United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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The following statements, running from January i, 1874, to April i,
1894, have been prepared to assist in computing the proper values in Ameri-
can money of the trade, prices, values, wages, etc., of and in foreign coun-
tries, as given in consular and other reports. The series of years are given
so that computations may be made for each year in the proper money values
of such year. In hurried computations, the reductions of foreign currencies
into American currency, no matter for how many years, are too often made
on the bases of latest valuations. When it is taken into account that the ruble
of Russia, for instance, has fluctuated from 77.17 cents in 1874 to 37. 2 cents in
April, 1894, such computations are wholly misleading. All computations
of values, trade, wages, prices, etc., of and in the '* fluctuating-currency coun-
tries" should be made in the values of their currencies in each year up to
and including 1890, and in the quarterly valuations thereafter.

To meet typographical retjuirements, the quotations for the years 1876,
1877, 1879, 1881, and 1S82 are omitted, these years being selected as show-
ing the least fluctuations when compared with years immediately preceding
and following.

To save unnecessary repetition, the estimates of valuations are divided
into three classes, viz: (A) countries with fixed currencies, (B) countries
with fluctuating currencies, and (C) quarterly valuations of fluctuating cur-
rencies.

VI



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VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.



VII



A. — Countries with fixed currencies.

The following official (United States Treasury) valuations of foreign coins do not include " rales ofexchanKe."
It follows, therefore, that when foreign money orders are required, the post-office authorities, to save the De-
partment from incurring loss in such transactions, add the rate of exchange to these valuations.



Argentine Republic*..,



Atistria-Hungaryf. .

Belgium

Brazil



British North America
(except Newfound-
land)).

Chilet



Cuba

Denmark^

Egypt

Finland

France

Germany

(jreat Britain. .



I



Value in



' terms of

Standard. I Monetary unit. I United j

! ] St.ites j

' gold. I



Coins.



Gold and silver... Peso |o-9^.5 Gold— Argentine (#4.82,4) and ^^

\ An^eniinc . silver— peso and di-

\ ' visions,

.20,3 Gold — 20 crowns (#4.05,2) and 10
' crowns.

.19,3 Gold — 10 and 20 franc pieces ; sil-
ver — 5 francs.

.54,6 (iold— 5. 10, and 20 milreis; sil-
ver — 54 , 1. and a milreis.



Gold ' Crown

Gold and silver... Franc

Gold Milreis

.... do Dollar



Gold and silver....' Peso.,



..do..



..do..



Gold ' Crown

.do... Pound (100 pias-



do

Gold and silver...



Gold ..
do..



icrs).
Mark,.



Franc.



Mark

Pound sterling..



Haiii^
Italy..



Liberia..



Gold and silver.... Drachma..



..do I Gourde

..do : Lira....



.91,2 (iold— escudo (51.82,4), doubloon
I (#4-5^\". and condor i#i>.i2,8);
silver — peso and divisions.
.92.6 Gold — doubloon (#5. ox, 7) ; silver —

I peso.
. 26, 8 Gold — 10 and 20 crowns.
4. 94, 3 (jold — 10, 20, 50, and 100 piasters ;
silver — i, 2, 10, and 20 piasters.
■ *9»3 (iold — 10 and 20 marks ($1.93 and

I $3-85,9).
. 19, 3 I Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 francs ;

j silver— 5 francs.
.23,8 I Gold 5, 10, and 20 marks.
4.86,6.J Gold— sovereign (pound sterling)
I and half sovereign.
• i9»3 (iold — 5, 10,20, 50. and 100 drach-
mas: silver — 5 drachmas.
-96,5 Silver — gourde.
.19,3 (iold — 5, 10. 20, 50, and 100 lire;
silver— 5 lire.



Gold ' Dollar 1.00



Netherlands^.. , Gold and silver.... Florin..



.40,2



Newfoundland..

Portugal

Spain



Sweden and Norway...
Switzerland..



Gold i Dollar 101,4

Gold Milreis 1 1.08

Gold and silver.... Peseta 19,3



Gold

Gold and silver....



Turkey Gold

Venezuela Gold and silver...



Crown .
Franc...



Piaster.,
liolivar..



.26,8
•«9.3

.04.4

•19.3



Gold — 10 florins: silver — J^,i,and
2*2 llorins.

