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Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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are already anaemic (bloodless) and nearly dead.

(3) That the nature of the calcareous land, in which the cure is to be applied, be not of
a nature decidedly productive of chlorosis.

(4) That the pruning and immediate brushing be done in dry, but not cold, weather,
because the low temperature diminishes the absorption of the sulphate of iron solution.

If, within twenty-four hours after the treatment, a rain should come up, it is necessary, to
repeat the brushing over.

In performing the operation, it is recommended to the viticulturists to leave some rows
untouched, in order to better observe afterwards in the spring the effect of the treatment,
which should be repeated several years in succession, even if the result in consequence of
the first be complete.

Noto, October jo , i8g6.

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Consul Horton, of Athens, under date of November 3, 1896, furnishes
the following as to the stock of Greek currants in 1896:

Stock of crop of 1894 on hand July 13, 1895, ^" ^^ns; In England,
21,543; on the Continent, 10,765; in France, 5,100; in Russia, 6,000; in
America, Australia, etc., 3,700; in Greece throughout, 20,400; total on
hand of crop of 1894, 67,508 tons ; crop of 1895, 165,000 tons; grand total,
232,508 tons; less Government drawback,* 11,508 tons; net supply for
1895-96, 221,000 tons.

Of this, the following stock was found on hand on July 13, 1896, in tons :
In England, 13,100; on the Continent, 8,000; in France, 6,500; in Russia,
3,000; in America, Australia, etc., 4,400; in Greece throughout, 16,000;
consumption, 170,000; total, 221,000 tons; crop of 1895, 165,000 tons;
stock of old fruit in Greece on July 13, 1895, 20,400 tons; grand total,
185,400 tons.

Of this crop, the following shipments were made, in tons: To England,
58,600; to America and Canada, 14,400; to France, 26,140; to Conti-
nent, 38,700; to Australia, 1,792; to Russia, 24,260; Government drawback,
11,508; stock of old fruit in Greece on August 23, 1896, 10,000; total crop
of 1895, 185,400 tons.

Probable crop of 1896, 145,000 tons; stock in foreign markets, 35,000
tons; stock in Greece, 16,000 tons; grand total, 196,000 tons; less Gov-
ernment drawback, 21,000 tons; supply for 1896-97, 175,000 tons, against
221,000 tons last year, being 46,000 tons less than that year.

In 1895-96, Russia drew 24,260 tons, but may import much less during
1896-97, owing to the heavy duty imposed by the Russian Government.
Even should Russia import 15,760 tons and the American markets 9,000
to 10,000 tons less than last year, the supply will fall short of the quantity
required to meet foreign demands and general consumption by 20,240 to
21,240 tons. To this factor must be added the growing activity of the
Greek wine and cognac manufactories, which consume large quantities of
the fresh and dried fruit.

Last year, the tax was largely paid in money, and for this reason did not
greatly affect the quantity offered for export. This year it is being paid in
kind and will very sensibly reduce the free supply. Last year the prices for
the two grades of currants ordinarily shipped to the United States were as
follows : First grade, 120 drachmas per 1,000 liters; second grade, 80 drach-
mas. The same grades this year have not fallen below 1 70 and 1 40 drachmas.
On the whole, the Government plan of forcing the producers to apply a por-
tion of the crop to manufacturing purposes seems to be operating favorably.

♦ By the Government drawback is meant the tax of 15 per cent, payable in money or currants, which the
Government imposed to prevent overproduction. This measure is explained in the report of Consul Horton
in Consular Rbports No. 185 (February, 1896).

