United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

. (page 24 of 82)
Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 24 of 82)
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building between February 15 and 20, 1900, rnder arrangements to be pre-
scribed by the commissary-general. All expenses of packing, unpacking,
repacking, transportation to and from the exposition grounds, and storage
and preservation of cases will be at the charge of exhibitors so far as the
contemporary exposition in concerned, but such expenses as to the centen-
nial exposition may be assumed by the administration of beaux arts. Ail
expenses of installation of exhibits, decoration of the halls and interior,



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152 THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF I9OO.

guardianship of the Fine Arts Hall, etc., will be assumed by the administra-
tion of beaux arts, save as to special arrangements made at the instance of
the commissioners of foreign countries, which will be at their charge. No
work admitted can be removed before the close of the exposition, whether
it shall have been sold or not, except under special permit issued by the
commissary-general at the instance of the director of beaux arts. All works
exhibited must be removed within one month after the close of the exposition.
(2) Industrial^ agricultural, and miscellaneous exhibits, — All objects ad-
mitted will be introduced into the exposition between December i, 1899,
and February 28, 1900, according to the regulations to be prescribed by the
commissary-general. Due notice will be given of special tariffs made to
exhibitors by railroad, steamboat, or other transportation companies. No
charge will be made to exhibitors for space, water, gas, steam, or other mo-
tive power required by them, but connections with main gas, water, or steam
pipes, counter and auxiliary shafting, etc., will be provided by exhibitors.
All expenses of packing, unpacking, repacking, installation, storage, and
preservation of cases and transportation to and from the grounds must be
borne by exhibitors in the contemporary exposition. The expenses of in-
stallation will include the establishment of special passageways, the con-
struction of all special partitions, ceilings, windows, platforms, railings,
fixtures, etc., all of which must conform to the plans adopted by the exposi-
tion management. As to certain of these constructions, the administration
reserves the right to execute them in whole or in part at the expense of the
commissioner of the department or of the country to which they appertain.
All or a part of such expenses in connection with the centennial exposition
may be assumed by the administration. Workmen exhibiting on their
own account in the contemporary exposition will be relieved of all expense
on account of installation. No special construction within the exposition
grounds will be authorized until the plans of the same, embracing also the
approaches and the interior arrangements, have been approved by the man-
agement. A committee of installation will be created for each class of
groups, works of art excepted, which will apportion the space among the
exhibitors, prepare and submit to the administration plans of installation
and decoration, supervise the execution of the same, provide for maintenance
and guarding, and assess expenses upon exhibitors and collect the same.
The commissioners of foreign countries will make their own installations in
the positions erected by them and in the parts of the general building as-
signed to them, all plans for the same to be submitted for approval to the
administration. All exhibits, without exception, must be made in the name
of the person, firm, or company signing the application for the same, but
the names of persons of every grade who may have contributed in any way
to the preparation of the exhibit may be added. All exhibitors in the con-
temporary sections are expressly invited to mark their exhibits with the
market prices of the same, but this is not compulsory. All exhibitors of
dangerous, insalubrious, or objectionable articles of any kind must conform



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THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF I9OO. 1 53

Strictly to the conditions prescribed for such exhibits, and all sucli articles
must be removed at any time when required by the administration. No ex-
hibit can be removed before the close of the exposition without a special
permit, except those produced on the grounds under special authorization.
All exhibits, installations, and special constructions of every kind must be
removed, at the latest, six weeks after the close of the exposition, at which
time the management will remove the same at the charge of the exhibitors.
The materials will be placed in a public warehouse, and if the charges are
not paid by June 30, 1901, the same will be sold and the net profits turned
over to the assistance publique, or poor fund of the State.

REGULATIONS AS TO TARIFF DUTIES, INDIRECT TAXES, AND OCTROI, OR
MUNICIPAL DUTIES, ON EXHIBITS.

