United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 23 of 82)
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, Central America-

Square, 50 cubic feet;
unhewn, 40 cubic feet ;
inch planks, 600 super-
ficial feet.

if acres.

0.507 pound.

8af pounds.

39.37 inches.

4.68 miles

4.61 miles.

0.63 acre.

2.7225 pounds.

2.84 pounds.

3.0817 pounds.

2.854x8 pounds.

2.5 pints.
215^ inches.
135.64 pounds.
13354 pounds.

135. 1 pounds.

139.45 pounds.
140 pounds.
0.9478 foot.
0.91407 foot.
27.9 inches.
36.112 pounds.
1. 102 pounds.
8.252 bushels.
36 bushels.
101.42 pounds.
130.06 pounds.
iox.6x pounds.

123.2 pounds.
1x2 pounds.
100 pounds.
125 pounds.

220.46 pounds.

6 pounds.
sYt, pounds.

7 feet.

490 pounds.

3.6 feet.

1 pound X3 ounces.
10 inches.

1.6 quarts.

165 cubic feet.

14 pounds.

2,700 cuadras {see cua-

590-75 grains (troy).
0.25 acre.

2 pecks.

40 cubic feet.
3.94783 bushels.
1.36 acres.
6 feet square.
1.4X inches.
4.5 bushels.
1.22 acres.
34.1208 inches.
0.9x4x17 yard.
38.874 inches.

Digitized by




Foreign weights emd measmresy wUh American equrvalenU — Continued.

Where used.

Araerican equivalent.


Chile and Peru „


33.367 inches.
33.384 inches.
33.375 inches.

33 Inches.

34 inches.
33.384 inches.
2.707 gallons.
71.1 square rods.
0.663 ™^^>
41.98 acres.

Curasao ^



Paraguay... «

Venezuela^ „


Isle of Jersey



Vergees „



RuasiAn Polanrf


Metric weights.

Milligram (^-^ gram) equals 0.0154 grain.

Centigram( yj^ gram) equals 0.1543 grain.

Decigram (j^ gram) equals 1. 5432 grains.

Gram equals 15.432 grfiins.

Decagram (lo grams) equals 0.3527 ounce.

Hectogram (100 grams^ equals 3.5274 ounces.

Kilogram (1,000 grams) equals 2.2046 p>ounds.

Myriagram (10,000 grams) equals 22.04(5 pounds.

Quintal (100,000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds.

Millier or tonnea — ton (l/xx>,ooo grams) equals 2,204.6 pounds.

Metric dry measure.

Milliliter (-n^^^^ liter) equab 0.061 cubic inch.
Centiliter U^q liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch.
Deciliter (X liter) equals 6.1022 cubic inches.
Liter equals 0.908 quart.
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts.
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.838 bushels.
Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals i.3oi8 cubic yards.

Metric liquid measure.

Milliliter (y^^iy ^*'^) equals 0.0388 fluid ounce.

Centiliter (^Jj^ liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce.

Deciliter {X liter^ equals 0.845 ^^'

Liter equals 1.0507 quarts.

Decaliter (10 liters) equals 2.6418 gallons.

Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.418 gallons.

Kiloliter (100 liters) equals 264.18 gallons.

Metric measures of length.

Millimeter (y^^g^ meter) equals 0.0394 inch.

Centimeter (j^^^ meter) equals 0.3937 inch.

Decimeter {^^ meter) equals 3.937 inches.

Meter equals 39.37 inches.

Decameter ( 10 meters) equals 393.7 inches.

Hectometer (100 meters) equals 328 feet i inch.

Kilometer (1,000 meters) equals 0.62137 mile (3,280 feet 10 inches).

Myriameter (10,000 meters) equals 6.2137 miles.

Metric surf cue measures.

Centare (i square meter) equals 1,550 square inches.
Are (100 square meters) equals 1 19.6 square yards.
Hectare (10,000 square meters) equab 2.471 acres.

Digitized by




Vol. LIII. FEBRUARY, 1897. No. 197.


