United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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(78) Materials and processes of needlework and the making of wearing apparel.



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l6o THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF I9OO.

(79) Cotton threads and fabrics.

(80) Linen, hemp, etc., threads and tissues, rope products.

(81) Woolen yams and tissues.

(82) Raw and manufactured silks.

(83) Laces, embroideries, and trimmings.

(84) Ready-made apparel for men, women, and children.

(85) Miscellaneous attire.

Group No. 14. — Chemical industries.

(86) Chemical and pharmaceutical arts.

(87) Paper making.

(88) Hides and skins and leather.

(89) Perfumery.

(90) Tobacco and match manufactures.

Group No. ij. — General manufactures,

(91) Stationery.

(92) Cutlery.

(93) Gold and silver ware.

(94) Jewelry.

(95) Clocks, watches, and other timekeepers.

(96) Bronze, cast iron, and forged iron, embossed metals.

(97) Brushes, notions, basket work.

(98) Rubber products, traveling and caonping articles.

(99) Toys and games.

Group No. 16. — Social economy ^ hygiene^ organized charity.

(100) Apprenticeship, protection of child labor,
(loi) Wages, profit sharing.

(102) Wholesale and retail industries, cooperative associations of production and credit.

(103) Cultivation of large and small farms, agricultural syndicates and banks.

(104) Safety of workshops, labor regulations.

(105) Workmen's dwellings.

(106) Cooperative stores.

(107) Institutions for the intellectual and moral development of workmen.

(108) .Savings banks, friendly societies.

(109) Public and private efforts for improving the condition of the people,
(no) Hygiene.

(in) Public relief.

Group No. ly. — Colonization.

(112) Modes of colonization.

(113) Colonial plants and materials.

(114) Special merchandise for exportation to colonies.

Group No. 18. — Military and naval.

(115) Artillery armaments and plants.

(116) Military engineering.

(117) Naval engineering, hydraulics, torpedoes.

(118) Maps, hydrography, sundry instruments.

(119) Military and naval equipment and administration.

(120) Hygiene and sanitary materials and services.

SAMUEL E. MORSS,
Paris, December 24^ i8g6. Consul- General.



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EXHIBITION OF STOCKHOLM, 1 897. 161



SWITZERLAND AND THE PARIS EXPOSITION.

On December 7, 1896, the Swiss federal council at Berne sent to the
Federal Assembly a message concerning the participation of Switzerland in
the Paris exhibition of 1900. The message states that the Government has
communicated with each of the cantons and also with a number of impor-
tant Swiss societies, such as the Industrial Society, the Agricultural Society,
and the Alpine Economic Society. The cantons, to a large extent, have re-
plied that they doubt the practical utility of exhibitions, but that they presume
that participation will be advisable in order to maintain the national dignity.
The federal council state that Switzerland will, in all probability, be well
represented in 1900 at Paris in the lines of fine arts, silk manufactures,
watches, machines, embroidery, agriculture, milk and cheese, etc. It is
thought that there will also be a reasonably complete exhibition of Swiss
jewelry, music boxes, carved wood, conserved articles of food, etc. At
present, some doubt exists regarding the exhibition of cotton and woolen
stuffs and hosiery. The Basle manufacturers of colors derived from tar
have decided not to exhibit, as also has the society of Swiss hotel proprietors.
In general, it may be said, however, that Switzerland will make a finer ex-
hibition of products at Paris in 1900 than she has at any previous interna-
tional exhibition.

It is thought that Switzerland will exhibit nothing under groups 6 (means
of transportation), 8 (horticulture), 9 (forests, game, and fish), 1 1 (mines
and metallurgy). Group i (education and instruction) will probably con-
tain little from Switzerland, the federal poly technical school having so
decided. For the Paris exhibition of 1889, the Federal Government of
Switzerland voted a sum of 185,000, and afterwards a supplementary sum
of 135,000. It is not as yet determined how much will be necessary to be
voted for the exhibition of 1900, but the council have asked a preliminary
sum of 1 10,000. The commissioner for Switzerland will be announced in
a short time.

IRVING B. RICHMAN,

St. Gall, December 28 ^ i8g6. Consul- General,



EXHIBITION OF STOCKHOLM, 1897.