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The sale of the currants each autumn and its effect upon the paper cur-
rent" r Greece is interesting from an economical standpoint. The paper
drachma is the unit of the circulating medium, and its value varies directly
in proportion to the amount of gold in the country. Invariably, in October
and November, when gold begins to flow in from the sale of the currants,
the paper drachma oscillates toward par and its purchasing i)ower increases.
Later in the year, when the gold has flowed back to the other countries of
Europe for the purchase of imports, the payment on the public debt, etc.,
the drachma oscillates away from par. As the paper drachma is the only
money seen by the people at large, it is very evident that they are directly
interested in the amount of gold in the country. To this general statement,
we may add that the paper drachma approaches nearest to par in those years
when the proceeds from the currant crop and other sources are greatest.
This year is a favorable one for Greece. In addition to the high price
brought by the currants, a larger area than usual has been put into wheat,
and the olive crop and several of the minor crops have been more than
ordinarily successful. The paper drachma within the last few days has
reached the favorable quotation of 1.65.* About this time last year the
drachma was quoted at i.76.t


As the Mexican orange is rapidly making its way into our markets and
in the future will be a prime factor in the commerce of the two countries, as
well as filling in a "gap*' between the crops of Florida and California,
which heretofore has been largely done by more remote countries, I deem it
proper to acquaint our orange dealers with the conditions and future outlook.
This year nearly a thousand car loads will go to the United States.

In preparing this report, I have been greatly assisted by Mr. J. Yorba, a
practical orange grower, formerly of California, but now a resident of this
city. All values given are in Mexican money unless specifically stated other-
wise. A Mexican dollar is worth 51 cents (United States).

It is generally supposed that the Spaniards introduced several varieties of
fruit trees into this country, among them, perhaps, the sweet orange, yet to
one who has traveled much in Mexico, after seeing the numerous forests of
wild oranges, one inclines to the theory that the "ancients*' knew of this
fruit and that perhaps it was cultivated before the time of Cortez. How-
ever, works treating on the history of old or ancient Mexico do not describe
oranges, yet it is to be presumed that the existing wild stock found generally
in obscure and inaccessible regions of the tropics was placed there originally
by the hand of man, and nature spread it widely, but gradually changed
it from a sweet to a sour, or bitter, orange. When this work was started

• I gold franc costs 1.65 drachmas. f » go'd franc cost 1.75 drachmas.

No. 197 — -5.

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no one knows. The Mexican orange comes under the family Aurantiac^T^
genus citrus. Although fifty varieties are known to exist, there are hv* he
kinds of oranges found in the markets of this country, classified as follows:
The sweet orange, "naranjadulce;'* the Chinese orange, "naranjade China*'
(Var. myrtle leaved) ; and the sour orange, ** naranja de agria. " The naranja
de China (Chinese orange) is a small fruit, a little over 2 inches in diameter,
spherical, slightly depressed at the apex, deep yellow in color, thin rind, with
minute oil cells, and very delicious. Its tree is somewhat dwarfish, having
small leaves i to i^ inches long and resembling those of the myrtle.
The sour orange has a roughish rind, rather thick, acrid, bitter pulp, and is
generally large in size; its tree is large, having a hard wood, and, in many
places, develops a trunk of great dimensions; the leaves are of a brilliant,
agreeable green color, aromatic, lanceolated, and with a broadly winged
petiole. The sweet orange is like the Mediterranean sweet (produced in
Cordoba, Jalapa, Atonilco, Yautepec, and Atlixco), the Early Oblong (found
in Rio Verde, Guadalajara, Yautepec, Montemorelos, and Hermosillo), and
the navel, not quite perfected, of the size of the Riverside, has been found
by the writer among the orchards of Yautepec. This species could be
greatly improved and much accomplished with it by careful selection in its
propagation ; for instance, selecting shoots, cuttings, or seeds from trees
where the incomplete navel and partially seedless variety is found, or bud-
ding or grafting with sound stock from California and Florida. Few are the
countries that possess the natural advantages which subtropical and tropical
Mexico has, and hardly any are gifted with the immense proportion of terri-
tory, comprising two-thirds of the Republic, suitable for orange culture. By
careful selection, assorting, and packing of the fruit, Mexico, with its luscious
and well-proportioned oranges, will always supply the United States of the
north for the latter*s early demand, as well as late consumption, and drive
away any other importing means of supply.

