose. In his report, dated
December 3, 1896, the consul says:

After diligent and careful inquiry, T find that the bast, of which I inclose specimens, is
known in Santo Domingo as the bark of the majagua tree, and is used by the natives in the
manufacture of cord and rope. I have seen a lady's hat made of the same fibrous material.
I am informed that the tree grows in this Republic in considerable quantities, but that the
bast or fiber is not exported in commercial quantities to the United States or elsewhere.

A copy of the report from the consul at Santo Domingo and the samples
of the fiber were sent to the Department of Agriculture.



Spanish Census Statistics — Under date of Corunna, October 11, 1896,
Consul Harmony supplies the following:

Very interesting statistics have just been published by the Spanish Gov-
ernment. The following extracts are suggestive:

Accordin^T to the last census, out of 19,000,000 inhabitants 8,727,519 persons have no
profession whatever. Agriculture employs 4,033,491 men and 828,531 women. There are
97,257 persons holding office and 64,000 on the retired list, 44,564 schoolmasters or teachers
(of whom 19,940 are females), 30,179 medical doctors, 91,227 mendicarits (of whom 51,948
are females), 43,328 members of the clergy, and 28,549 nuns. The numlier of absolutely un-
lettered persons is 6,104,470, including 2,686,615 females.



Spanish Bullfights. — In a report undated, but received at the Department
November 27, 1896, Consul-General Bowen, of Barcelona, says:

During the latest bullfight season, from April 5 to October 20, 1896, there
were 478 bullfights in Spain, and 1,218 bulls, valued at ^300,000, and 5,730
horses, valued at $200,000, were killed. The number of matadores, the
principal fighters who kill the bulls, was 23, and they were paid for their
services in all 1,329,000 pesetas (about J22 1,500). The less renowned
matadores received from §300 to J400 for each fight in which they took part,
while the most renowned received from J500 to $850. The famous Guerrita
appeared in 68 fights, killed 174 bulls, and received in all $51,000; Bombita
fought 43 times, killed 112 bulls, and was paid §21,000; Mazzantini was in
the ring 29 times, killed 68 bulls, and made $21,700. They were the favor-



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NOTES. 141

ite matadores. Some only appeared in the ring once or twice, and they were
those who received the smallest remuneration. It can not be truthfully said
that the interest in bullfights is diminishing in Spain; on the contrary, it
seems even more intense than ever.



Trade in Tobacco at Gibraltar. — Under date of September i, 1896, Con-
sul Sprague informs the Department of State that the governor of Gibraltar
has issued a proclamation giving publicity to an ordinance which regulates
the trade in tobacco at that port under special conditions. Commenting
on the ordinance, the consul writes:

It is evident that the ordinance has been framed with the express object
of favoring Spain by endeavoring to prevent in future any attempts to
smuggle tobacco into her territory from this port and fortress. Such Spanish
subjects who may have been accustomed to lead a somewhat reckless and
illegal occupation in the tobacco traffic will now be forced to seek some
other means of a more legitimate character for earning their livelihood.
Spain has reestablished the custom-house at the Spanish lines, but under
certain regulations. Until these are fully ascertained, it will be impossible
to express any opinion as to what advantages the new regime may offer to
those engaged in the general local retail trade of Gibraltar.

Under date of September 12, 1896, Consul Sprague transmits the follow-
ing further information relative to the tobacco ordinance:

The ordinance lately passed and published by the local authorities to
regulate in future the trade of tobacco at Gibraltar has created so much
dissatisfaction among the commercial community and general traders at this
port that they have unanimously decided to memorialize the British Gov-
ernment with a view to its repeal. This memorial is now in the public
exchange building for signature, to be forwarded without delay to the
Imperial Government.