I have the honor to submit a report upon the exhibition that, in con-
formity with the royal decree of June 7, 1895, ^^^^ ^^ opened at Stockholm
on the 15th of May, 1897, and continue for about six months. Sweden,
Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Russia are the countries participating in
the exposition, while nearly all the European nations contribute to the art
exhibition.

The chairman of the central committee is the Crown Prince and for the
art exhibition the Prince Eugene.
No. 197 2.



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1 62 EXHIBITION OF STOCKHOLM, 1 897.

The city of Stockholm is taking a lively interest in this effort to present
a survey of her industries ; the promoters are sanguine of a large attendance
of Americans. All the important buildings are erected and nothing will
be left undone to insure a pleasant impression on visitors. The location of
the exhibition is a happy one. The exhibition will be well worth a visit
on the part of Americans who are planning a trip abroad during the coming
season. * Such as so intend may come by way of England, .and thence cross
the North Sea to Gothenburg, Sweden, and by the famous Gota Canal route
to Stockholm or by rail direct from Gothenburg in eight or ten hours, or, by
landing at Hamburg, continue the journey by rail and boat. Special rates
and excursions will be offered during the coming summer.

The accommodations and scenery through Scandinavia are unexcelled,
and when Stockholm is reached one is again in an almost American city.

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF SWEDEN.

A lifetime has passed since Sweden invited her neighbors to meet in her
capital on the common ground of industrial enterprise. The first great
Scandinavian exhibition took place in Stockholm in 1866, and the second
and third having been held in Copenhagen in 1872 and 1888, Sweden is
now energetically preparing for the fourth in Stockholm next year. In con-
sequence of the length of time between the first Scandinavian exhibition in
Stockholm in 1866 and the fourth in 1897, some comparisons may be made
between the economic position of Sweden now and thirty years ago. The
bare statistical figures are the best witnesses of the development during these
thirty years.

Looking, in the first instance, at agriculture, the principal industry of
Sweden, the cultivated area, which, in 1866, was 2,500,000 hectares (i hec-
tare=:2.47i acres), has been increased to nearly 3,500,000 hectares. The
grain crop has increased from 17,000,000 cwts. to 24,000,000 cwts., and the
increase in the fodder crop is proportionately still larger.

Naturally promoted by inventions made in the country (as De Laval's
separator, etc.) the natural by- trade of agriculture— dairy farming — has de-
veloped into one of the principal branches of the country's trade. Thus,
while thirty years ago at least 5,000,000 kilograms (11,023,000 pounds) of
butter were imported into Sweden every year, more than 25,000,000 kilo-
grams (55,115,000 pounds) a year are now exported. Of cows, Sweden
possessed about 1,300,000 in 1866, but at present 1,700,000, and, as a rule,
the breed is now far superior to that of thirty years ago. The number of
hogs has increased from 400,000 to 800,000, and, regarding their breed, the
same is to be said as about the cows, etc.

The timber and mining trades show a rapid development. The value of the
hewn timber export in 1866 scarcely exceeded 30,000,000 kronor (18,040,-
000), whereas it has now reached 120,000,000 kronor (132,160,000) or more,
and Sweden is at present the principal wood-exporting country in the world.
The largest sawmills in the world are to be found in Sweden, and at least



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EXHIBITION OF STOCKHOLM, 1 897. 1 63

25,000 people are employed in them. At the same time, a considerable
industry has developed in improved wood goods and products. These are
exported to a value exceeding 20,000,000 kronor (15,360,000) a year.

Regarding the mining industry, only 500,000 tons of iron ore were ex-
tracted a lifetime ago, whereas now four times that, or 2,000,000 tons, a year
is obtained. The output of pig iron did not then amount to 250,000 tons a
year, whereas it is now 500,000 tons. The steel industry, however, shows
a still larger development. While in 1860-18 70 the production was only
7,000 tons a year, it is now 170,000 tons.

To show the industrial development that has taken place during these
years, we may mention that at all works in the country, except dairies and
sawmills, less than 40,000 people were employed in 1866, but at present
there are at least 130,000. Foundries and mechanical works have, during
the same period, increased their yearly output from 8,000,000 kronor to
53,000,000 kronor (12,104,000 to 114,204,000); sugar works and refineries,
from 13,000,000 kronor to 57,000,000 kronor (13,484,000 to J15, 276,000);
and paper mills, from 3,000,000 kronor to 13,000,000 kronor (^804,000 to
13,488,000).