The sweet orange is cultivated (partially) in Aguas Calientes, partido
(county) of Calvillo; in Campeachy, partidos (counties) of Champoton and
Hecel-Chacan ; in Colima, partidos of Alvarez, Centro, and Colima ; in
Chiapas, departamentos (counties) of Chiapa, Chilon, Comitan, La Liber-
tad, Alenc^ue, Pichucalco, Simojovel, Soconusco, Mezcalapa, Tonala, and
Tuxtla; in Chihuahua, districts of Artiega, Bravos, and Guerrero; in the
State of Durango, partidos of Durango, Mezquital, San Dimas, Santiago
Papasquaro, and Tamazula; in Guanajuato, partidos of Abasolo, Dolores
Hidalgo, Irapuato, Penjamo, Romita, and San Francisco del Rincon; in
Guerrero, distritos of Abasolo, Bravos, La Union, Mina, and Morelos; in Hi-
dalgo, distritos of Atotonilco, Tulancingo, and Zacualtipan ; in Jalisco, can-
tons Primero, Tercero, Cuarto, Quinto, Sexto, Octavo, Noveno, Decemo,
Undecimo, and Duodecimo; in Mexico, distritoof Sultepec; in Michoacan,
distritos of Apatzingan, Ario, Coalcoman, Huatamo, Jiquilpan, Tacambaro,
Uruapan, Zamora, and Zetacuaro; in Morelos, distritos of Cuernavaca,
Jonacatepec, Juarez, Tetecala, and Yautepec ; in Nuevo Leon, distrito Se-

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gunda, Tercero, Cuarto, Quinto, Sexto, Octavo, Noveno, and Decimo; in
Oaxaca, distritos of Choapam, Cuicatlan, Coixtlahuaca Del Centro, Ejutla,
Etla, Huajuapam, Jamiltepec, Juchitan, Juquila, Juxtlahuaca, Miahuatlan
Nochixtlan, Ocotlan, Ochutla, Silacayoapam, Tehuantejjec, Teotitlan, Tla-
colula, Tlaxiaco, Tuxtepec, Villa Alta, Villa Alvarez, Villa Juarez, and
Yautepec; in Puebla, distritos of Acatlan, Alatriste, Atlixco, Chiautla,
Huauchinango, Huejotzingo, Matamoros, Tecali, Tehuacan, Tei>eji, Tetela,
Teziutlan, Tlalauqui, Zacapoaxtla, and Zacatlan; in Qiieretaro, distritos of
Amealco, Jalpan, and Queretaro; in San Luis Potosi, partidos of Alaquines,
Cerritos, Ciudad del Maiz, Ciudad de Valles, Rio Verde, Tamazunchale,
and Tancanhuitz ; in Sinaloa, distrito of Badiraguato, Concordia, Cosala,
Culiacan, Del Fuerte, Mocorito, Del Rosario, De San Ignacio, and De Sinaloa;
in Sonora, distritos of Alamos, Altar, Arizpe, Guaymas, Hermosillo, Mag-
dalena, Moctezuma, Sahuaripa, and Ures; in Tabasco, partidos of Balancan,
Cardenas, Comalcalco, Cunduacan, Frontera, Huimanguillo, Jalpa, Jonuta,
Macuspana, Nacajuca, Tacotalpa, and Teapa; in Tamauliims, distritos of
Del Centro (Altamira and Quintero); in the Territory of Lower California,
partido Del Centro and distrito Del Sur; in Tepic, partidos of Acaponeta,
Ahuacatlan, San Bias, Santiago Ixcuentla, and Tepic ; in Veracruz, Acayucan,
Chicontepec, Coatepec, Cordoba, Cosamoloapam, Huatusco, Jalacingo, Ja-
lapa, Minititlan, Misantla, Orizaba, Ozuluama, Papantla, Tantoyuca, Tux-
pam, Tuxtlas, and Zongolica; in Yucatan, partidos of Izamal, Merida, Motul,
Tizimin, and Tizkokob; and in Zacatecas, in the partidos of Juchipila, Tlal-
tenango, and Villanueva.