The provisions under this head are very liberal as regards foreign exhib-
itors. The exposition grounds are constituted a bonded warehouse. For-
eign exhibits may enter France through any custom-house. They should
be accompanied by a bulletin from the shipper, attached to the bill of lad-
ing and indicating their nature, class, weight, and place of origin. These
goods will be transported directly to the exposition grounds under the
conditions of international or domestic transit at the choice of the ship-
per. They will be exempt from statistical dues and from inspection at the
frontier. Seals will be affixed without charge. All foreign products will be
taken in charge at the exposition grounds by the special customs agents, and,
if finally entered for consumption, will be subject only, whatever their origin,
to the duties imposed upon like products from the most-favored nation.
Articles manufactured on the grounds from imported materials will be sub-
ject only to the duties to which such materials from the most- favored nation
are liable. The manufacture of tobaccos by rtiachines and apparatus ex-
hibited will be authorized on the express condition that the goods so pro-
duced shall be subject to all the duties and excises prescribed by law. No
foreign goods will be subject to indirect taxes or municipal dues (octroi)
unless entered for consumption.

PROTECTION OF EXHIBITS.

No work of art or exhibit of any kind can be copied or reproduced ex-
cept by a special permit of the exhibitor, approved by the administration.
The taking of general photographs, however, will be authorized. Inven-
tions susceptible of being patented, plans and specifications of machinery,
etc., will be fully protected. The administration expressly disclaims all
responsibility for damages to exhibits in the temporary sections by fire or
otherwise, although every precaution will be taken for their protection. The
administration will, however, be responsible for losses or damages in the re-
trospective sections, but only to the amounts agreed upon in advance with
exhibitors and stated in their certificates of admission. The administration
will provide a corps of guardians for the general surveillance of the buildings
and grounds, but the commissioners of foreign countries will be required to



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154 THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF I9OO.

provide guards for their pavilions and for their space in the main buildings.
These guardians will have to be named subject to the approval of the admin-
istration, which may, at the time, demand their revocation or dismiss them
outright in case of drunkenness on duty or of detection in dishonesty. They
must be uniformed, must clean the buildings or sections to which they are
attached, and must conform to and enforce all police regulations.

CATALOGUES.

A general catalogue will be prepared in the French language, naming the
works and productions of all nations on exhibition, with the names of ex-
hibitors and the location of exhibits in the buildings or grounds. Each
country will have the right to publish in French, as well as in its own lan-
guage, at its own cost, risk, and peril, special catsdogues for its buildings and
sections, which, however, must contain no objectionable advertisements or
other matter. The sale of these catalogues on the exposition grounds will
be regulated by the administration, and will be subject to the payment of a
royalty.

RECOMPENSES, DIPLOMAS, ETC.

All works and products exhibited will be passed upon, as in 1889, by an
international jury, which will have three degrees of jurisdiction — ^juries of
class, juries of group, superior jury.

The juries of class will be composed of full members and substitutes.
The number of full jurors, French and foreign, will, as nearly as practicable,
equal one-sixtieth of the whole number of exhibitors, and there will be one-
third as many substitutes as full jurors. In the several classes, the number
of full jurors will be, as nearly as may be, proportional to the number of
exhibitors and the importance of the exhibits. The French jurors will be
chosen in part from the higher grades of the public service, learned bodies,
and educational institutions, but will consist, for the most part, of those who
have received, either as exhibitors or as jurors named by the French Gov-
ernment, high recompenses at the international expositions of Paris, Lon-
don, Vienna, Philadelphia, Sydney, Melbourne, Amsterdam, Antwerp,
Barcelona, Brussels, or Chicago. Foreign jurors will be named by the com-
missioners of the respective countries, and their appointments must be
signified to the commissary-general before the opening of the exposition.
Excepting for the group of works of art, the juries of class will have the
right to call, for consultation only, either as experts or associates, persons of
special competence on any matter submitted for their judgment. Each jury
of class will elect its own officers, but the president and vice-president must
be of different nationality — the one a Frenchman, the other a foreigner.

The juries of group will consist of the presidents, vice-presidents, and
rapporteurs of the juries of class, and of a president, two or three vice-
presidents, and a secretary, who may be chosen outside of the juries of class.

