United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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slates in the United States, and I am of the impression that our slate ex-
porters might profit by making an effort at the present juncture to secure
the Irish trade. This office is always ready and anxious to furnish to intend-
ing purchasers all information in its power, but it must be said that exporters
have not availed themselves of the privilege of furnishing it with informa-
tion as to the line of goods handled by them. At this juncture, this office
is not furnished with sufficient information as to the firms engaged in the
slate trade in the United States who are in a position to carry on an export
trade to enable it to give the information it would like to the slate trade
here. Firms who will send their addresses to this office will have them put
on file for reference and their addresses will be given to all inquirers.

Commercial Agencies in Ireland. — Consul Taney writes from Belfast,
January i, 1897 :

United States exporters often inquire of this consulate for the financial
standing of Belfast merchants. As the consular officer is not a subscriber
(the same requiring an annual payment) to any of the commercial agencies
here, his facilities for acquiring the information in accurate and practical
form are limited and uncertain. Hence it occurs to me that if the proper
and most expeditious method of gathering such information were published
in the Consular Reports it would not only save the exporter much valua-
ble time, but render also greater satisfaction.

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His plan would be this: Communicate directly with the local commer-
cial agency of which he is a subscriber, such as Bradstreet's or Dun's. I
am informed a reciprocal business is done between the prominent commer-
cial agencies of the United States and this Kingdom, and information wanted
on this side can be had through Messrs. Bradstreet's or Dun's, providing
the party wanting the information is a subscriber to either of the American
agencies. For business and prudential reasons, satisfactory to themselves,
the agencies on this side will not furnish information unless the applicant is
a regular subscriber or the inouiry comes through some recognized Ameri-
can agency.

Business of the New Kaiser Wilhelm Canal. — From July i, 1895, to June
30, 1896, there passed through the new Kaiser Wilhelm Canal 16,834 ships
that had to pay toll. Their tonnage was 1,505,983 tons. Of these, 7,531
were steamships, with 1,140,573 tons; 14,957 ships carried German, 3 Bel-
gian, 184 British, 812 Danish, 8 French, 381 Dutch, 60 Norwegian, 84 Rus-
sian, and 336 Swedish colors, and 9 the colors of other countries. The year's
expenses were 827,876 marks (about $200,000). The money taken in, in-
cluding towage, was 896,452 marks (a trifle over $200,000).

Consular Reports Transmitted to Other Departments. — The following
reports from consular officers (originals or copies) were transmitted during
the month of January to other Departments for publication or for other
action thereon:

Consular officer reporting.



Department t








Marine Hos

which referred

Dec. 7,1896

Oct. 7,1896
Nov. 6,1896
Nov. 21,1896
Dec. 1,1896

Nov. 19,1896

Nov. 3,1896
Oct. 20,1896

June 20,1896

Aug. 25,1896

.May 17,1896

Nov. 16,1896

Restriction of American meats

in Switzerland.
California fruits in Germany...

American fruit in Germany

American apples

of Agriculture


W. H. Robertson, Hamburgh...

J. C. Monaghan, Chemnitz

H. G. Huntington, Castella-

mare di Stabia.
L H. Briihl, Catania

Fruit crop of Italy

Treatment of vine diseases in

Supply of Greek currents

Orange cultivation in Mexico...

" Squatters," and station life
in Australia.

Australasian wool clip of

Wine-growing industry of Vic-

Tetanus antitoxin

George Horton, Athens

W.J. Crittenden, City of Mex-
D. W, Maratia, Melbourne



V H Mason Frankfort

pital Service.

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An English View of Germany's Industrial Development — The London
Times, of January 20, 1897, commenting editorially upon a recent investi-
gation into the condition of arts and industries in Germany, says :

