United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

. (page 36 of 82)
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day, 9 {x>unds 14^ ounces; the third day, 15 pounds 6^ ounces; the fourth day, 19 pounds
13^ ounces; the fifth day, 29 pounds 1 1 ounces; the sixth day, 35 pounds 13 ounces; the
seventh day, 33 pounds; the eighth day, 24^4^ pounds ; the ninth day, 18 pounds 2^ ounces;
the tenth day, 8 pounds 13 ounces.

The total quantity of leaves required for feeding worms hatched from 66 grains of eggs,
is, according to the age of the worms, the following: First period of existence, 17^ ounces,
out of which remains 4)4 ounces waste ; second period, 3 pounds 5 ounces and 9 ounces
waste; third period, 1 1 pounds and i pound io)4 ounces waste; fourth period, 77 pounds
13 ounces and 5 pounds waste; fifth period, 101 )4 pounds and 18 pounds 11^ ounces
waste.

Thus, for worms animated from 66 grains of eggs, 275^ pounds of leaves are required;
and, taking into consideration that the leaves lose weight by withering, it may be safely
figured that from 290 to 325 pounds are required. The necessary quantity of leaves must be
given in such a way that the worms should never be without food and that there should not
be much excrement, which happens always when large quantities of leaves are given at once;
it b better to give the same proportionately at two or three times. In the night, as well as in
the daytime, worms should never be left without food, especially in the fifth period of their
existence; food should be given them right along, as much as they can eat. But small inter-
ruptions are necessary, in order that the worms should digest well. Should small quantities
of worms appear which are behind time in their development, it is better to destroy them, so
as to have on the shelves worms of equal strength of every age.

Under favorable conditions, from 66 grains of eggs 21^ pwunds of raw cocoons and 5,000
worms can be produced, but there have been cases where 6,000 worms came out, in which
case the quantity of cocoons also exceeded 21)^ pounds; but the normal hatch is from 9 to
1 1 pounds of cocoons from 66 grains of eggs. When the branches for the cocooning are
ready and when the greater part of the worms have crept on to them, the remaining worms
that are behind should be put in a separate place, because they not only dirty the cocoons
but cause great garbage in general. Instead of branches for the cocooning, joiners' shavings



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248 THE SILK INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA.

are sometimes used, and sometimes frames with strings drawn over them at such distances
that the cocoons might be placed between them ; but the two preceding methods are more
convenient.

ANIMATION OF THE EGGS FROM BREFJ)ING COCOONS.

On small farms, it is not advantageous to procure eggs from their own cocoons, as that
requires complicated apparatus. Without knowledge and without special apparatus, it is
difficult to acquire the results usually obtained by large silkworm-breeding farms. It is ad-
visable, therefore, that small farms should secure their breeding eggs from the neighboring
establishments and, if possible, animated worms of the first age. The silkworms improve, as
well as all other animals, provided they are bred from the very best stock ; thus, the best
cocoons should be always picked out for breeding. The producer of the eggs for breeding
purposes must subject the butterflies which lay these eggs to a microscopic analysis, as their
diseases are transmitted to the breed, and this is the principal reason why the worms sicken,
and is of^en the cause of the unsatisfactory result in the feeding of the worms.

If the approximate calculations concerning the quantity of leaves produced from 10
sagenes (77 feet) of land, planted with the scorzonera, pointed out in Mrs. Tikhomirov's re-
port, are correct, then 10 square sagenes (77 feet) of land will furnish a sufficient quantity of
leaves to feed 5,000 or 6,000 worms produced from 66 grains of eggs. As stated before, from
66 grains of eggs 18 jg pounds and even more of raw cocoons can be obtained, requiring
from 290 to 325 pounds of leaves for food; consequently, a bed of soil 3 arshines (7 feet)
long and three- fourths of an arshine (21 inches) wide must give 36 pounds of leaves, not
from seed, but from the root of the second year's growth, because the leaves of the first year,
procured from seed, are not good for feeding, being too juicy and not sufficiently fleshy, dis-
arranging the digestion of the worms and causing looseness of the bowels. The leaves must
be gathered twenty-four hours before feeding, and then only when their surface is quite dry,
/*. e.y not after rain nor with dew on them. If the leaves are dusty, they must be wiped.
They must not be gathered when the sun is too hot, as a warm leaf withers very quickly.
After being gathered, the leaves are stored where they can not get warm, and then cut or
chopped for food; they must be of even temperature with that of the room where the worms
are kept. Cold leaves spoil their digestion; leaves too warm cause abimdant excrement.
Leaves already prepared for food must be wrapped in linen, in order that they may keep their
juice, because, when the leaves are withered, generally one-half has to be thrown away. It
is better to cut off the leaves only from half of the root, and when new leaves begin to appear
the leaves from the other half can be cut away. In order to secure scorzonera seed, the
leaves must be cut and the flower branches left untouched. The seed of the scorzonera
ripens about the same time (in September) as those of other vegetables in the northern coun-
tries, but sometimes they do not fully ripen in those countries. The roots of the scorzonera
must not be planted in too richly manured soil, as the leaves become too juicy and cause
indigestion to the worms. The best soil for the scorzonera is such as is used for potatoes;
only, it must be planted a little deeper on account of the roots being quite long.