Naranja de China is cultivated in the partidos of Calvillo, State of Aguas
Calientes; in the partidos of Champoton and Hecelchacan, Campeachy; in
the partidos of Alvarez, Colima and Medellin, Colima; in the departmentos
of Chilon, Pechucalco, Socomisco and Tuxtla, Chiapas ; in the partido of San
Dimas and Tamazula, Durango ; in the partidos of Abasolo, Comonfort, La
Purisima, San Francisco del Rincon, Guanajuato, and Victoria, Guanajuato;
in the districts of Bravos and Mina, Guerrero; in the districts of Tulancingo
and Zacualtipan, Hidalgo; in the Primero, Tercero, Cuarto, and Octavo
cantons (counties) of Jalisco; in the district of Sultepec, Mexico; in the
districts of LaPiedad, Tacambaro, Uruapan, Zamora, and Zitacuaro, Micho-
acan ; in the district of Cuernavaca, Morelos ; in the municipalities of
Allende, Cadereyta, Juarez, Montemorelos, Rayones, Santa Catarina, and
Santiago, Nuevo Leon; in the districts of Etla, Huajuapam, Jamiltepec,
Juchitan, and Villa Juarez, Oaxaca ; in the districts of Tetela and Tlatlanqui,
Puebla; in the district of Toliman, Queretaro; in the partidos of Cerritos,
Ciudad del Maiz, and Rio Verde, San Luis Potosi ; in the districts of Alamos
and Ures, Sonora; in the partidos of Comalcalco, Huimanguillo, Macuspana,
Tacotalpa, and Teapa, Tabasco ; in the cantons of Casamaloapam, Jalacingo,
Orizaba, Ozuluama, and Tux[)an, Veracruz ; and in the partidos of Kspita,
Izamal, Maxcanu, Merida, Motul, Progreso, Sotuta, Tekax, Tizimin, and
Tixkokob, Yucatan.

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The naranja agria grows mostly wild in the partidos of Aguas Calientes,
Calpalalpam, and Calvillo, Aguas Calientes; in the partidos of Charapaton
and Hecelchacan, Cam peachy ; in thedistrict of Muzquiz, Coahuila; in the
partidos of Alvarez, Del Centro, and Medellin, Colima; in the dej^artments of
Chiapa, Chilon, Comitan, La Libertad, Mescalapa, Pichucalco, San Cristobal,
Simajovel, Soconusco, Tonala, and Tuxtla, Chiapas; in the districts of Artiaga
and Guerrero, Chihuahua; in the districts of Mixcoac, San Angel, and Tlal-
pam, Federal District ; in the partidos of Durango and Tamazula, Durango ;
in the partidos of Abasolo, Acambaro, Allende, Cortazar, Dolores Hidalgo,
Irapuato, La Purisima, Leon, Romita, San P'rancisco del Rincon, San Luis de
la Paz, Santa Cruz, Silao, Valle de Santiago, Victoria, and Yuririapundaro,
Guanajuato; in the districts to Abasolo, Bravos, La Union, Mina, Morelos,
and Tabares, Guerrero ; in the districts of Atotonilco, Huichapan, Tulan-
cingo,and Zacualtipan, Hidalgo; in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth
eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth districts, Jalisco ; in the districts
of Chalco, Sultepec, and Tlatnepantla, Mexico; in the districts of Apatzin-
gan, Ario,Coalcoman, Huetamo, Jiquilpan, LaPiedad, Patzcuaro, Puruandiro,
Tacambaro, Uruapan, Zamora, Zinapemaro, and Zitacuaro, Michoacan; in
the districts of Jonacatepec and Morelos, Morelos ; in the first, second, third,
fourth, fifth, sixth, eighth, and ninth districts of Nuevo Leon ; in the districts
of Del Centro, Choapam, Coixtlahuaca, Cuicatlan, Etla, Huajuapam, Jamilte-
pec, Juchitan, Juquila, Juxtlahuaca, Miahuatlan, Nochixtlan, Selacayoapam,
Tehuantepec, Teotitlan, Teposcolula, Tlacolula, Tlaxiaco, Villa Alta, Villa
Alvarez, and Villa Juarez, Oaxaca; in the district of Acatlan, Chiautla,
Cholula, Huauchinango, Matamoros, Tecamachalco, Tehuacan, Tepeji, Te-
tela, Teziutlan, Tlatlauqui, and Zacatlan, Puebla; in the districts of Cade-
reyta, Jalpan, San Juan del Rio, and Tollman, Quert^taro; in the partidos
of Alaquines, Cerritos, Ciudad del Maiz, Ciudad de Valles, San Juan del Rio,
San Luis Potosi, Tamazunchale, andTancanhuitz, State of San Luis Potosi ;
in the districts of Badiraguato, Concordia, Culiacan, San Ignacio, and'Sin-
aloa, Sinaola; in the districts of Alamos, Altar, Arispe, Hermosillo, Magde-
lena, Moctezuma, Sahuaripa, and Ures, Sonora; in the partidos of Balancan,
Cardenas, Comalcalco, Cunduacan, Frontera, Huimanguillo, Jalpa, Jonuta,
Macuspana, Nacajuca, Tacotalpa, and Teapa, Tabasco ; in the districts of
Del Centro and Del Sur, Tamaulipas ; in the partidos of Acaponeta, Ahua-
catlan, Compostela, Santiago, Ixcuintla, and Tepic, Tepic; districts of Bar-
ron Escandon, Hidalgo, Juarez, and Zaragoza, Tlaxcala; in the cantons of
Acayucan, Chicontepec, Coatepec, Cordoba, Cosamaloapam, Huatusco,
Jalacingo, Jalapa, Minititlan, Orizaba, Ozuluama, Papantla, Tantoyuca, and
Tuxpan, Veracruz ; in the partidos of Espitla, Izamal, Mexcanu, Merida,
Motul, Progreso, Sotuta, Tekax, Tizimin, and Tixkokob, Yucatan ; and in
the partidos of Jerez and Villa Nueva, Zacatecas.