At present, the total production of all Swedish industries except dairies
and sawmills may be estimated at 400,000,000 kronor (J 107, 200,000) at least
a year; thirty years ago it was scarcely one-fourth of this. The total value
of goods imported into Sweden in 1866 was 200,000,000 kronor (^53,600,-
000), whereas it is at present 700,000,000 kronor (1187,600,000) at least.

The total tonnage of sailing vessels in the mercantile navy has only in-
creased from 250,000 tons to 370,000 tons, but of steamers the increase has
been from 14,000 tons to 180,000 tons. The total tonnage of vessels entered
and cleared, during the same time, increased from 3,000,000 tons to 12,-
000,000 tons.

Thirty years ago, Sweden had but 1,500 kilometers (932 miles) of rail
down; now, however, her railroads are 10,000 kilometers (6,214 miles) in
length, which, in proportion to her population, is more than any other country
in Europe. Sweden has already acquired no less than 100,000 kilometers
(62,137 miles) of telephone lines, which figure is, in the absolute, surpassed
in Europe only by that of the German Empire, and in proportion to the
population it is probably unparalleled anywhere on earth.

As examples of the increased prosperity of the nation at large, we may
mention that the consumption of wheat and rye, which in 1860-18 70 was
126 kilograms (278 pounds) per head a year, it is at present 180 kilograms
(397 pounds), and the consumption of sugar has increased from somewhat
less than 4 kilograms (S.S pounds) per head to 14 kilograms (31 pounds).

In 1866, deposits in the savings banks amounted to 38,000,000 kronor
(110,184,000), whereas the latest returns show a balance of 350,000,000 kro-
nor (193,800,000).

THOMAS B. O'NEIL,

Stockholm, November 24^ i8g6. Consul,



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1 64 AN IMPROVED METHOD OF FILTRATION.



AN IMPROVED METHOD OF FILTRATION.

There is now in operation at the city of Worms, in this district, as well
as at Kiel, Winterthur, Frankenhausen, Landsberg (near Berlin), and several
other places in Germany an improved system of filtration for water, which
should have an important interest for the numerous municipalities in the
United States Chat are struggling with the problem of purifying river water
on a large scale for household and manufacturing purposes.

Hitherto, the method most generally employed has been that of filtering
through sand or gravel, and, for this purpose, a layer 30 to 40 inches thick
of clean sand, mixed in some cases with charcoal, has been used. The sand,
being loose and nonadhesive, lies, of course, at the bottom of the tank, and
in this form entails two important economic disadvantages — first, the area
of space required is large in proportion to the amount of water to be treated,
and, second, all sediment in the water settles upon the sand which forms the
bottom of the filter, and which soon becomes gorged and clogged so that
the filter must be thrown out- of use while it can be cleaned by mechanical
means.

The new system, which the present report will briefly describe, is the in-
vention of Director Fischer, for many years past waterworks engineer of the
city of Worms, where the use of Rhine water for general purposes presented
the same problem that confronts cities like Cincinnati, St. Louis, Cairo, and
others which derive their water supply from the often turbid rivers of the
Mississippi Valley. The germ, or fundamental idea, upon which the new
system is based is the fact that clean, sharp sand, when mixed in due pro-
portion with finely pulverized glass, which may be derived from the waste of
glass works, old bottles, etc., forms a porous mass, which, by baking under
a high temperature, may be hardened in any desired form. The inventor
in this case hit upon the plan of molding this porous cement into hollow
plates or plaques about 40 inches square and 8 inches thick, that is, with
walls 3 inches in thickness and about 2 inches of hollow space at the center
of the plaque.

In constructing the filtering plant, these plates are set upright in groups
or batteries of any number, according to the desired size and capacity of
the establishment, and are ranged along the lower portion of one or more
tanks of hydraulic masonry, where they can be covered to a depth of 3 or 4
feet with the water to be filtered. The water is then forced by its own
pressure through the porous walls of the plate into the interior hollow space,
where it trickles down and is drawn off through pipes, laid at the bottom of
the tank, to the reservoir which receives the filtered water. These discharge
pipes are rigged with cocks so that each plate and group of plates may be
isolated for cleaning or other purposes while the adjacent batteries are in
operation. For greater economy of space and tubing, two tiers of plates are



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AN IMPROVED METHOD OF FILTRATION.