Ciold— <2 i<2.02,7,.

Gold — I, 2, 5, and 10 milreis.

G »Id — 25 pesetas; silver — 5 pese-
tas.

Gold — JO and 20 crowns.

Gold — 5, 10, 20. 50, and 100 francs;
silver — 5 francs.

(Jold — 25. 50, 100, 200, and 500
piasters.

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50. and 100 boli-
vars ; silver — 5 bolivars.



♦In 1874 and 1875 the gold standard prevailed in the Argentine Republic. Its currency docs not .ippcar
in the statements again until 1883, when the double standard prevailed, and the peso attained a fixed value of
96.5 cents.

tOn reference to the table of " flucttiating currencies, " it will be seen that Austria had the silver standard
upto and including the quarter ending July 1, 1892. The next quarter (October i ) inaugurated the gold stand-
ard (jr^note tmder table of " fluctuating currencies ").

I The gold standard prevailed in Chile until January i, 1890. The value of the peso has been the same
nnder both standards.

JThe Netheriands florin, as will be seen 1.1 the " fluctuating " table, became fixed in \alue (40.2 cents) in
t88o.



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VIII



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.



B. — Countries with flue tuatini^ currencies, iSy4-go.



Countries.



Standard.



Austria-Hungary*. Silver....
Dolivia do.....



Ccniral America..



I



..do..



China Silver..

Colombia do..,

Ecuador do .,

Egyptt GoId..„



Monetary unit.



Value in terms of the United States gold doUar on
Janu<iry i —



Florin ^H?^^ ^.45»3 ^^0.45,3 ^.41,3 #0



,:::::}:



India Silver

r! Gold..

■J^P^" 1, Silver,

Mexico do '

Netherlands J ' Gold and silver„

Peru ; Silver i

Russia I do

Tripoli I do 1




Dollar until
1880; bolivi-
ano there-
after.

Peso

Haikwan tael...

Peso

do

Potind (100
piasters).

Rupee



.83,6



.83,6



40,1
81.2



I 1884

50.39,:!

. Go, (3



Dollar I 1.04, 7j

Florin 40,5 j

Sol .92,5

Ruble ! .77,17!

Mahbub of 20 ' .87,09
piasters. i j



• 96,5


.83,6


.91,0


.83,6


4.97,4


4-97,4


.43.6


•39»7


•99.7


•99,7

1


.99,3


.90,9



.Si, 3
1.90
.33,6
.87.6



.80,6
.So,6
4.9Q

.38,3



.86,9
.87.5



•38.5 I

•9»,8

•73.4 <

=,9



.40,3
.83,6
.66,9
•74,3



.81.2
•73.3



.S0.6



Standard.



Austria-Hungary*. Silver.,
Bolivia do..,



Monetary unit.



j Value in terras of the United Stato gold dollar on
' January 1 —



1885,



Florin !$o.

Dollar until I .



Central America

Colombia do

Ecuador do

Eg>'ptt Gold

!

India Silver

Gold



1880: bolivi
ano there
after.
do ' Peso

....do

....do



/ ^"'^ I

\ Silver J



Pound (100

piasters).
Rupee

Yen I

Dollar




•79,5


•75,1


■li.l


•75,»


4.^0


4.90


.37.8


•35,7 !



Japan

Mexico do .

Peru. I Silver Sol |

Russia ' do Ruble '

'Jripoli I do Mahbub of ao

' piasters.



• 85,8
.86,4

.79,5
.63,6

•7«.7



.Si
.81,6

.75.1
.60,1

.67,7



•72.

.72,

4-94.:

•34
•99.
.78,

•7?
.72
.58
.65



33.2
99.7
75.3,

75.9 ,
69,9 '

55.9
63



32,3
99.7
73.4
73.9
68

61,4



85
93,3

40,4

99,7

91,7

92,3

85

68

A 7



* ibc silver standard prevailed in .Austria- Hungary up to 1S92. The law of August 2 of that year {sre
CoNSi i.AR Ri'.rOKTS, No. 147, p. 623) established the gold standard,
t 1 he P'.gypti.Tn )>ound became fixed in value at #4.94,3 in 1S87.
t The Netherlands florin fluctuated up to the year l!^8o, when it became fixed at 40.3 cents.



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VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.



IX



C. — