United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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pesetas or their equivalent. In 1890, 5^ silver pesetas equaled |i . In 1895,
the exchange was so high that it took 6 silver pesetas to equal %\. All Span-
ish duties are paid in silver or (its equivalent) paper and all customs statistics



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254



SPANISH FISHERIES.



are stated in the same kind of currency. Spanish gold is, and has been since
before 1890, practically out of circulation.

Imports and exports of manufactures.



Articles.



Imports.
Manufiftctured leather 33»89o,'



Machinery .

Woolen goods

Cotton goods

Copper articles

Silk goods..

Glassware

Paper

Furniture

Hemp and linen goods..,

Perfumery

Toys..



Total..



Total in United States currency..



Cotton goods

Corks.

Boots and shoes..

Paper.

Soap



Exports.



Woolen goods..

Books

Cards

Silk goods



Total..



Total in United States currency . .



1890.


1895.


Pesetas.


Pesetas.


33,890,000


4,343.000


4i«o8a,ooo


*5,r42.ooo


2a. 499.000


14,238,000


11,579,000


7,042,000


5,706,000


3,480,000


9,58o,ocx>


14,717,000


5,119,000


3,982,000


4, 6x1, 000


2,584,000


7.344,000


4,150,000


4,6x6,000


2,648,000


1,081,000


1,632,000


1,152,000


515,000


148,259,000


74,873.000


128,239,800


^12,478,833


23,972,000


42,622,000


22,226,000


20,108,000


17,378,000


17,285,000


6,757.000


11,287,000


4,737,000


4,666,000


3,292,000


3,233,000


2,288,000


2,488,000


986,000


660,000


932,000


3x^124,000


82,568,000


103,473,000


1x5,822,500


117,245,500



That is to say, under the new tariff the importations of manufactured
articles in 1895 ^^^^ ^^^s by 15,760,967 than under the old tariff of 1890
and the exportations were greater by 11,423,000. What would seem, how-
ever, to be a very unsatisfactory result of the change in the tariff is that the
combined importations and exportations of manufactured articles under
the old tariff of 1890 amounted to 114,337,967 more than the combined im-
portations and exportations under the new tariff in 1895.

HERBERT W. BOWEN,

Barcelona, May 2jy i8g6. Consul- General.



SPANISH FISHERIES.

The latest, and, I think, the only official statement giving anything like
an accurate idea of the importance and value of the fisheries of Spain was
recently published in conformity with the royal order of June 20, 1894,
which directed Lieutenant Vela, of the Spanish navy, to collect what infor-



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SPANISH FISHERIES.



255



raation he could obtain regarding the industry in Spain during the year 1892.
The peninsula and adjacent islands, it appears, are divided into three fishery
departments — Cadiz, in the south; Ferrol, in the north; and Cartagena, in
the east.

DEPARTMENT OF CADIZ.

In this department, 3,120 boats and 15,735 fishermen were found to be
employed. The value of the boats was 3,090,095 pesetas (1515,016) and
of the material used 1,582,301 pesetas (1263,717). The provinces of the
Cadiz department, the quantity of fish obtained in each province, and
the value of the fish are set forth in the following table:



Provinces.


Quantity


Value.


Cadiz..


Kilograms.*

5,202,586

5,021,708

2, 53', 551

694,467

10,590

3,300,000

6,064,601

541,330

4,495,820


Pesetas.^
5,123,020
2,157,572
1,071,045
533, »5«
5,075
1,750,200

2,075,754

133,618

1,261,480


Algeciras..


Malaga


Almeria


Seville


San Lucar


Huelva


Canaries


Grand Canary r








Total


127,862,653


§14,110,926







*z kilogram=2.2046 pounds.

t6 pesetas were about the equivalent of %\ in 1892.



1 61,426,004 pounds
2^,351.821.



DEPARTMENT OF FERROL.