Certain members of the royal commission on technical instruction, who, fourteen years ago,
inquired into the condition of arts and industries in Germany, have made a further, though
less exhaustive, investigation in order to note the changes that have occurred. Their con-
clusions are embodied in a letter to the Duke of Devonshire, published as a parliamentary
paper, and signed by Sir Philip Magnus, Mr. Gilbert Redgrave, Mr. Swire Smith, and Mr.
William W'oodall, corroborative notes being appended by Sir B. Samuelson and Sir Henry
Roscoe. They note, as everyone would expect, a steady advance of German industry in all
directions. New manufactures have been started and old ones have been immensely devel-
oped since 1884. A few notes upon representative businesses appended to the report convey
an idea of the activity which they found pervading all departments of German industry.
The Badische Anilin und Sodafabrik, often quoted as a triumph of the intelligent use of
chemical research, employed in 1888 under 2,400 hands. It now employs 4,800, and its
works occupy 210 acres, of which 60 acres are covered with buildings. One hundred skilled
chemists and thirty engineers constitute its scientific staff, to which no parallel can be found
in this country. It may be said, and with truth, that the production of coal-tar colors is a
very special branch of industry, depending, perhaps more than any other that can be named,
upon chemical skill and knowledge. The fact, however, remains that the industry was orig-
inally in English hands, and might have remained there had English manufacturers known
how to appreciate and utilize the fundamental discoveries of their countrymen. At Nurem-
berg, Mr. Shuckert, in 1882, had a manufactory of electrical machinery and apparatus turning
out excellent work, though not upon any considerable scale. Now, the business is in the
hands of a limited company employing 3,570 work people and turning out apparatus to the esti-
mated value of nearly ;f 1,500,000 per annum. Mr. Nister's color-printing works at Nurem-
berg employ some 750 hands, and the bulk of the production in Christmas cards, children's
picture books, and so forth, is sold in London and New York. An enormous weaving in-
dustry has sprung up, which takes vast quantities of Bradford yams, and, by attention to
design, finish, and the tastes of customers, beats us in the markets of the world, and even,
to a great extent, in our home market. The looms, once bought in England, are now manu-
factured in Germany, and it really seems due to the accident that some Germans settled in
Bradford that the yams are not spun in Germany as well.

These are only examples of the great progress made by German industry in the course of
a generation. It must, of course, be rememljered that Germany started from a very backward
position, and has really been going through a process of evolution such as this country went
through half a century earlier. We are told that in 1882 there was not a single portland-
cement factory in Bavaria. In view of that fact, the production of 50,000 tons per annum by
a single firm can not be regarded as more than a very tardy making up of leeway. Like Japan,
Germany has reaped the fruits of English enterprise. When she turned her attention seriously
to industry she found machinery and methods in a high state of perfection, while in the early
stages of our industrial development we had to discover and produce everything for ourselves.
It is, therefore, not wonderful that her advance has been rapid. We have further to remember

No. 197 10. 289

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that she has found extensive markets ready to her hand. Her home market was very im-
perfectly supplied, nor was there, previously to the Franco-German war, any great surplus
wealth to pay for the myriad articles now in demand. On her frontiers she has found great
populations not so advanced as her own, yet ready to absorb the cheap goods which low wages
and long hours of labor enable her to turn out. Further afield she also found markets which
the established manufacturing countries had practically left untouched because they were
already fully occupied. Some of these advantages tend to disappear. Russia has practically
shut out German industry, and is herself making great and successful efforts to supply her vast
territory. Wages are rising in Germany, hours of labor are being shortened, child labor —
a very important factor in many trades — is being eliminated, add, in short, the industrial con-
ditions are changing just as they changed in this country wheil the great industrial revolution
took place. These and cognate considerations must be borne in mind if we wish to estimate
justly the meaning and the prospects of that industrial expansion which, while exciting natu-
ral solicitude in this country, has not reduced the volume of our exports or affected the gen-
eral prosperity of our work people.

Great stress is laid in the report upon the superiority of German provision for technical
and scientific education, as well as upon the excellence of the general secondary education
which serves as a basis. There is no doubt that the reorganization of our secondary and tech-
nical education is badly wanted; but, notwithstanding all we are told about new schools and
laboratories in Germany, it is pretty clear that what is necessary is method, organization,
and the businesslike adaptation of means to ends, rather than any great additional expendi-
ture. If everything could be fairly reckoned up, it would probably be found that in this coun-
try there are larger funds available for educational purposes than in Germany, although for
want of system and method they do not produce anything like the same results. The Ger-
mans do not go about demanding the endowment of research. They pay for hard work
directed to practical ends, and research gets itself endowed by the people whose fortunes it
makes. German professors are civil servants whose promotion depends upon their efficiency
as teachers, and that efficiency is not tested by everlasting examinations of their pupils in book
work, but by the number and quality of the practically efficient men of science they turn out.
Their subsidiary rewards, often very great, depend in like manner upon their practical use-
fulness as advisers to men who can turn their advice into money. There is much to be done
in this country in utilizing funds now wasted and coordinating efforts that now thwart or over-
lap one another. But the fundamental reform, without which we shall never attain German
results, b the bringing of our secondary and technical education into line with the practical
applications of knowledge and science in industry and commerce.