A trial has been made in feeding the worms with the scorzonera roots cut into fine slices,
instead of the leaves, but no definite results have been obtained. It has been noticed that
the worms eat the roots only partially, leaving the greater part of the flesh of the root
untouched.

The first time the leaves are given to the animated worms, the tissue of the under p>art
of the leaf is taken off, and then the worms begin to eat more quickly, being attracted by the
fresh smell of the leaves. It is desirable at the beginning to wet the leaves or to cut or chop
them before feeding, for the worms eat more freely of the freshly opened parts of the leaves,
because, at the beginning, they only suck the juice, but, in general, the worm soon gets ac-
customed to the leaves of the scorzonera and enjoys them, leaving scarcely anything if fed
by an experienced person, and the oftener the leaves are given the less remnants will be left.
The same thing is observed with all herbivorous animals. If you give a horse or a cow all



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THE SILK INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA. 249

the hay it reqaires for twenty-four hours at once, half of it, or a little less, will remain ; but
if you give the same quantity little by little, it will be wholly eaten. •

In order to be able to begin the feeding of worms early in the season, part of the scor-
zonera can be planted in the hothouse, because the worms in their first period of existence
eat only small quantities of leaves, and before the third period arrives, the leaves from ordi-
nary beds will be ready for use. If the roots are planted only to bear leaves, the seed bags
must be cut out, as the leaves develop more luxuriantly and generally attain the size of 21
inches in length. If the leaves are grown in hothouses, or in boxes on the windows of the
room where the worms are reared, the eggs can be animated in April. It is better that the
roots of the scorzonera grown from seed be taken out of the ground the first winter and
kept in cellars in wet sand, guarding them against mice, and in spring planted again.
Although roots have sometimes wintered in the soil with satisfactory results, there is less
risk if they are taken out.

Feeding worms with scorzonera leaves has some advantage over the feeding with mulberry
leaves. First, the scorzonera can be grown everywhere, independently of climate and soil;
second, the time of feeding worms with the scorzonera before the formation of cocoons is five
days shorter than with the mulberry leaves; third, the spots made by the excrements of
worms fed by the scorzonera do not spoil the cocoons, whereas the contrary is the case when
mulberry leaves are used.

PRESERVATION AND SALE OK RAW COCOONS.

The cocoons are ready to be taken off on the twelfth or fifteenth day after the beginning
of the cocooning. Two or three hundred raw cocoons weigh 14^ ounces, and when un-
wound from 8 to 10 per cent of silk is produced, so that I pood (36 pounds) of raw cocoons
give about 3 pounds 10 ounces of raw silk. Cocoons are sold raw, or dried, i. e., killed and
dried. Both processes require certain implements and therefore must be speedily sold when
they are still alive, i. ^., raw. The raw cocoons are heavier than the dried ones by two-thirds
of their weight.

After the cocoons have been taken from the cocoon branches, they must not be kept longer
than eight days before they are dried, so that the butterflies will not come out, because that
spoils, the cocoon, for the butterfly coming out makes a hole in it. Such cocoons are of no
value and are considered garbage. It must be remembered that on the twelfth or fifteenth
day the cocoons are taken off and on the twentieth day the butterfly comes out. The raw
(live) cocoons must be preserved with great care, in order that the live chrysalides, which are
in the middle of the cocoons should not die, as they begin to decay and spoil the other co-
coons lying near, making rusty spots. Therefore, the decayed cocoons must be carefully
taken out, and also those on which rusty spots have appeared. All double and deformed
cocoons and those which are not hard enough, must be also picked out, all these being con-
sidered garbage.