Boats, 7,082; fishermen, 35,864; value -of boats, 4,924,549 pesetas
(^820,758); value of material used, 3,241,650 pesetas (;t54o>2 75)-



Provinces.


Quantity.


Value.


Ferrol


Kilograms.

5,297,852

7,101,586

16,526,419

2,251,513
2,762,243
4,689,423
4, 199, '>5o
4,573.827


Pesetas.
1.307.039
903.991
4,271,470
2,427,801
1,799.091
3.332,767
2,832,721
2,271,614




Villagracia


Vigo


Gijon


Santander


Bilbao


San Sebastian -








ToUl


*47,402,4i3


ti9,M6,^94






t>3,»9i,o82.




• 104,474,918 pounds.







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256



SPANISH FISHERIES.



DEPARTMENT OF CARTAGENA.



Boats, 4,524; fishermen, 15,598; value of boats, ^,095,685 pesetas
($349,280); value of material used, 1,802,433 pesetas ($300,405).



Provinces.



Cartagena^..

Alicante

Valencia

Tarragona...
Barcelona....

Mallorca

Mahon



Total *7. 548,912



Quantity.

Kilograms.

1,530,123
i,i34,ai6

444,178
x,499,ca8
1,742,195
1,105,034

104, 138



Value.



Pesettu.

813.785

644,477

225,340

1,206,964

1.264,869

7^7,789
100,449






14.983,673



•16,637,820 pounds. 1^30,612.



The following shows the totals in the three departments: Boats, 14,726;
fishermen, 67,197; value of boats, $1,685,054; value of material (nets, etc.),
$1,104,397; total number of pounds, 182,538,742; total value of fish
caught, $6,373,515.

The 82,813,978 kilograms (182,538,742 pounds) were disposed of in the
following manner:



Kinds.



Quantity.



Kilograms.

Consumed fresh by the fishermen 5, 702,289

Consumed fresh by others in the prov-
inces 24,378,787

Exported: ,

Fresh.. 1,251,656

Salted I 5.075.675

Pickled I 2,195,270

Salted , 31,407,191



Kinds.



Quantity.



Kilograms.

Pickled. .» 6,104,377

Consumed in Spain outside of said 1
provinces : ,

Frwh I 20,944,157

Salted... 19, i66, i6a

Pickled 3,809,100

9.367,935



Amount of salt used....



Owing to the slowness of the Spanish trains, too heavy freight charges
and octroi duties, and the lack of cheap ice and of suitable transportation
boxes, comparatively small quantities of fresh fish are sent into the interior
of Spain or exported to France. In 1885, there were 445 factories in oper-
ation for salting fish. These factories, valued at $1,200,000, employed
16,500 workmen and turned out $1,447,000 worth of salted fish.

The principal kinds of fish caught by Spanish fishermen are sardines,
tunny fish (atun), cod (merluza), sea bream (besugo), dog fish (lija), anchovy,
and horse mackerel (chicharro).

The number of factories engaged in preparing sardines is 409, employ-
ing 16,509 workingmen, and using, on an average, 14,535,947 kilograms of
salt, 290,107 kilograms of oil, and 110,750 kilograms of vinegar. They do
a business of nearly $3,000,000 each year.



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THE PROVINCE AND CITY OF MALAGA. 257

The bones of the tunny fish are made into guano, which sells at 6^
pesetas (J1.04) per quintal (101.61 pounds). The two principal fish-guano
factories in Spain are located in the province of Huelva. One produces
1,000 quintals and the other 16,000 quintals a year.

HERBERT W. BOWEN,

Barcelona, September 24^ i8g6. Consul- General,



THE PROVINCE AND CITY OF MALAGA/

THE PROVINCE OF MALAGA.

According to historians, Malaga appears to have been used as a place
for the salting of tunny fish, hence the Arabic word **melchh,*'* of which
Malaga is a corruption, melchh being described as town of salt. It is said
to have been founded by one Tarapha, who came from Arabia 880 years
before the Christian era.