American Steel Rails for Japan. — According to the Japan Weekly Mail,
says the London Board of Trade Journal for January, 1897, the result of the
first public tender for steel rails to be used in Japan has been a success for
the great American firm of Carnegie & Co., of Pittsburg. Hitherto it has
been the habit of the Japanese Government to entrust to its agents the busi-
ness of supplying rails, and we entertain no doubt that the commissions
were always executed as economically as possible. But a departure has now
been made, for the first time, from the regular method of procedure, and the
issue is that English manufacturers have been cut out by an American. In
the present depressed state of American industries, it appears to be possible
for a United States firm to sell steel rails at a lower rate than they can be
purchased for in England. The quantity of rails required on this occasion

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was 13,000 tons, in round numbers, and Messrs. Carnegie & Co. *s tender is said
to have been some ^^8,000 lower than any other. That means 10 per cent
approximately — a very appreciable difference. It is the custom in Japan to
fix a maximum figure beyond which the authorities are not prepared to pur-
chase, and when the tenders in question were opened, three proved to be
within that figure, Messrs. Carnegie & Co. *s being the lowest.

The attention of the Carnegie Steel Company having been called to this
publication by the Bureau of Statistics, Department of State, they replied
as follows, under date of January 8, 1897:

Replying lo your letter of the 5lh instant, with inclosed copy of clipping from the Board
of Trade Journal of London, would say that the report is correct as far as our having sold
the Imperial Railway of Japan 15,000 tons of rails, half of which quantity has been shipped
and the balance will go forward within the next thirty days. There was, however, no such
difference in price as indicated in the Journal. From the best information we were able to
obtain at the time, our price was not over 6d. per ton less than the English price.

Portuguese Centenary of India. — The Bureau of Statistics, Department
of State, has received the following from the central executive committee at
Lisbon in charge of the arrangements for the celebration of the discovery of
the maritime route to India :

We have the honor to inform you that the postponement of the celebration of the fourth
centenary of the discovery of the maritime route to India, by Vasco Da Gama, from July,
1897, the anniversary of his sailing from Lisbon, until May, 1898, the anniversary of his
arrival at Calicut, having been rendered necessary in consequence of the shortness of time
and for other reasons, it has been decided lo await further decisions of Parliament, which
meets early in January.

Our committee, authorized by the Portuguese Government, will duly communicate to you
the precise date of the celebration and any alterations in the programme that may be decreed
by Parliament, and we trust that we may continue to rely upon your valued support, in order
that the results of our undertaking may be in harmony with the remarkable feat of universal
history which the Portuguese Government desires thus to commemorate.

Central executive committee of the fourth centenary of the discovery of India, Lisbon,
October 26, 1896.




Iron and Steel Industry in China.* — It is reported from Peking that a
number of influential gentry of Honan have petitioned the Tsungli Yamen
to be allowed to buy up all the iron ore of the province and smelt it in foreign
style in furnaces to be built at a market town called Tsinghuachen, in the
prefecture of Weihuifu, Honan. The pig iron will then be sent by the Grand

•From the North China Herald (Shanghai) of November 20, 1896.

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Canal route to Tientsin, where an iron and steel foundry is to be built at the
expense of the syndicate, but the manager of which is to be appointed by
the viceroy of Chihli. The output of the foundry will be sent to the naval
shipbuilding yards of the Government, and also supply rails, etc., for the rail-
ways of the country. The syndicate intend also to buy four steam launches
to tow the iron-laden junks in the Grand Canal. The scheme has been
sanctioned by both the Tsungli Yamen and the Viceroy Wang, of Chihli.

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I. — Electric Railways in Europk Moore 293

II. — Elkctkk: Rmlway Projects in Catania - Brnhl 294

III. — Foreign Duties on Electric Machinery and Lamps 296

IV. — Railways ok Europe in 1896 Bartleman 299

V. — American vs. European Railways Vonaghan 300

VI. — HoRSEi-i-^ss Carriaoks in England Moore 302

VII. — Regulations for Motor Cars in Ireland A$hby 306

VIII. — Obstacles to American Trade in Spain Adams 309

IX. — The Mines of Galicia Hanuony 310

X. — Fan Induntry of Valencia Merteus 315

XI. — Sherry Wine Industry of Spain Aaavts 317

XII. — The .Salt Indlstry of Spain ] 321

I no7i>

XIII. — Ti.viher Re-sources of Spain j 322

XI\'. — Almeria Grape Crop of 1896 Bartleman 324

XV. — Coal Trade of Gibraltar Spra^ue 325

XVI. — lJ:cYCLE Trade in Italy .Johuson 325

XVII. — Russian Petroleum in Germany Saxvter 329

XVIII. — Gas and Petroleum Consu.mption in Germany Mason 331

XIX. — Patiern Drawing and Designing in Germany Saro.'er $^^

XX. — A.merican Trade Methods in Ger.many Bartholow 335

XXI. — American Wares in Germany ) 336



XXII.— Germany's E.xport Methods j 338

XXIII —Pegamoid: A New Industry in Ger.many DeuUtr 341

XXIV. — Sugar E.xports irom Austria-Hungary Hurst 342

XXV.— Papykolith : A New Material for Floorinc;, R«w)Fing,

EiC Germain 343

XXVI. — The Iron Industry of Russia Stephan 345

XXVII. — Prices of Iron in Russia ] 346

XXVIII. — I'he Flax Industry of Russia 348

XX L\.— Grain- Exchan(;e Brokers in Russia | Karcl 349

XXX. — The Russian Hog Trade with Germany 351


XXXII. — .Adulteration of Russian Woous Ikenan 353

XXX I II. — Russia's Industrial Develop.ment Mona^hau 355

XXXIV. — Wheat Pro^pict in Australasia Bell 356

XXXV. — The Cereals of Victoria ) 359

XXXVI — Mint Returns of Australia Maratta 363

XXXVII. — Discovery of Zircons in Tasmania J 364


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XXXVUI.— Boot and Shoe Tradk ok Australia ) 367

i ^^^^


XL.— ^CoMMKRciAi. Museum in Japan Conneliy 372

XL!.— The Chinese Tricaty Port ok Chekoo ) , 382


XLII. — Silk-Lace Industry ok Chekoo j 385

XLIII. — Manukacture ok Albumen at Chinkiang .Jottfs 386

XLIV.— Rice Crop ok Korea Allen 388

XLV. — A Market kor American Oak in France. Angell 3,0

XLVI. — The Mongoose in the Hawaiian Islands Mills 392

XLVII. — Powers ok Attorney in Argentina Buchanan 393

XLVIII. — The Largest Cokfee Estate in Brazil. Haugwitz 395

XLIX. — German Farmers and the Produce Exchanges ) 397

\ tie Kay

L. — German Trade Journal kor Japan J 399

LI. — German Trade Notes ] 400

LIL — German Commercial Expedition to China \ Uhl 402

LIIL — Regulations for the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal J 402

LIV. — Duty on Coriander Seed in Morocco Burke 403

LV. — American vs. German Iron Industry * Bartholonv 405

LVl. — American vSteel in Great Britain Parker 407

LVIL*— Vintage ok the Rhine kor 1896 Bartholow 411

( Mason 413
LVIIL — American Apples in Germany.. '


MonaghaK 415

LIX. — American Applies in England Meeker 418

LX. — American Apples in Austria 420

LXI. — A New Light krom Calcium Carbides Sawter 420

T ..X, , , ( Taney 422

LXIL — Rooking Slate in Ireland \

( Ashby 428

LXIIL — Notes (Restriction of Refrigeraled Meals in France — Lard and Other
Alimentary Fats in Belgium — United States Goods for New .South
Wales — .\merican Sugar of Milk in Europe — Proposed Exhibit of
United States Goods at Stuttgart — American Bicycles in Ireland —
Bicycles in Germany in 1897 — Trade-Marks of American Bicycles in
Germany — Powder and Other Explosives in Uruguay — Foreigners
in Honduras — -\ Shorthand Writing Machine — Packing Goods for
Mexico^ American Lumber in China — Woolen Mill at Tientsin,
China — Change in Bolivian Tariff — United States Commercial Agen-
cies in Foreign Countries — Cuban .Sugar Crop (correction of report
in preceding number of CoNSi'LAR Reports) — Consular Rtfwrts
Transmitted to Other Departments) 432

LXIV. — Foreign Reports and Publications ( Railroad and Coinage Projects
in China — American Pig Iron at Trieste — Progress in the Kongo Free
State — .Sugar Bounties in Holland) 444

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Arckntink Republic: Page.