If the sale of raw cocoons should be disadvantageous on account of low prices, it is better
to kill and dry the cocoons, so that they may not spoil. Of course, this would be advantage-
ous only to parties having large quantities of cocoons on hand, either of their own or pur-
chased from small peasant farmers.

It is desirable to form, in each district, large silkworm-rearing farms, which could help
the smaller ones by supplying them with eggs, already tried, with leaves of the scorzonera,
and even with worms of the younger age, and to buy from the peasants the raw cocoons.
On large farms, all cocoons can either be used for unwinding silk in a raw state or they can
be killed and dried. Greater similarity can also be easily attained, whereby greater quan-
tities will find easy sale. According to official information, 8,000,000 rubles (^4,120,000)
worth of raw silk is annually imported into Russia, and of the silk from which tissues are
manufactured in Russian mills, less than one-tenth are made from Russian silk. Owing to
such a visible want in the production of Russian silk, the sale of this latter may be considered



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250 THE SILK INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA.

guarantied. Thus, all these conditions give hopes for a large development of the northern
silkworm industry, with the aid of the leaf of the scorzonera, the cultivation of which is so
easy, and in the near future may greatly develop in the hands of the peasants.

The root of scorzonera used for food is known under the common name of sweet black
root, and forms a very nourishing and tasteful dish. This plant, by the development of its
leaves, resembles the chicory plant, which also gives an abundance of leaves. The flowers
of scorzonera can be placed among the melliferous flowers. Owing to such qualities, scorzo-
nera comes to the relief of mulberry trees, which always suffer when deprived of their leaves;
besides, the leaf of the scorzonera does not require such exclusive climatic conditions as those
of the mulberry.

DISEASES OK THE WORMS.

If the silkworm producer does not follow the necessary rules above mentioned, generally
speaking his worms will be always sickly, for the diseases of the worms are caused by bad
nursing. The principal diseases of the worms are pebrine, pallor, muscardine, and the jaun-
dice.

Pebrine. — Moths attacked with the pebrine produce eggs infected with the same disease.
To avoid the use of such eggs, the cellulary method, before mentioned, of procuring eggs was
invented. This disease is not only hereditary, but even very contagious, so that if worms suf-
fering from pebrine are placed in a room with those in good health, the latter can be infected,
although they are placed on different shelves. The principal features of this disease are: An
unequal and slow hatching of the worms (their hatching in the afternoon); great mortality
during the first days after their coming out of the eggs; irregularity in their first sleep, in-
creasing with each period; a great number of worms behind time; black spots on the body
and the thorn of the worm and on the wings of the moth; a slow laying of the eggs by the
moth and many yellow (imimpregnated) eggs among them. If the stomach of a large worm,
sick with pebrine, is cut open and its silk -producing glands examined, small milk-white dots
will be observed on its surface. A healthy worm is free from these spots ; his glands are of the
color of amber and quite transparent. Therefore, if a silkworm breeder has worms ill with
the pebrine, he must not allow them to breed, but must kill all the cocoons produced by them,
and buy, the following year, healthy cellulary eggs, which, although dearer, will pay back all
the expenses by giving a large harvest of cocoons and healthy moihs, which can be allowed
to breed. The worms and moths ill with the pebrine are attacked by a certain parasiie, seen
through the microscope. When cellulary eggs are prepared, all possible attention is paid to
see that this parasite does not exist in the moth.