The full composition of the superior jury is yet undetermined. Among
the members ex officio will be the commissioner of every country represented



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THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF I9OO. 1 55

in the official catalogue by the names of more than five hundred exhibitors.
The work of the international jury will be under the supervision of the
commissary-general and the directors-general.

Each jury of class will proceed to the examination of objects exhibited, and will pre-
pare — (i) a list of exhibitors hors concours (those who can not compete for recompenses as
hereafter mentioned] ; (2) a list, by order of merit and without distinction of nationality, of
recompenses proposed to be bestowed upon exhibitors; (3) a similar list to the preceding for
the collaborators, engineers, foremen, and workmen who may have distinguished themselves
particularly by the production of remarkable works figuring at the exposition. For art
industries, the list of exhibitors to be recompensed will be divided into two sections — one
devoted to the authors of designs, cartoons, sketches, etc., the other to the manufacturers.
Two sections will also be devoted to the materials or processes of production and to the
products, when these elements are found united in the same class. These lists, properly certi-
fied, will be submitted to the commissary-general not later than June 30th, failing in which
they will be made by the jury of group.

The lists prepared by the juries of class, in the manner just indicated,
will be revised by the juries of group, with a view to assuring unity and har-
mony in the distribution of awards. The revised lists will be submitted to
the superior jury not later than July 31, 1900.

The superior jury will make the final revision of the lists by order of
merit, and the distribution of awards will be made on or about September i,
1900. For the temporary expositions and competitions in the groups of
agriculture, horticulture, and food stufis, the operations of the international
jury will continue throughout the exposition. The juries of class will pre-
pare the lists of awards at the end of each temporary exposition or contest,
and these lists will be finally revised by the juries of group at the conclusion
of the series of such expositions. All the deliberations of the international
jury will be rigorously secret.

Each of the reporters of the class juries will, within six months after the close of the ex-
position, present to the commissary- general a report setting forth the principal facts established
by the jury, describing the progress achieved since 1889, and reflecting the general conditions
existing at the close of the nineteenth century.

These reports will be published by the Government, together with an
official list of the awards.

Only diplomas will be granted as recompenses. They will be thus clas-
sified : Grand-prize diplomas, gold-medal diplomas, silver-medal diplomas,
bronze-medal diplomas, honorable-mention diplomas.

No exhibitor acting as a juror and no firm or company represented on
a jury by any member, stockholder, agent, or employee will be eligible to
an award. Persons exhibiting in several classes may receive awards in each
class, but no one shall receive more than one award in a single class. Exhib-
itors sharing jointly a show case or other space may compete for awards if
their exhibits are strictly individual. Only one award can be made for a
collective exhibit, but every person interested may receive a diploma bear-
ing the names of all participating exhibitors. Commemorative diplomas may
be awarded to all persons who have cooperated effectively in the retrospec-
tive exposition.



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156 THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF I9OO.

ADMISSIONS.

The regular price for the afternoon will be i franc (19.3 cents). For
mornings, afternoons, and special days, the admission price may be increased.
Season and monthly tickets will be offered at a reduction. Each exhibitor
in the contemporary exposition will be given a complimentary season ticket,
and the necessary employees at his exhibit will also receive complimentary
admissions.

CONCESSIONS.

Concessions and privileges for entertainments, refreshment booths, etc.,
will be granted by the Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts, and Tele-
graphs upon the recommendation of the commissary-general. All privileges
for pecuniary benefit must pay a royalty or percentage of receipts to the ex-
position. No advertisements, catalogues, or prospectuses can be circulated
in the exposition grounds except under special license, for which a suitable
fee will be charged.

CLASSIFICATION OF EXHIBITS.