Pearl Fisheries of Mozambique. — ^Consul Hollis writes from Mozambique,
October 26, 1896:

In Consular Reports for August, 1896, just received, on page 648, I
note that Vice-Consul Wilbor, at Lisbon, has reported that **some years ago
a concession was granted by the Portuguese Government for a company of
pearl divers to operate off the coast of Mozambique." This refers, I think,
to a concession granted some six or seven years ago to an American to ex-
ploit the pearl fisheries of the Bazaruto Islands, which are situated a few
miles from the coast and about midway between Inhambane and Beira. Bad
management, lack of funds, heavy expenses, and political difficulties com-
bined to kill the enterprise. The Bazaruto kaffirs still continue to fish for
pearls; but, as they roast the oysters, instead of letting them rot, the pearls
are always more or less damaged by heat. The Bazaruto pearls, as well as



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142



NOTES.



a few that are obtained near the mouth of the Rovuma, are shipped by the
Indian traders to Bombay and Zanzibar. This industry is very small,
however. There is no local market for pearls here.



Steam Communication between Belize and New York. — Under date of
December 3, 1896, Consul Morlan, of Belize, British Honduras, reports that
the colonial government has made a contract with the Atlas Line to run
fortnightly steamers between New York and Belize, calling at Jamaica each
way. The government, in lieu of subsidy, remits light and harbor dues. It
is hoped by this means to encourage the immigration of laborers to develop
the agricultural resources of the colony. The first steamer of a direct Ger-
man line from Hamburg has arrived, bringing considerable cargo. If this
line succeeds, it will mean considerable increase in the importation of goods,
principally at the expense of the trade with Great Britain.



Consular Reports Transmitted to Other Departments. — The following
reports from consular officers (originals or copies) were transmitted during
the month of December to other Departments for publication or for other
action thereon:



Consular officer reporting.


Date.


Subject.


Department to which referred.


Carlo Gardini, Bologna.


Oct. 3,1896
Oct. 8,1896

Sept. 26,1896
Nov. 16,1896
Oct. 27,1896
Nov. 7,1896

Oct. 33,1896
Sept. M» 1896


Hemp cultivation in Bologna...
Agriculture and agricultural

implements in Russia.
Insurance against loss of work.,
do


Department of Agriculture.
Do.

Do.


Thomas C. Heenan, Odessa

James C. Monaghan, Chemnitz.
Irving B. Richman, St. GalL...

B. H. Ridgely, Geneva

George Horton, Athens


Swiss vintage of 1896..


Department of Agriculture.
Do.


Opening for American wheat

Beet -sugar crop of Europe

German hop trade..


Julius Muth, Magdeburg....

Louis Stem, Bamberg .,


Do.
Do.









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KORBIGN REPORX© AND F^UBLICAXIONS.

British Trade Returns. — The accounts of trade and navigation of the
United Kingdom for the month of November, 1896, and for the eleven
months ended November 30, 1895 ^"^ 1896, make the following showing of
imports and exports :

Imports,



Articles.



Month of Navtmber,

Animab, living, for food

Articles of food and drink :

Duty free ».

Dutiable^

Tobacco^

Metals

Chemicals, dyes, and tannics

OiU..

Raw materials :

For textiles

For other industries „.

Manu&ctured articles

Miscellaneous goods

Parcel post

Totals

Eleven months ended November jo.

Animals, living, forfood..^

Articles of food and drink :

Duty free

Dutiable

Tobacco..^

Metals

Chemicals, dyes, and tannics..^

Oils

Raw materials :

Fcr textiles

For other industries

Manufiacturcd articles

Miscellaneotw goods

Parcel post .^

Total



1895.



$4,269,940

61,601,043
12,861,639
1,209,785
7,242,496
2,347,486
3*972*748

37» 496,520
»9. 947*560

3», 366, 939

7,227,609

396,163



189,839,928



1896.


Increase.


Decrease.


l3,7«5.63i

68,547,115
»3»97i,39i
1.899,132
7*696,477
1,821,906
3*93X,266

47,741,572

» 9, 047, 595

30,789,828

7,137,842

539.515




$554, 3 »9


$6,946,072

1.109,752

689,347

453.981








425,580
41,482


10,245,052


899,965
587,111
89,767






143,352
^6,999,342

7,310,515

M, 513,611
2,859,106

4.537,859
8,420,178

1,329.095
1,178,478

11,664,748
14,910,932
24,262,331

1. 9^^3.547
442,271




206,839,270






47,637,356

639* 641, 416
112,864,316
19,323.069
90,618,863
30,864,3Co
36,795,524

316,468,492
212,760,251
364,118,513
65,481,207
4,871,791



























40,326,841

625,127,805
110,005,210

14,785,210

82,198,685

29,535,265

35,617,046

304,803,744

197,849,3*9

339,856,182

63,517,660

4,429,520

,848,052,487 I 1,941,445,158 93,392,671



143



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144



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS.
Exports.



Articles.



Month of November.

Animals, living

Articles of food and drink

Raw materials



Manufactured and partly manufactured articles :

Textiles and yams

Metals and metal goods

Machinery and millwork ,

Apparel and personal effects

Chemicals, chemical products, and medici-
nal preparations

All other



Total manufactures..
Parcel post



Total British products..
Foreign products.



Toul exports

Eleven months ended November jo.
Animals, living



Articles of food and drink..
Raw materials



Manufactured and partly manufactured articles :

Textiles and yams

Metals and meul goods

Machinery and millwork

Apparel and haberdashery

Chemicals, chemical products, and medici-
nal preparations

All other



Total manufactures..
Parcel post



Total British products..
Foreign products



1895.



^330, 656
5,476,754
7,255,450



40,863,494
",937,483
6,452,071
3,986,968

3,589,511
>3.589,«93



81,418,830



621,350



95,093,030
a«, 337, 747

"6,330,777



3,5M,499
49,406,737
82,628,537



452,098,940
126,666,717
67,611,110
41,272,183

37,111,102
141,213,800

865,973.852



5,790,733



1,007,315,064
267,381,652



Total exports 1,274,696,716



1896.



Increase. Decrease.



^407, 686
5,336,4.2
7,006,655



37,102,110
13,239,649
6,831,374
3,520,893

2,880,958
13,054,576

76,629,560
843,801



90,234,194
21,317,367



«i', 541, 561



$87,030



302,166
379,303



79,920



4,1", 477
50,479,333
78,948,530



470,328,312

»49,69i,7>5
75,508,127
46,509,432

36,563,727
149,289,124



596,978
1,072,596



10,339,372

23,024,998

7,897,017

5,237,249



8,075,334



927,890,337



7,404,599



61,916,485



1,613, i(x>



5140, 363
248,795



3,761,384



466,075

708,553
534,7" 7

4,789,360



4,868,836



4,789,316



3,680,007



61,519,312



1,068,834,376
247,479,302

i,3>6,3i3,57S 4r, 616,862



I



19,903,350



Rhumk for the eleven months.



Description.



Imports.....
Exports.....



Excess of imports..



1895-



$1,848,053,487
1,274,696,716



573,355,771



1896.



$«, 941,445, '58

1,316,313,578



625,131,580



Increase.



$93,392,671
41,616,863



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Vol. LI 1 1. No. 197.

Consular Reports.




^BRUi^RY, 1897.



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC.



[FOR TABLB Of COHTBHTS^ SBB FIRST PAQB.1



WASHINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1897.



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PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF STATISTICS, DEPARTMENT OF STATE.

The publications of the Bureaa of Statistics, DepartmeDt of State, are:

I. — Commercial Relations, being the annual reports of consular officers on the com-
merce, industries, navigation, etc., of their districts.

II. — Consular Reports, issued monthly, and containing miscellaneous reports from
consular officers.

Ill* — Advance Sheets, Consular Reports, issued for the convenience of the news-
paper press, conmiercial and manufacturing organizations, etc., usually three or four times a
month, and containing selected reports of immediate interest.

IV. — Exports Declared for the United States, issued quarterly, and containing the
declared values of exports from the various consular districts to the United States for the pre-
ceding three months.

V. — Special Consular Reports, containing series of reports from consular officers on
particular subjects, made in pursuance to instructions from the Department.