I have the honor to transmit a report on the international exposition to
be held at Paris in 1900. The report not only sets forth the general scope
and character of the exposition^ its organization, the financial arrange-
ments, and the special features by which it will be characterized, but it gives
in detail the systems of classification and awards adopted, and all the regu-
lations affecting foreign exhibitors.

This exposition will afford unrivaled opportunities to make known to the
world the resources of the United States and their achievements and facili-
ties in the various fields of production. It is earnestly to be hoped that
these opportunities will be improved to the fullest extent, and that not only
will adequate provision be made for such representation by our Government
as is in keeping with its importance, but that individual manufacturers and
producers will make a full exhibit of the leading products of American genius
and skill. Judging from the number of inquiries already received at this
office regarding the exposition, a widespread interest in it exists in the
United States, and I would respectfully ask that, for the benefit of intending
American exhibitors, the promptest and largest publicity practicable may be
given to the information herewith transmitted.


Preparations for the exposition are now well advanced. The preliminary
studies are made with great care and thoroughness, and the general scheme
of the exposition is now well defined. The works of demolition and con-
struction, for which the period of a little more than three years remaining
will barely suffice, have begun and will be vigorously prosecuted from this
time forward. The exposition will open April 15 and will close November
S, 1900. The site will comprise the public grounds on both sides of the
Seine from the Place de la Concorde, the great monumentd square in the very
No. 197 1. 145

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center of the city, to a point beyond the Pont d' J^na, embracing the Champ
de Mars, the Trocad^ro Palace and Park (site of the Exposition of 1889),
the Esplanade des Invalides, the Quai d'Orsay, the Quai de la Conference, the
Cour la Reine, and a large section of the Champs Elys^es, including the site
of the Palais de T Industrie, the great building erected for the International
Exposition of 1855, the first of the series. No other city in the world con-
tains, in its very center, an equal area available for a great exposition. Not
only does this site leave nothing to be desired in point of convenience and
accessibility, but divided as it is -throughout its entire length by the Seine,
winding between magnificent quays and bordered by stately edifices and
historic monuments, it lends itself admirably to the works of decoration
and embellishment, in which the French people are past masters, and which
are indispensable to a successful exposition.


All the details of the architecture are not yet worked out. The unique
palace of the Trocad^ro, erected for the Exposition of 1878 and utilized a
second time in 1889, will be used, as well as several of the great exposition
halls of 1889 in the Champ de Mars, but all of them will undergo more or
less modification. The Eiffel Tower will be preserved, but it is probable that
some new and striking features will be added to it. The Palais de T Indus-
trie, which housed the entire Exposition of 1855, ^"^ ^^ which the annual
salon of the Soci6t6 des Artistes Fran^ais is held, will disappear, however,
and on its site will be erected a magnificent edifice to serve as the Fine
Arts Hall during the exposition, and to remain as a permanent monument.
Demolition is already in progress. To the west of the Fine Arts Hall, on the
same side of the Champs Elys^es, will rise the Hall of Liberal Arts, which
is also to be a stately and permanent edifice. Between these great build-
ings will be constructed a broad avenue extending from the Champs Elys^es
to the Seine, at the point where a magnificent bridge is being constructed,
named after Alexander III, Emperor of Russia, by whose son, the present
Emperor, the corner stone was laid, with imposing ceremonies, during his
recent visit to Paris. This bridge will have a pronounced artistic character,
and, with the projected avenue, will connect the Champs Elysdes and the
Esplanade des Invalides, adding a new and impressive vista to the charms
of the famous Parisian avenue, with the stately golden dome which crowns
the tomb of the Great Napoleon in the background.