Pallor. — This disease is considered more dangerous than the pebrine, as against pebrine
a remedy has been found (cellulary method of preparing eggs), but against pallor no remedy
has been discovered. The great danger of this disease is that worms, quite healthy seemingly,
even such as are produced from cellulary eggs, suddenly fall ill with the pallor and the whole
hatch perishes in a few days. It happens even, that worms beginning to cocoon fall ill with
the pallor; in that case, they have strength enough to begin to make their cocoons, but they
soon leave off^ the work they have begun and die, decay very soon, and completely spoil the
cocoons, which become soft and rusty. The symptoms of this disease are : The worm loses its
appetite, becomes drowsy, and is attacked with diarrhea; sometimes it ejects some liquid from
its mouth ; the whole body of the worm gets flabby, it begins to shrink little by little, and, while
yet alive, begins to get black and soft. It happens that such worms, in falling from the cocoon
branches on to the shelves, burst and fill the air with an ofiensive odor. Experienced silk-
worm breeders attribute this disease to the following reasons: (i) Had preservation of the
eggs during winter; (2) worms placed too near each other; (3) bad air and infrequent chang-
ing of the beds, and, in general, keeping the worms in a dirty place; (4) great heat during
the feeding of the worms; (5) insufllicient food, hungering of the worms, or the feeding of
them with raw leaves wet by the rain, etc. It is impossible to cure the worms ill with the
pallor, and therefore when such disease appears it is advisable to change their litter as often



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THE SILK INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA. 25 1

as possible, taking away all the worms that are ill, and also the sheets of paper soiled with
the excrement of the sick, and air the room as often as possible.

Muscardineu>r petrification. — The symptoms of this disease are: Worms attacked with the
muscardine become pink at the first, then harden, and the body begins to be covered with
white spots, as if sprinkled with chalk. Worms which have died of the muscardine shrivel
and get so hard that they break. This disease is contagious, not hereditary, and therefore
the shelves or anything that has been in use where the worms ill with this disease have
been must never be used unless they have been carefully washed and cleaned. The walls
and ceiling of the room where this disease has occurred must be whitewashed, washed with
lye, and dbinfected. The disinfection is done in the following manner: Into an earthenware
jar about I vedro (2.707 gallons) of muriatic acid is poured ; in this jar, another smaller earthen
jar is placed by hanging, into which pieces of manganese are put. The jar with the acid is
placed on a trivet and warmed with the aid of a spirit lamp. The doors and windows of the
room are tightly closed and remain so during two days. This must be repeated two or three
times, in order to be sure that the contagion has been extirpated.

Jaundice y or fattening. — This disease is not considered dangerous and generally appears
in worms of the fifth period. The worms attacked with this disease get very stout, their
skin stretches and shines, and the worms, becoming yellow and milk white, at last break and
a liquid oozes out of the worm, fouling the food and litter, and decomposes very rapidly.
Worms sick with the jaundice must be thrown out before they break.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS.

Every silkworm breeder who wishes to feed his worms in a proper way must observe the
following rules :

(i) He must first take care that the eggs designated for breeding should be good. The
eggs must be carefully preserved during winter, or, failing in this, he must buy new eggs
when the time for animating the worms is at hand.

(2) He must prepare good premises wherein to feed the worms.

(3) He must keep the premises clean during the whole time of the feeding.

(4) He must air and ventilate the rooms.

(5) He must keep even temperature in the room, approximating from 70® to 77° F.

(6) He must not feed worms which have hatched later than five days after the hatching
has begun.

(7) He must feed worms often and not let them hunger.

(8) At the beginning, the leaves must be young and finely cut ; as the worms grow older,
the leaves can be cut in larger pieces.

(9) Dusty, wet, cold, rusty, withered, or spotted leaves must never be given to the
worms.

(10) The leaves must be kept separately, but never in the room where the worms are,
and must not be given before six or eight hours after they are gathered.

(11) He must feed the worms on shelves, on sheets of clean blotting paper (filter
paper).

(12) He must change the litter of the worms often.

(13) Each time the litter is changed, he must throw away sick worms.

(14) He must rarefy the worms as often as possible by taking them off on branches.

(15) He must, after each period, equalize the worms.

(16) He must never put worms of different periods together.

(17) He must not disturb worms that are asleep.

(18) He must prepare for the mature worms convenient, dry, and clean cocoon branches.

(19) He must not take off the cocoons before six or seven days from the beginning of the
cocooning, and cocoons for breeding purposes not before ten to eleven days.

(20) He must assort the cocoons carefully.



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252 COMMERCIAL AND TRADE SCHOOLS IN RUSSIA.

In conclusion, attention must be called to the great service rendered by Prof. A. A. Tik-
homirov in having shown the practicability of feeding silkworms by the scorzonera. Practi-
cal experiments, made under his supervision, prove to be of state importance. « Owing to the
labor of A. A. and O. O. Tikhomirov, a new branch of industry, called " northern sericul-
ture," is opened up.