Following are the special publications issued by the Bureau prior to i8qo:

Labor in Europe, 1878, one volume; Labor in Foreigfn Countries, 1884, three volumes;
Commerce of the World and the Share of the United States Therein, 1879; Commerce of the
World and the Share of the United States Therein, 1880-81 ; Declared Exports for the United
States, First and Second Quarters, 1883; Declared Exports for the United States, Third and
Fourth Quarters, 1S83. Cholera in Europe in 1884, 1885; Trade Guilds of Europe, 1885;
The Licorice Plant, 1885; Forestry in Europe, 1887; Emig^ration and Immigration, 1885-86
,(a portion of this work was published as Consular Reports No. 76, for the month of April,
1887); Rice Pounding in Europe, 1887; Sugar of Milk, 1887; Wool Scouring in Belgium,
1887; Cattle and Dairy Farming in Foreign Countries, 1888 (issued first in one volume, after-
wards in two volumes) ; Technical Education in Europe, 1888 ; Tariffs of Central America and
the British West Indies, 1890.

The editions of all these publications except Tariffs of Central America, etc., are exhausted
and the Department is, therefore, unable to supply copies.

Information relating to special subjects — secured by circulars addressed to consular
officers — increased to such an extent that, in 1 890, the Department decided to publish such
reports in separate form, to be entitled Special Consular Reports. There are now the
following Special Consular Reports :

Fo/. I [i8go). — Cotton Textiles in Foreign Countries, Files in Spanish America, Carpet
Manufacture in Foreign Countries, Malt and Beer in Spanish America, and Fruit Culture in
Foreign Countries.

Vol. 2 (i8gi). — Refrigerators and Food Preservation in Foreign Countries, European
Emigration, Olive Culture in the Alpes Maritimes, and Beet Sugar Industry and Flax Culti-
vation in Foreign Countries.

Vol.^ (fSgi). — Streets and Highways in Foreign Countries.

Vb/. 4 \18g2). — Port Regulations in Foreign Countries.

Vol.$ \18g2), — Canals and Irrigation in Foreign Countries.

Vol. 6 \18g2). — Coal and Coal Consumption in Spanish America, Gas in Foreign Coun-
tries, and India Rubber.

Vol. 7 ii8g2\. — The Stave Trade in Foreign Countries and Tariffs of Foreign Countries.

VoL 8 \i8g2). — Fire and Building Regulations in Foreign Countries.

Vol. g \r8g2 ami i8gs)- — Australian Sheep and Wool, and Vagrancy and Public Charities
in Foreign, Countries.

Vol. 10 {f8g4). — Lead and Zinc Mining in Foreign Countries and Extension of Markets
for American Flour.

Vol. II (/8g4). — American Lumber in Foreign Markets.

Vol. 12 (/595). — Highways of Commerce.

Vol. IS \i8g6). — Money and Prices in Foreign Countries.

Of these Special Consular Reports, Cotton Textiles in Foreign Countries, Files in
Spanish America, Malt and Beer in Spanish America, Streets and Highways in Foreign
Countries, Canals and Irrigation, and Fire and Building Regulations are exhausted and no
copies can be supplied by the Department.

Of the monthly Consular Reports, many numbers are exhausted or so reduced that the
Department is unable to accede to requests for copies. Of the publications of the Bureau
available for distribution, copies are mailed to applicants without charge. In view of the
scarcity of certain numbers, the Bureau will be grateful for the return of any copies of
the monthly or special reports which recijMents do not care to retain. Upon notification
of willingness to return such copies, the Department will forward franking labels to be used
in lieu of postage in the United States, Canada, the Hawaiian Islands, and Mexico.

Persons receiving Consular Reports regularly, who change their addresses, should give
the old as well as the new address in notifying the Bureau of tie fact.

In ordei to prevent confusion with other Department bureaus, all communications relating
to consular reports should be carefully addressed, *' Chief, Bureau of Statistics, Department of
State, Washington, U. S. A."



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CONTKNXS.



Page.

I. — The Paris Exposition ok 1900 Morss . 145

II. — Switzerland and the Paris Exposition Richman 161

III. — Exhibition of Stockholm, 1897^ ONeil 161

IV. — An Improved Method of Filtration ) 164

\ Mason

V. — A New Crisis in German Sugar Production J 167



1

VI. — German Beef Sugar Returns for 1895-96 Muth 170



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