The province of Malaga, under the ancient Kingdom of Granada, ranked
as first class in all matters of civil jurisdiction. The captain-general resided
at Granada, and was in command of the four districts into which this King-
dom is divided, namely, Granada, Jaen, Almeria, and Malaga.

Malaga continued in the possession of the Moors for 770 years and was
recaptured in 1487 by Ferdinand, King of Castile. It lies between 2i(}^ 42"
north latitude, 43° 6" west longitude (meridian of Madrid). Its area com-
prises 1,890 square miles and contains 109 towns and villages, with a total
population of 595,984 (census of 1892). ^

This territory is rich in many valuable mineral ranges — iron, coal, copper,
lead, zinc, nickel, and various other metals — and its renowned mineral
wealth^as not been overrated, either in extent or in the variety of its prod-
ucts. Fertile in soil and peculiarly blessed in climate, it yields all the
products of the temperate and many of the semitropical regions. Its surface
is rugged and broken and interspersed with hills, mountains, beautiful val-
leys, and streams.

The climate of this part of Andalusia is considered the njost mild and
salubrious. The average temperature is 76° in summer and 46° in winter.
Frost is almost unknown, which makes Malaga a great resort for invalids.
Roses bloom throughout the year and wild flowers grow in the greatest
profusion and with remarkable luxuriance. The winds which generally
prevail are north, or *'terral," which is hot, dry, and disagreeable in sum-
mer, but considered salutary in purifying the atmosphere, and the 'Mevante,'*
or easterly, damp in winter and cool in summer, and the fresh and balmy
westerly winds.



Any of the following might account for the derivation of the word " Malaga," but in the absence of proof
one docs as well as another, as all are appropriate : Meick, meaning being ; Melchh, meaning salt ; Maalaka,
meaning hung up on a hillside ; or the Spanish '* Pcrchal" (as part of the city is now called) and meaning a
place where fish arc hung up to dr^'.

No. 197 8. '



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258 THE PROVINCE AND CITY OF MALAGA.

Malaga has suffered severely by the introduction of epidemics, owing to
the lack of energy so far as regards sanitary precautions. In 1637, 1719,
and 1 741, the city was invaded by yellow fever and black vomit, when thou-
sands of people were swept away ; subsequently, by the appearance of the
cholera in 1854, 1855, and i860, which also caused great loss of life. The
city is, surrounded by lofty mountains and a series of precipices or declivi-
ties, which admit of being ascended. The * ' vega, ' ' or plain, extends through-
out the eastern part, known as ''La Hoya,** or the lowest part of the field,
which is irrigated from the waters of the River Guadalores. The land in
the lowest part of the city spreads out in undulating fields and valleys, blend-
ing with each other, and of the greatest value for raisin culture and pasturage.
The plain is exceedingly fertile and is readily converted into one huge
cornfield.

PRODUCTS OF MALAGA PROVINCE.

Within this district is a concentration of some of the most picturesque
scenery. The soil is so rich in its elements that vegetables may be had
throughout the year. Many of the orchards are irrigated by the old Moorish
system ; an engine or wheel draws water from the wells, aided by old horses,
mules, or donkeys.

Prickly pear. — The cactus grows wild-, without the least cultivation, the
finest of which is termed "higo chumbo," or prickly pear, and tastes some-
what like our banana. The crop of this fruit is large and a great relief to
the poorer classes. It grows on hills and mountains, those of a rocky or
stony nature being preferred. It is exceedingly cheap and one hundred
may be had for 10 cents. They mature in August and the season lasts until
November. Sirup is made from the fruit, which is highly recommended for
throat disease.