The vexed question of classification has been profoundly studied in all
its aspects by M. Picard, the accomplished commissary-general, and by the
superior commission. The difficulties — in fact, the utter impossibility — of
devising a scheme of classification absolutely logical and entirely free from
practical disadvantages were fully recognized. The commission examined
with great care the classifications of all the international expositions of the
past, both in France and other countries, and considered fully the various
criticisms to which they have been subjected in the light of the actual results
achieved. The report of the commissary-general upon this subject is an able
and comprehensive paper, in which the various theories of classification are
impartially discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of each fully
set forth. Of the classification at the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876, it is
said that, ** while it was inspired by a lively appreciation of that which con-
stitutes the value of man and the grandeur of the peoples, it would have been
improved had it been less heterogeneous.'* Of the classification at the Chi-
cago World's Fair it is said: "Notwithstanding its real merits, it can not be
considered a model to imitate. It erred notably in the minute subdivision
of the classes. ' '

For the classification at the approaching exposition, that of 1889 is taken
as a point of departure, and such modifications have been made as were sug-
gested by the legitimate criticisms of which it was the object and by the
lessons taught by foreign expositions.

The post of honor is occupied by education — " the channel by which man
enters into life, the source of all progress.** Next come works of art, and
the third place is assigned to the instruments and general processes of letters,
sciences, and arts. Then come "the great factors of contemporary produc-
tion, the most powerful agents of industrial achievement at the end of the
nineteenth century** — the material and general processes of mechanics, elec-



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THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF I9OO. 1 57

tricity, civil engineering, methods of transportation. Next follow the exploit-
ation and the products, superficial or subterranean, of the earth — agriculture,
horticulture, forestry, the chase, fisheries, placer mining, food stuffs, mines,
and metallurgy. Next in order are the decoration and furnishing of public
buildings and habitations, threads, yarns, tissues, textile fabrics, wearing
apparel, chemical industries, various manufactures. "Social economy, to
which have been reserved the developments worthy of its actual role, follows
naturally the various branches of artistic, agricultural, and industrial produc-
tion.*' It will embrace also hygiene and public or organized charity.

A new group has been created for the ''moral and material work of col-
onization,'' and the series closes with the military and naval group.

In all, there will be eighteen groups and one hundred and twenty sections,
as compared with twelve groups and nearly a thousand sections at Chicago.

An interesting innovation has been introduced in the classes of decorative
arts, each of which will comprise twp sections — one for the authors of de-
signs, cartoons, sketches, etc., the other for the manufacturers. Each sec-
tion will receive distinct awards, so that the artists will be recognized as
exhibitors and not as collaborators.

In all departments of the exposition, so far as practicable, materials and
processes will be found in contact with products. All machinery will be
operated under the eye of the public, so that visitors may familiarize them-
selves with its practical workings and follow the successive transformations
of the crude material until it assumes the form of the finished article. Ex-
hibitors will not be required, however, to expose methods and processes of
fabrication an important element of whose value is their secrecy.

In so far as compatible with the vast extent of the exposition grounds
and the necessary dispersion of the exhibits among several main halls and
the pavilions of different countries and of important exhibitors, the arrange-
ment of the exposition will be such that all the products of a single country
will be brought into juxtaposition, as well as those of different countries per-
taining to one class of industry. Thus, in proceeding in one direction, the
visitor may review successively the various exhibits of the United States or
any other nation; proceeding in another direction, he may examine suc-
cessively all the exhibits from the different countries of one general class,
such as agriculture, electricity, etc. But where it is not practicable, in ar-
ranging the exposition, to consider both the nature of the products and their
place of origin, the grouping will follow the nature, the destination, and
utility of the objects, rather than the country of production. Under this plan,
the different varieties of machinery will not be gathered together, but will be
dispersed through the buildings and grounds. "If,** says the commissary-
general, "the visitors are deprived of the imposing spectacle which was
afforded by the immense accumulations in the old gallery of machines,
if the grand effect of mass and multiplicity due to such concentration is lost
to them, they will no longer pass by engines and apparatus without suspect-
ing their purpose or their manner of operation ; the confusion of their minds



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158 THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF I9OO.

will be dissipated; they will comprehend and will be instructed, which is the
chief object of these periodical assizes of industry."