Powers of allorney in 393


Boot and shoe trade of. * 367

Cereals of Victoria 359

Discovery of zircons in Tasmania 364

Japanese trade with 369

Mint returns of. 363

United Stales goods in New South Wales 443

Wheat prospect in 356


American ajjplcs in 420

American pig iron at Trieste 444


Lard and other alimentary fals in 432


Change in tariff of. 441


Largest cofiee estate in 395


American lumber in 440

Manufacture of albumen in ("hinkiang 386

Railroad and coinage projects in 444

Silk lace industry of Chefoo 385

Treaty port of Chefoo 385

Woolen mill at Tientsin 441


Sugar crop in (correction) 442

ElRoi'l. :

American sugar of milk in 434

American vs. European railways 3dD

Duties on electric machineiy and lamps 296

Electric railways in 293

Franc K:

A market for American oak in 390

RcslriciioM of refrigerated meats in 432


American apples in 413

American t ade methods in 335

American vs. German iron industry 405

American wares in 336

.\ new light from calcium carbides ; 420

Bicycles in 436

Export methods of. 338


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Germany — Continued. Page.

Farmers and the produce exchanges in 397

Gas and petroleum consumption in 331

German commercial expedition to Giina 402

German trade journal for Japan 399

Pattern drawing and designing in ^^^

Pegamoid in 341

Proposed exhibit of American goods at Stuttgart 435

Regulations for the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal 402

Russian petroleum in 329

Trade-marks of American bicycles in 437

Vintage of the Rhine for 1896 411


Coal trade of. 325

Hawaiian Islands:

The mongoose m 392


Foreigners in 438

Italy :

Bicycle trade of. 325

Electric railway projects in Catania 294

Japan :

Commercial museum in 372

KoN(;o Frke State:

Progress in 445


Rice crop of. 388


Packing goods for 439


Duty on coriander seed in 403


Sugar bounties in 445

Russia :

Census of 352

Flax industry of 348

Grain exchange brokers in 349

Hog trade with Germany 351

Industrial develoi>ment in 355

Iron industry of. 345

Prices of iron in 346

Wool adulteration in 353


Almeria grape crop of 1896 324

Fan industry of Valencia 315

Mines of Galicia 310

Salt industry of. 321

Sherry wine industry of 317

Timber industry of 322

Trade and industries of. 309


Papyrolilh, a new material fur flooring, roofing, etc., in 343

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United Kingdom: Page.

American apples in 418

American bicycles in Ireland 435

American steel in Great Britain 407

Horseless carriages in England 302

Regulations for motor cars in Ireland 306

Roofing slate in 422,428

Shorthand writing machine in 438

United States commercial agencies in 442

Uruguay :

Powder and other explosives in 437

Kull directions for t^inding tHe Consular Reports nre given in No.

X31, pase 663.

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The following statements show the valuation of foreign coins, as given by
the Director of the United States Mint and published by the Secretary of the
Treasury, in compliance with the first section of the act of March 3, 1873,
viz: "That the value of foreign coins, as expressed in the money of account
of the United States, shall be that of the pure metal of such coin of standard
value," and that **the value of the standard coins in circulation of the vari-
ous nations of the world shall be estimated annually by the Director of the
Mint, and be proclaimed on the ist day of January by the Secretary of
the Treasury.'*

In compliance with the foregoing provisions of law, annual statements
were issued by the Treasury Department, beginning with that issued on Jan-
uary I, 1874, and ending with that issued on January i, 1890. Since that
date, in compliance with the act of October i, 1890, these valuation state-
ments have been issued quarterly, beginning with the statement issued on
January i, 1891.

These estimates "are to be taken (by customs officers) in computing; the
value of all foreign merchandise made out in any of said currencies, imported
into the United States/'

Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 41 of 82)