General products, — The products of the district of Malaga include grapes,
almonds, figs, oranges, prunes, lemons, wine, palm-leaf work, olives, olive
oil, madder, locusts, flax, hemp, wheat, wool, and sugar cane; also, neat
cattle, mules and donkeys, minerals (as before stated), together with fresh
and salt fish in abundance. Since the inauguration of the railway from
Malaga to Cordoba and Granada, northwest of the city, many articles are
now brought from the interior and mountainous regions, where bituminous
coal is also found. A railway to the east would bring increased mineral
wealth and many other articles to the port, which should be one of the prin-
cipal and first ports of the Mediterranean.

Raisins. — This section of Andalusia has been most remarkable for its
large shipments of muscatel raisins, which form one of the leading branches
of industry. Thousands of farmers and laborers are dependent on the ship-
ments to the LTnited States and England, which in years past exceeded
2,300,000 boxes annually, but since the appearance of the phylloxera, to-
gether with the shipments from Denia, east of this city, though of an inferior
quality, the exportations from Smyrna and the California supply, the amount
is now reduced to from 500,000 to 600,000 boxes.



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THE PROVINCE AND CITY OF MALAGA. 259

A great many varieties of grapes have entirely disappeared, owing to the
ravages of the phylloxera, and American vines have been planted in their
place, making good the loss sustained.

The finest, or at least the most expensive brand of raisins, is the "Dehesa"
raisins of Malaga, "dehesa" meaning pasture grounds. This district extends
along the southern coast of Spain for a distance of 60 miles and is subdi-
vided into several districts — Malaga, Algarrobo, Marbella, Ronda, and Al-
baflol, besides Almeria. Grapes from the latter place are used only for
edible purposes. The best part of the whole district, however, is found at
Velez, Malaga proper, where the first raisin grape was planted by the Romans
or Phoenicians.

Malaga has been known to export raisins since A. D. 1295, but must
have been a raisin-producing district centuries before, and there is little
doubt but that the industry is of Phoenician origin and has been practiced
in this locality for 2,000 years or more. Under the Romans it was con-
tinued, but appears to have deteriorated and later on to have been abandoned
altogether, as local tradition credits the Moors with having introduced the
raisins into Velez Malaga. Vines are set 8 by 4 feet apart and the process
of converting grapes into raisins takes about fifteen days of clear, fi^ne weather
in the months of August and September.

CITY OF MALAGA.

Malaga has greatly improved during the past five years by the building
of the harbor, but I regret to say that the American colors are seldom, if
ever, seen flying within its entrance, unless hoisted at the fore truck of some
foreign steamer. The harbor is a good one, with every facility for the load-
ing and unloading of the largest vessel and when the prolongation and im-
provements which are now going on are completed, no port could be better.
A few miles from Malaga, at the towns of Marmolejo and Carratraca, are to
be found the famous baths of mineral water, which are highly recommended
by physicians for all maladies.

Of the old Moorish wall which surrounded the city of Malaga, but little
remains except a few towers. The old fortress of Gibralfaro, with its hun-
dred towers, formerly the royal residence, is well worthy of a few remarks,
as, like the Alhambra, at Granada, it was the pride of the Moslems. Some
historians attribute its foundation to the Phoenicians, others to the Greeks,
long before the Moorish invasion. It is constructed on the top of a hill,
overlooking the city, which rises abruptly from the sea to the height of nearly
1,000 feet, upon the side of which, and within its portals, lies the old town.
It was rebuilt by the Moors in 787, but now is a scene of chaotic desolation.
There is a project on the part of the Spanish Government to demolish the
old town, but this innovation is yet to be seen.

There is a well built on this promontory, known as "Pozo de la Grulla,"
or crested crane, which is wonderful and worthy of a visit and is said to
measure 1,200 feet in depth.



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260 SHERRY VINTAGE OF 1 896.

Another attractive feature for tourists is the great cathedral. This colossal
monument stands high above all other edifices in the city. Its foundation
was laid in 1528. Parts of it still remain in an unfinished condition. It
contains many valuable pictures by Murillo, Cano, Cerezo, and other masters;
many valuable paintings, however, were taken away by the French during the
invasion of 1808-1810. The choir, finished in 1592, and 30 yards in length,
also arrests the eye of the spectator.