The national and municipal authorities and the management of the ex-
position are preparing to cooperate in improving the transportation facilities
and public conveniences of Paris, and in adding, before 1900, to the already
numerous attractions of the city. A number of modern hotels, some of
which are already under construction, and several handsome new theaters
will be built, and the magnificent Opera Comique, now in course of erec-
tion, will be completed. Public parks, gardens, and squares will be created

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in all parts of the city — for example, at Upper St. Phillipe du Roule and in
the St. Marguerite quarter. Rows of trees will be placed at the Place de
Rennes and the banks of the Canal St. Martin will be covered with turf.
The rows of trees in the Champs Elysdes will be doubled and still more
trees will be planted in the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne. The roads leading
into the Bois from the Auteuil side will be arranged in terraces, covered
with flowers, and overlooking the valley of the Seine. The park and gardens
on the Butte Montmartre will be finished by that time. At night, the city
will be brilliantly illuminated by an extensive system of electric lights as
far as the outer boulevards and including the Bois de Boulogne and de

It is the avowed purpose to make the exposition surpass all its predeces-
sors, both in France and elsewhere, not perhaps in extent or in architectural
features, for it is conceded that in these respects there is little hope of eclips-
ing the great achievements at Chicago, but in its artistic aspects, in the log-
ical, comprehensive, and scientific system of classification and award, and
in the uniformity and harmony of the whole. In a word, the ambition of
the projectors lies chiefly in the direction of artistic excellence and general


The exposition will offer rare opportunities for American artists, in-
ventors, manufacturers, and workers in every field of human effort to illustrate
once more to the world the vastness of our resources, the superiority of many
of our industrial implements and processes, and the variety and excellence of
our productions. It is hoped that American manufacturers and producers in
all lines will be fully represented. It is with a view to furnishing the in-
formation which every person who contemplates exhibiting will desire that
this report has been prepared.


The first international exposition was held in 1855, the second in 1867,
and the third and fourth, respectively, in 1878 and 1889. The interval be-
tween the first and second was twelve years; eleven years separated the
second and third, and a like period the third and fourth. The exposition
of 1889 w^ scarcely terminated when the public opinion of France spon-
taneously fixed 1900, the closing year of the century, then eleven years distant,
as the date of its successor. In July, 1892, the official initiative was taken in
the matter by M. Roche, then Minister of Commerce and Industry, in a
formal communication to President Carnot, in which, among other things,
he said :

These expositions are not only intervals of rest and recreation in the labor of the peoples ;
they appear from distance to distance as summits upon which we pause to survey the road
traversed. Man emerges from them strengthened, full of vigor and animated by a profound
faith in the future. This faith, which was the exclusive appanage of a few noble spirits in the
last century, is become more diffused; it is the general religion of modem times, a fruitful
cult in which the universal expositions take their place as useful and majestic solemnities, as

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necessary manifestations of the existence of a laborious nation, animated by an irresistible
expansion ; as enterprises which recommend themselves less by the material benefits of every
kind they confer, than by the vigorous impulsion they give to the human intellect. The year
1900 will be the end of a century of prodigious scientific and economic sweep ; it will be
also the threshold of an era of which savants and philosophers prophesy the grandeur, and of
which the realities will surpass, without doubt, the wildest flights of our imagination.

Notwithstanding the cleverness and the science with which the retrospective reviews of
1889 were organized, a large field was left open for studies of the same kind. In the domain of
the fine arts, for instance, it will be easy to emphasize the principal characteristics of the present
artistic movement, and to contrast the art of the second half of the century with that of ro-
manticism and classicism. In the fields of science, of industry, of agriculture, a comparison
between the processes, the methods, aud the products at the beginnmg and at the end of the
century will furnish the most precious instruction, and afford, at the same time, the most
powerful possible attraction. All branches of human activity will derive an equal profit from
the balance sheet upon which will be exposed the moral and material conditions of contem-
poraneous life. The exposition of 1 900 will constitute the synthesis, will determine the
philosophy, of the twentieth century.

So much for the inspiration and theory of the exposition of 1900. On
July 13, 1892, President Carnot issued a decree announcing "a universal
exposition of works of art and of industrial and agricultural products/' and
fixing the date thereof. The preliminary studies were made and a financial
scheme devised by a temporary commission. The permanent administration
was placed in the hands of a commissary-general attached to the Ministry of
Commerce, Industry, and Colonies, and assisted by a consultative body styled
''Commission Sup^rieure de T Exposition,*' selected from the Senate, the
Chamber of Deputies, the Conseil d'fitat, the Conseil G6n6rale de la Seine,
the municipal council of Paris, the academies, learned bodies, colleges and
universities, the chambers of commerce of the fourteen leading cities, lead-
ing financial institutions, various branches of the public service and the
leading industries, such as agriculture, transportation, manufacturing, etc.,
together with representatives of the press, and all the surviving Ministers of
Commerce who had held office since 1878. The service was organized as
follows :

Secretariat general (general business, employees; medical, police, and fire
service; press, complimentary admissions).