165



set, one above another, as shown in the accompanying drawing, which gives a
front and edge view of two pairs of plates, set in the usual manner, whereby
both tiers are served by one set of discharge pipes. The water, in passing
through the 3-inch walls of vitrified sand, is filtered as perfectly as by tra-
versing 3 feet of loose sand or gravel in the ordinary sand-filtering process.
The plates, being set upright and close to each other, increase from eight to
ten fold the filtering surface that may be condensed within any given super-
ficial area, thus securing an important economy of space within frost-proof
constructions, and where, as is often the case, land is costly and difficult to
obtain.




Nor is this the only, or even the principal, advantage of the new system.
Every practical waterworks engineer knows the delays, labor, and expense
involved by turning sand filters out of circuit and cleansing them of the
mud and detritus which collect so rapidly at the bottom of the tank. With
the plaque filter, the cleansing operation is easily and quickly performed by
simply reversing the current of water, that is, turning it backward through
the discharge pipes into the hollow plates, whence it percolates outward
through the porous walls into the tank, dislodging readily the dirt that has
collected on the outer surface. This falls to the bottom of the tank in
which the plates are submerged, and is drawn off in liquid form, assisted,
when the accumulation is large, by means of a hoe or shovel, and followed.



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1 66 AN IMPROVED METHOD OF FILTRATION.

when the tank has become emptied, by flushing with a jet of water from
a hose, which cleans thoroughly the surface of the plates and washes out
the bottom of the tank itself. The discharge cocks are then closed and
reversed, water turned again into the tank, and the process of filtration
resumed.

The depth or '* head ' ' of water necessary to make the filtration sufficiently
rapid is from 3 to 4 feet, and the reverse head, for cleaning the plates by
turning the water backward through the discharge pipes, should be about 6
feet to give sufficient pressure for the best results. Thus constructed, the
filtering plant at Worms, which may be taken as the original type and model
of the system, has been in constant operation during the past four years,
without accident or appreciable deterioration. From all testimony that can
be obtained, the results at Worms, both as regards economy of construction
and maintenance and speed and thoroughness of filtration effected, have
been eminently satisfactory.

The tanks, as already indicated, are made of masonry laid in hydraulic
cement, and if galvanized tubing is used, to obviate rusting, the life of such
a plant may be indefinitely prolonged. The demonstrated success of the
original filtering plant has led to the organized manufacture of the plates
by the firm Bittel & Co., who have large works at Worms-on-Rhine, and
furnish not only the prepared materials, but estimates and plans for filtering
outfits for municipalities and manufacturing establishments, such as breweries
and chemical and other works in which a large supply of limpid water is an
essential requisite. Smaller installations are also furnished to works in which
river water or spring water, strongly charged with oxides of iron, is used for
generating steam.

According to an official report by M. Janssen, of the University of Brus-
sels, who made an exhaustive study of the whole subject at Worms, that city
began in 1889 the filtration of Rhine water for general purposes by the ordi-
nary sand-filtering process, similar to that then used at Berlin. With a filter-
ing surface of 1,300 square meters (approximately 13,000 square feet), 3,000
cubic meters (792,510 gallons) of water were filtered in twenty-four hours.
This supply proved insufficient for the city, and it became necessary to con-
struct an addition to the filtering plant, the cost of which, on the sand-filter
plan, was estimated at $30,000. It was then that the Fischer system was
given a practical trial.

Instead of occupying new land and building additional constructions,
one of the ten vaults containing the sand filters already in use was isolated,
cleaned out, and the space filled with a battery of five hundred plates of the
Fischer pattern. The whole cost of the change thus made was about $9,600,
and the new filters, occupying one-ninth as much space as the sand filters,
doubled the filtering capacity of the entire installation. In other words, five
hundred Fischer plates, costing, set up and ready for operation, $9,600, and
occupying only 130 square meters of space, filtered as much water as the
sand filters which occupy i, 1 70 square meters of space and cost $30,000. To



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A NEW CRISIS IN GERMAN SUGAR PRODUCTION. 1 67

substitute the Fischer plates for sand throughout the entire establishment
would be to increase the filtering surface from 1,300 to 10,000 square meters
(approximately from 13,000 to 100,000 square feet) and multiply by ten
the daily filtering capacity of the plant.