The convent of La Victoria was founded by order of King Ferdinand,
in commemoration of the recapture of Malaga, and the old banners taken
from the Moors may be seen on entering the church.

In building the Hospital Civil, just outside the city, no expense has been
spared to erect a substantial structure, one that should meet fully all the
needs of the patients. It has wide, airy corridors and bright, well-lighted
rooms looking out upon miles of beautiful landscape, and is situated in a
desirable section, admitting a most perfect system of drainage.

There is also the auxiliary Hospital Noble, presented to the people of
Malaga by the daughters of Dr. T. W. Noble, in memory of their father.
The building is well constructed and faces the harbor. The hospital con-
tains a school for destitute orphans and is in charge of the Sisters of Charity.

In conclusion, I would say that most of the Moorish mosques have long
since been demolished or converted into churches, convents, and public and
private buildings.

R. M. BARTLEMAN,

Malaga, September jo ^ i8g6. Consul,



SHERRY VINTAGE OF 1896.

The wine crop in the sherry districts of this section of Spain (Cadiz) is
about the average in quantity of recent years, though one or two districts
report a falling off even from the vintage of last year, which was a short one.
There is reason to believe, however, that this reported decrease is somewhat
exaggerated. Although the time has not yet arrived for testing the young
wines, it is the general expectation that they will prove to be of superior
quality, owing to the unusually favorable weather conditions under which
the grape crop has been produced and harvested.

The following are the official returns of the vintage in the district of
Jeres de la Frontera, which is the principal sherry-growing district : Total
production of "mostos," or young wines, 4,755,240 gallons; average pro-
duction per hectare (about 2^ acres), 633.93 gallons; total weight of grapes
sent to press, 27,557 tons; average yield of **mosto'* per 100 kilograms
(220.46 pounds) of grapes, 19.02 gallons ; estimate of quality of crop, me-
dium ; value of the vintage per hectare, $3 (Spanish); amount of wages paid
per hectare, 50 cents (Spanish).

The total production, as above given, is equivalent to 36,024 butts of 132
gallons each. This is slightly below the total yield of 1895, but not suffi-



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OLIVE CROP OF SPAIN.



261



ciently so to justify the apprehension felt as to a steady decadence of the
industry. Phylloxera prevails in some districts and the measures adopted to
prevent its spread have not been very effective; but it is quite evident that
more vineyards have been abandoned because of the poor returns received
by grape growers than on account of the ravages of the insect plague.

CHAS. L. ADAMS,
Cadiz, October 26, i8g6. Consul,



. OLIVE CROP OF SPAIN.

ANDALUSIA.

The olive crop of 1896 in Andalusia is a small one as compared with the
1895 crop, which reached a total harvest of 80,000 fanegas (160,000 bushels).
The decrease for 1896 is variously estimated at from 30 to 50 per cent. This
is, perhaps, an exaggeration. It is also reported from Seville, the principal
olive market, that a considerable portion of the olives gathered this autumn
are worm-eaten and inferior. No transactions of importance have yet taken
place in the new crop which would furnish an indication as to the range of
prices. It is probable that they will rule fully as high as last year, if not
higher.

CHAS. L. ADAMS,

Cadiz, November 18, i8q6. Consul,



SEVILLE.
The current prices of olive oil of the crops of 1894 and 1895 averaged
about as follows :



Size.



70 to 80 per kilogram....
80 to 90 per kilogram...
90 to 100 per kilogram.,
xoo to I zo per kilogram,
zio to Z20 per kilogram.
xsK> to 130 per kilogram,
X30 to Z40 per kilogram
Z40 to 150 per kilogram,
150 to 160 per kilogram.
160 to 180 per kilogram
z8o to 200 per kilogram



Price per fanega (16
gallons).


1894.


1895.