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The annual production of the sweet and myrtle- leaved, or Chinese,
oranges and their estimated value in Mexican currency are:


Quantiiies. Value.

Agiias Caliemes ,

Campeachy ,

Colima ,

Chiapas^ ,

Chihuahua » ,


Guanajuato ,





Morelos „

Nucvo Leon



San Luis Poiosi.-





Territory of Lower California,



Yucatan.... ,


, no, 000
















X 10, 562











The greatest producing (and most important) districts having easy means
of transportation are La Barca (i 10 car loads), Ocotlan (27 cars), and Guad-
alajara (30 cars), in the State of Jalisco; Yautepec (70 cars), Morelos; Li-
nares (5 cars) and Montemorelos (113 cars), Nuevo Leon; Rio Verde (201
cars) and San Antonio (250 cars), San Luis Potosi; Guaymas (13 cars) and
Hermosillo (210 cars), Sonora; Tula (20 cars), Tamaulipas; and Coatepec
(20 cars) and Cordoba (20 cars), Veracruz. The production, which repre-
sents now more than 3,290 car loads, will be increased gradually to the extent
of reaching more than that of California in a few years. In Montemorelos and
Linares, during the last three years, more than fifty thousand trees have been
planted, with several hundred grafted and budded with California and Flor-
ida stock. Near Hermosillo, Sonora, an irrigation canal is to be constructed
that will open up several thousand acres of land adapted to orange culture.
Not^Vithstanding the increase of yield, the consumption and demand of Mex-
ican oranges will always be greater than the production. The Mexican
people relish the fruit and especially on the holidays of the i6th of Septem-
ber, All Saints* Day, and the Posadas, vast quantities of it are brought into
the principal cities for home consumption. Mexico City alone consumes
annually more than 300 car loads of sweet, Chinese, and sour oranges, Pu-
ebla 70, and Guadalajara 30 car loads

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Few are the uses to which the products of the orange are utilized in Mex-
ico. The orange leaves ('*hojas**) are the tea of the Indians and of the
poor, and, in large cities, where they are peddled in the streets and sold in
the markets in small bunches for i cent apiece, are consumed in large quan-
tities. They are considered the best remedy for insomnia and restlessness
and are also highly commended as a night drink for children. A fine wine
is manufactured from the refuse oranges, purchased at 20 to 30 cents a hun-
dred, in Cuautla, Morelos, and Guadalajara, which retails at 50 cents a bottle.