From a long series of analyses and careful observations made by the san-
itary authorities at Worms, it appears that the efficiency of the two systems
of filtering, which are there worked side by side, are practically identical,
so far as regards their effect upon the chemical purity of the water, but the
percentage of bacteria left by the Fischer process is somewhat greater than is
left by the sand filter when clean and in good working condition. This,
however, is not considered a defect of practical importance. The water
delivered by the new filters at Worms, as well as at the other places where they
are in daily use, is certified by high and impartial authority to be thoroughly
purified and fitted for drinking, as well as for culinary and manufacturing
purposes.

FRANK H. MASON,

Frankfort, December p, i8g6. Consul- General,



A NEW CRISIS IN GERMAN SUGAR PRODUCTION.

When, on the 15th of May last, the German Parliament adopted the new
sugar-tax amendment law, part of which went into immediate effect, the
remainder becoming operative on the ist of August last, it was supposed that
the long-vexed problem of sugar legislation was settled and, for a series
of years at least, definitely eliminated from German politics. But there
has been called recently a meeting of sugar manufacturers for the declared
purpose of preparing a new appeal, setting forth the present critical con-
dition of the industry, and, according to so high an authority as the
Chemiker Zeitung, petitioning for new legislation "to rescue the sugar-
producing interest from the consequences of the very act passed for its sal-
vation, and which have presented themselves promptly and in a most serious
form.''

The act of May last was enacted, as will be remembered — against the bet-
ter judgment of many able members of the Reichstag — as a concession to
the Agrarian party, representing the landowning and agricultural population,
whose prosperity had been seriously compromised in recent years by the com-
petition of low-priced foreign cereals, meats, and other farm products, the
values of which are governed by the general law of supply and demand in
the world's markets. Sugar was declared to be the last and only agricultural
product in which there remained any profit for the German farmer, and it
was recognized that whatever skillful legislation could do to preserve and
protect that industry should, in justice to the suffering landowners, be given
a prompt and thorough trial.



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1 68 A NEW CRISIS IN GERMAN SUGAR PRODUCTION.

The sugar interest has passed through a severe crisis, caused by the enor-
mous overproduction of 1894-95, and one of the obvious necessities of the
situation was to restrict production and promote the export of German sugar.
The new measure was drawn up with care and thoroughness by leading rep-
resentatives of the sugar industry, and in its original form included the fol-
lowing provisions :

(i) A restriction of the annual production of sugar to 1,400,000 metric
tons.

(2) A further ''Contingentirung,'* or additional quota, to be distributed
among the factories on the basis of the average annual production of each
during the previous five years.

(3) A progressive tax on manufacture, the rate of which increased rapidly
with the amount produced, so as to lay the heaviest burden upon the larger
manufacturers and spare the small factories, many of which are owned and
operated by beet-growing farmers.

(4) The payment of 4 marks (95 cents) per 100 kilograms (220.46
pounds) bounty on exported sugar as a "Kampfpramie," that is, a premium
to enable German sugar exporters to compete against all comers in foreign
markets.

(5) An advance of the import duty on sugar from 35 marks (J8.33) to
45 marks (J10.71) per 100 kilograms, and, finally, an increase in the tax on
sugar consumed in Germany, so as to enable the Government to pay the
increased bounty on exports.

Over this original plan, which seemed logical and well balanced, at least
from the standpoint of its advocates, there was waged one of the fiercest and
most determined contests in the annals of German legislation, and the act,
as finally passed, had been changed and distorted by the greed of its sup-
porters into a measure radically different from that which had been at first
proposed. The limit of production had been raised from 1,400,000 to
1,700,000 tons per annum (raw-sugar equivalent), an amount that had been
reached only once, and that in the disastrous campaign of 1894-95, which
had led to the crisis of the year following. Overproduction, the principal
danger to be feared, and if possible averted, was thus established by the new
law as a permanent possibility. Furthermore, the contingent production
authorized was to be double the increased home consumption, and this was
distributed among the factories not on the basis of their average annual
product for five years previous, but on the basis of the highest figures reached
during two of the three preceding years. This naturally stimulated the
factories to reach this year the highest possible output, so as to entitle them-
selves to the largest possible share of favors to come. The effect of this has
been to give important advantages to the large and wealthy factories over



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 25 of 82)