Now, sericulture, following a new course, becomes attainable to all, and, before long, it
may not be necessary to pay 8,000,000 rubles ($4,120,000) yearly for imported silk, and
Russia may be able to export her own silk to the value of several million rubles.



COMMERCIAL AND TRADE SCHOOLS IN RUSSIA.

The Russian manufacturers, merchants, and business men in general are
of one opinion that a knowledge of commercial sciences is getting to be
more and more important for commercial business, and in that respect that
they are, especially in southern Russia, far behind some of the other coun-
tries. There is not one Russian exporting firm in any of the ports of the
Black and Azov seas — in fact, the whole business in southern Russia is in
the hands of foreigners, and the reason is, that Russia has not enough
persons with commercial education. They have come, therefore, to the
conclusion that the present state of Russian trade and industry requires
commercial and trade schools in the south of Russia.

During the last two years, many schools have been founded, and at pres-
ent a number of new schools are being planned, all to be established and
supported by commercial societies, towns, and private companies. Accord-
ing to a new law for commercial education, they will be permitted not only
to supervise the management of school affairs, but also to take part in their
practical direction.

In Kiev, the merchants raised the capital for a commercial high school
of seven classes and for a three-class trade school. Trade classes will also
be opened by means of a society organized for that purpose. In Kharkov,
a society of merchants' clerks for mutual help is establishing a three-class
trade school, and the question is raised of establishing trade classes. In
Simbirsk, a commission of commercial delegates is working at regulations
for a commercial school of three classes. Movements for establishing com-
mercial schools of different types in Moscow, Yaroslav, Kazan, Tifiis, Arch-
angel, Odessa, Rybinsk, Nijni-Novgorod, and Kashin have been started. In
the city of St. Petersburg, a society has been organized for the purpose of
promoting commercial education, and among the founders of this society are
the largest and richest merchants. In Ekaterinoslav and Taganrog, it is pro-
posed to establish commercial schools. In Nikolaev, it has been decided to
organize for the time being a commercial school in which the foreign lan-
guages will be taught, the course of studies to be increased in the future.
Trade classes for merchant clerks will be also oi>ened there.

The means for the maintenance of these schools will be raised partly by
the municipalities and partly by the representatives of commerce and trade.



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SPANISH TRADE IN MANUFACTURES.



253



The following table shows the studies and the number of hours devoted
to them weekly in the full course of a commercial school :





Classes.




Studies.


Prepar- j
atory. 1


II.


III.


IV.


V.


Special.


Total.




I.


II.




Religion


Hours. Hours,

3|

6 1 5
5 S
5 5


Hours.

3

4
4
4
5
3


Hours.

2

4
3
3

4

2

3

2


Hours.

2

4
3
3

4


Hours.

2

3-

3

3

4


Hours.
I

2
3
3
3


Hours.

I

2
3
3
3


Hours.
IS


Languages:

Russian.^


French


30

29

23
16


German


English


Arithmetic


6


5


Algebra


2
2


3

2
I

4




8


Geometry








' i


5


Trigonometry








1




Physics „










2


2

2
3




8


Cosmography (mathemat-
ical and physical)












History








2

2
2


3

2
2


3






Geofiraphv




a


2

2





8




2






8






2


3

2
3
2
3


5


History of commerce










■:"":"' :::::::;.:


Political economy


::::;:::r;;:;;:::










2
2

2

2
2




Jurisprudence














4
5
















Commercial arithmetic and
bookkeeping














Commercial geography and
statistics














1
2 ^


Drawing


2
3


3
4


2
2


t


I






8
9


Penmanship














1







St. Petersburg, May <?, 7<?pd.



JOHN KAREL,

Consul- GeneraL



SPANISH TRADE IN MANUFACTURES.

The existing tariff and customs laws of Spain became operative on the ist
of October, 1892. They were made with the object of protecting home in-
dustries, and they have, as a rule, given satisfaction to Spanish manufacturers;
yet it is claimed that they should be revised so as to* afford more protection to
certain of the industries that have not made much headway.

The following table shows the importations and exportations of manufac-
tured articles during the years 1890 and 1895. ^^^ values are stated in silver



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 36 of 82)