The following shows the classification adopted, by groups and classes :

Group No. I. — Education and instruciion.



(7

(9
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(13
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(«5

(•6;
(17:
(18:



(•9;



(23
(24;
(2S
(26

(27:



(28
(29

(31
(32
(33:
(34:

(35
(36:
(37



Infant, primary, and adult education.

Secondary instruction.

Superior education, scientific institutions.

Special artistic education.

Special agricultural training.

Industrial and commercial education.



Group No, 2. — Works of art.



Paintings, cartoons, designs.
Engraving, lithography.
Sculpture, medal and gem engraving.
Architecture.

Group No. J. — Instruments and general processes of letters^ sciences^ and arts.

Typography, printing in general.

Photography in two categories, viz, professional and amateur.

Books, musical editions, bookbinding, posters, newspapers.

Maps, instruments of geography and cosmography, topography.

Instruments of precision, coins, medals.

Medicine, surgery.

Musical instruments.

Theatrical plants, materials, and accessories.

Group No. 4. — Materials and general processes of mechanics.

Steam engines.

Engines using other motive power (except electricity).

General mechanical apparatus.

Tools and implements of manufacturing.

Group No. J. — Electricity.

Production and mechanical utilization of electricity.
Qiemical electricity.
Electric lighting.
Telegraphy and telephones.
Different applications of electricity.

Group No. 6. — Civil engineering and transportation.

Materials and processes of civil engineering.

Models, plans, and designs of public works.

Coach and cart building.

Saddles and harness.

Railroad and tramway construction.

Shipbuilding.

Aerostation.

Group No. 7. — Agriculture,

Agricultural materials and processes.

Viticulture.

Agricultural industries.



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THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF I9OO. 1 59

(38) Agricultural science, husbandry statistics.

(39) Alimentary agricultural products of vegetable origin.

(40) Alimentary agricultural products of animal origin.

(41) Nonedible agricultural products of animal origin.

(42) Useful insects and their products, hurtful insects and vegetable parasites.

Group No. 8. — Horticulture and arboriculture,

(43) Materials and processes of horticulture and arboriculture.

(44) Kitchen-garden plants.

(45) Fruit trees, fruits.

(46) Trees, shrubs, plants, ornamental flowers.

(47) Conservatory plants.

(48) Horticultural and nursery seeds and slips.

Group A'o. 9. — Forestry t the chase ^ fisheries ^ cueiliettes.

(49) Materials and processes of forestry.

(50) Forestry products.

(51) Sporting arms.

(52) Products of the chase.

(53) Fishing tackle and products, pisiculture.

(54) Wild or noncultivated vegetable products, implements used in gathering the same.

Group No. 10. — Food stuffs.

(55) Materials and processes of alimentary industries.

(56) Farinaceous products and their derivatives.

(57) Bread and pastry.

(58) Preserved meats, fish, vegetables, and fruits.

(59) Sugar, confectionery, condiments, stimulants.

(60) Wines, spirits.

(61) Miscellaneous beverages.

Group No, II. — Mines and metallurgy.

(62) Materials and processes and products of mines, ores, and quarries.

(63) Materials and processes and products of large metallurgy.

(64) Materials and processes and products of small metallurgy.

Group No. 12. — Decoration and furniture of pt^lic buildings and habitations.

(65) Fixed ornamentation of public edifices and of dwelling houses.

(66) Stained glass.

(67) Wall paper.

(68) Low-grade and high-grade furniture.

(69) Carpets, tapestries, and other upholstery fabrics.

(70) Temporary decorations and upholstery products.

(71) Pottery.

(72) Crystal and glass ware.

(73) Heating and ventilating systems and apparatus.

(74) Lighting apparatus other than electric.

Group No. /J. — Threads^ yarnsy textile fabrics, wearing apparel,

(75) Plants, materials, and processes of spinning and rope making.

(76) Plants, materials, and processes of weaving.

(77) Bleaching, dyeing, printing, and finishing of textiles, plants, materials, and processes.



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 24 of 82)