Architecture (erection of palaces and pavilions, control of metallic struc-
tures and of all devices erected by foreign nations, colonies, and industrial ex-

Roads, streets, parks, gardens, water, and lighting.

Exploitations (French, foreign, and colonial sections, installations, fine
arts, agriculture, catalogues, diplomas, and medals).





One hundred million francs (J 20,000,000) was provided as a guaranty
fund for the exposition. Of this amount, 20,000,000 francs was appropriated

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by the National Government and 20,000,000 francs by the city of Paris,
while 60,000,000 francs represent the net proceeds of an emission of 3,250,-
000 bonds of 20 francs each. These bonds were issued by the Government
with the cooperation of five leading financial institutions — the Credit Lyon-
nais, the Credit Foncier, the Comptoir National d'Escompte, the Soci6t6
G^n^rale pour Favoriser le Development du Commerce et de Tlndustrie en
France, and the Soci6t6 G6nerale de Credit Industriel et Commercial. These
institutions underwrote bonds to the amount of 2,400,000 francs and receive
a commission of 5 per cent on the sales. After providing for this commission
and for the other expenses of the issue, there remain 60,000,000 francs which
are deposited at the Caisse des D^pdts et Consignations until 1900, at 2)^
per cent interest, the Bank of France agreeing to make advances from time to
time for preliminary expenses to the amount of 6,000,000 francs at i^ per
cent interest upon the security of receipts of the Caisse des D6p6ts et Con-
signations for deposits of the profits of the bonds.

The bonds bear no interest and are redeemable in tickets to the exposi-
tion. Each bond will entitle the holder to twenty tickets to the exposition,
which, at i franc each, will equal the face value of the bond. In lieu of
interest, the holder participates in twenty-nine drawings, comprising 4,313
prizes, aggregating 6,000,000 francs. Six drawings occurred in 1896, six
each will take place during the years 1897, 1898, and 1899, and there will
be six monthly drawings during the exposition. The prizes vary from 100
francs to 500,000 francs. The bonds are exempt from all taxation, although
the prizes drawn are subject to a tax. The bonds also give the holders the
right to considerable reductions in railway and steamboat fares in France
or on the French lines on the Mediterranean during the exposition, or, in
lieu thereof, to a 25 per cent reduction in the price of admission to any spec-
tacle or entertainment on the exposition grounds. In the event that the
exposition should not take place for any reason, the drawings will cease and
the bonds will be redeemed at par, without interest, by the State. All prizes
drawn before that date will remain acquired to the winners.

Any surplus that may remain, after the expenses of the exposition are
defrayed, will be divided equally between the national and municipal treas-


The general regulations, as formulated by the commissary-general and the
consultative commission and approved by the Minister of Commerce, Indus-
try, Posts, and Telegraphs, were promulgated by President Casimir-Perrier,
August 7, 1894. These regulations comprise one hundred and eight articles
in twelve sections, and all provisions of the same which will affect intending
American exhibitors are embraced in the summary which follows. In most
respects, the regulations are similar to those of the exposition of 1889. A
few radical innovations are made, however. The regulations are more elab-
orate and detailed than those of the last exposition, the administration having
endeavored, so far as possible, to cover every detail of the great enterprise

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which could be anticipated, and to leave for subsequent determination only
matters of a special, secondary, or accessory character.