Pesetas.


Pesetas.


86.50


85.50


73-75
60.50
56.50
41.50
31.80


70.00
58.50
46-50
36.00
29.00


25- 50


23.50


22.30


21.00


20.50
17.60


17.50
18.00


15- 50


15.50



In the absence of any official statistics of the yearly production of olive
oil, the estimates vary considerably, but the average seems to be, for the year
1894, 78,000 fanegas (1,248,000 gallons); 1895, 140,000 fanegas (2,240,000
gallons).



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262 PRODUCTIVE FORCES OF CUBA.

The olives of the crop of 1894 were mostly of large and medium sizes;
the fruit was generally much larger than that of 1895. ^^^ olives of 1895
were largely of medium and small sizes. About one-third of the crop, it is
estimated, was injured by too much rain, much of it becoming worm-eaten.
The larger the yield, the smaller the general size of the fruit.

SAMUEL B, CALDWELL,

Seville, June ig, i8p6. Consular Agent,



PRODUCTIVE FORCES OF CUBA.

With an area about equal to that of the State of Pennsylvania, a length
of 775 miles, and a width varying from 30 to 160 miles, Cuba stands in a
geographical position which, together with her productive soil, mineral
wealth, and climatic conditions, should entitle her to rank among the fore-
most communities of the world, a distinction to which I believe she will soon
attain whenever a stable government and cheerful obedience to the powers
that be present to the home seeker and investor conditions that will make
home pleasant and capital secure.

Although founded and settled more than fifty years before the United
States, Cuba has still 13,000,000 acres of primeval forests where the wood-
man's axe has never been heard. These forests are timbered, besides other
woods, with mahogany, cedar, logwood, redwood, ebony, lignum-vitae, and
caiguaran, the latter being more durable in the ground than iron or steel.

The soil is a marvel of richness, and fertilizers of any kind are seldom
used unless in the case of tobacco, even though the same crops be grown on
the same field for a hundred years, as has already happened in some of the
old sugar-cane fields. The mountains are of coral formation, while the low-
lands of eastern Cuba, at least, seem to be composed largely of fossils of
sea matter from prehistoric times, and are extremely rich in lime and phos-
phate, which accounts for their apparent inexhaustibleness.

If all the land suitable to the growth of sugar cane were devoted to that
industry, it is estimated Cuba might supply the entire western hemisphere
with sugar. The island has already produced in a single year for export
11,000,000 tons, while its capabilities have only been in the experimental
stage.

The adaptabilities of the soil for tobacco culture has long been the envy
of the world, until a cigar that has not some pretension of having at least a
little Cuban tobacco stands condemned without a hearing.

Cuba takes great pride in the quality of her coffee, and until the rebel-
lion of 1868 she raised a large quantity for export. It is the mountainous
regions of Santiago, in the eastern part of the island, that are best adapted to
this industry, but the insurrection beginning that year completely destroyed
the coffee plantations. They were just getting nicely started again, when
the present rebellion broke out, and there will probably be but a few, if any,
coffee plantations remaining when the struggle ends. Coffee, unlike sugar.



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PRODUCTIVE FORCES OF CUBA. 263

can be raised profitably on a small scale and is eminently the poor man's
crop.

Tropical fruits, such as oranges, lemons, pineapples, mangoes, guava,
tamarinds, and many fruits with a local value, but too short lived for export,
are here entirely at home and never catch the unlooked-for frosts, as so fre-
quently happens in Florida. These fruits are indigenous to the soil and
require but little labor to make them grow successfully.

The cereal crops never have, and probably never will have, a profitable
cultivation on this island. Corn is raised on a small scale, while wheat and
oats are never grown at all. No flour mill exists on the island, so far as I
have been able to learn.

The lover of fresh vegetables, I think, is doomed to disappointment on
coming to Cuba. Garden truck is always in season and can usually be had
at some price, but that crisp freshness which we so much relish in our north-



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