There are other valuable products which could be obtained, such as the
distilled water of the blossoms, used for toilet purposes, worth J4.50 a gallon ;
citric acid from the pulp of the sour oranges, worth $1 a pound; a pomade,
much used as a cosmetic, worth J2.50 a pound; oil from the leaves and rind,
which constitutes the main odorous ingredients of cologne waters and elixirs,
worth ^3.50 to J5 a pound ; and the essential oils from the blossoms, leaves,
and unripe fruit, known as Neroli p^tale, Neroli bigarade, and essence de
petit grain — high odors used by the perfumers, generally worth from J5 to
$6 an ounce. The second oil mentioned could be manufactured at a small
expense, the flowers costing not more than 12^ cents a pound, out of the
numerous wild groves of sour oranges existing in the greater part of the trop-
ical belt of Mexico.


It was not till the Mexican railroad trunk lines tapped the border line of
the United States that Mexico began to export her oranges to the former
country. A few hundred boxes had been shipped from Sonora by the orange
growers, soon after the inauguration of the Sonora Railway in 1883, ^^ ^'^
experiment. This was a success ; other shipments followed in the succeeding
years and the quantity was increased to between 60 and 75 car loads for the
season. In 1890, the La Barca and Rio Verde, and, later on, the Montemo-
relos growers added to the shipment and increased the number to 100 car
loads a year. Last year, owing to the heavy frosts in Florida in the winter
of 1894 and 1895, some orange buyers came down to Yautepec, La Barca,
and Hermosillo, made contracts for deliveries at their packing houses at
prices ranging from J3.50 to $9.50 (Mexican currency) per thousand oranges.
This year, the prices were, at Yautepec, from $6 to ^8.75; at La Barca and
Guadalajara, from $10 to J15; and at Hermosillo, from J18 to J20. The
shipments for the season of 1895 amounted to 400 car loads and these proved
so profitable that new dealers turned to this country for a heavier supply than
ever; these and those of other years have brought their experts in order to
properly superintend the assorting and packing, many new facilities have
been introduced by them to handle the business,* and, with the cooperation
of the railroad companies in furnishing ventilating cars, etc., this year's
shipment will amount to not less than 700 car loads. This is considered a
mere drop in the bucket to the yearly consumption of the United States,
which amounts to 70,000 car loads, or 21,000,000 boxes; of these, 10,000,-

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000 boxes were formerly furnished by Florida and about 3/^00,000 by Cali-
fornia. The prices obtained in Chicago, Kansas City, St. Loi:!s, and Cincin-
nati for Mexican oranges are from J2.50 to J3.50 (gold) per box, a^ eraging
from 1 76 to 200 oranges each. Shipments begin about September i and
end December 15. It ordinarily takes twelve days, moderately fast freight,
to send cars from shipping points to Chicago or Cincinnati; however, some
cars have reached these points in eight days. The earliest shipping oranges
are from Yau tepee and Atlixco. The best shipping oranges are from Her-
mosillo, Montemorelos, Rio Verde, La Barca, and Guadalajara; the next
grade are from Yautepec (excepting the wormy), Michoacan, and Atlixco,
Puebla. The Coatepec, Veracruz, are moderately good, but the Orizaba and
Cordoba are not good for shipping; in fact, many contend that they will
not stand shipping at all. Colima and Tepic produce very fine oranges,
suitable for exportation, but would require double handling from orchards,
thereby curtailing the profits and endangering the fruit.

The boxes generally used for shipping are imported from the United
States and are the Florida and an imitation of the California. One or two
firms in this country have attempted to manufacture orange boxes, but have
not succeeded as yet in producing a first-class quality. The cost of a box is
31 cents; of the wrapping paper, 15 cents per box (all of which is imported);
cost of packing, ;^6 cents per box; freight and consular costs per box to Kan-
sas City, St. Louis, Chicago, or Cincinnati, ^2.04; and United States duties,
1 6 cents (gold) per box.


The Mexican orange planter is not particular regarding the soil he selects
for his orchard ; still, the trees seem to do well wherever planted, even on
adobe soil. However, to improve the fruit in quality, one must secure a
deep, rich, mellow loam, sufficiently porous to admit air to the fibrous roots
and elevated enough to keep them out of stagnant water. Clays, loams,
marls, and calcareous soils having the above conditions are tolerably suita-

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