Section i — Constitutive elements , general organization of services, — All
nations are invited to participate on equal terms. To the contemporary
exposition will be joined a retrospective centennial exposition, reviewing the
progress accomplished since 1800 in the various branches of production. All
machinery, so far as possible, will be operated on the grounds in full view
of the public. Special expositions (historical, anthropological and ethno-
logical, etc.), special competitions (agricultural implements, live animals,
etc.), musical performances, and special congresses of various kinds will
be held in connection with the exposition. Article XII, fixing the relations
between the administration of the exposition and foreign exhibitors, is as
follows :

Each foreign nation participating in the exposition will be . epresented by a commissioner
or delegate, who will have the sole right to treat with the commissary-general, the director-
general, and the directors as to all questions which concern his countrymen, and specially
those relating to the distribution of space among the different countries, the erection of build-
ings^ and the admission and installation of exhibits. Foreign exhibitors must corresp>ond with
the commissioners of their respective countries and can not communicate directly with the
administration of the exposition. This regulation will be imperative, except as regards the
retrospective centennial exposition.

This latter will be absolutely distinct from the foreign sections of the
contemporary exposition, and the administration may treat directly with for-
eigners possessing objects desired for the collections of the history of labor
for the century.


The principal regulations as to the admission are:

Works of art, — The contemporary exposition will be open to the works
of French and foreign artists executed since the ist of May, 1889. Copies
(even those representing a work in a different class from that of the original),
paintings, designs or engravings unframed, engravings obtained by indus-
trial processes, and sculptures in clay will not be admitted. Applications
for admission will differ according to the class to which the proposed ex-
hibit appertains and must conform to the models to be prescribed by the
commissary-general. They will contain a designation of the work, giving its
dimensions and mentioning the expositions at which it has been exhibited.
Printed forms of application will be furnished gratuitously. No artist will
be permitted to exhibit more than ten works. Artists of France and French
colonies must file their applications between the i6th and 31st of May, 1899.
Applications for the admission of the works of foreign artists must be made
through the commissioner or delegate of the country of which the applicant
is a citizen. They must receive the approval of the Minister of Beaux Arts
not later than December 31, 1899, and will then be definitely acted upon
by the commissary-general. Artists of countries not represented by a com-
missioner must file their applications with the commissary-general (service

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des beaux arts) before December i, 1899, and deposit their works at the
Fine Arts Palace between December 5 and 20, 1899. Tb.ey will be passed
upon by a special jury, composed of Frenchmen and foreigners, appointed
by the Minister of Beaux Arts and the Minister of Commerce and Industry,
whose report must be submitted on or before December 31, 1899. ^^^
commissary-general will transmit the proper certificate to all artists whose
works have been admitted. The latter must furnish, not later than February
15, 1900, a statement giving his full name, date and place of birth, names
of his masters, mention of his recompenses at Paris expositions, subject and
dimensions of his works, and names of their owners. Printed forms for
this statement will be supplied. One or several special commissions will be
created to prepare the centennial exposition. The commissary-general will
decree, upon the recommendations of these commissions, a list of the works
admitted to such exposition, and will cause certificates of admission to be
delivered to the proper persons.

Industrial^ agricultural, and miscellaneous objects, — All industrial and
agricultural products will be admitted to the contemporary exposition except
(i) those of an explosive and fulminant character; (2) primings, fireworks,
matches, and analagous articles, except in a state of imitation and contain-
ing no inflammable material ; (3) spirits, alcohols, essences, oils, corrosive
matters, and all fluids or substances of an unwholesome or oflensive character
or which can alter or injure other exhibits, unless the same are inclosed in
solid vessels, appropriate in form and of small dimensions. Applications
for admissions of all products must be made on printed forms, which will be
supplied gratuitously by the commissary-general. Applicants requiring gas,
steam, or water will state in their applications the quantity needed. Those
desiring to operate machinery will state the speed at which the same will be
worked and the kind and quantity of motive power required. The admission
of foreign products will be authorized by the commissary-general upon the
propositions of the commissioners of the various countries, which must be
filed on or before February 15, 1899, and for all articles- which, for special
reasons, are to be exhibited in a class section, on or before February i, 1899.
The committees of admission, each for its class, will prepare the organiza-
tion of the centennial exposition, and the director-general of the exposition
will decree the list of objects accepted and deliver certificates of admission.


(i) Works of art, — All works of art must be deposited at the Fine Arts

Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 23 of 82)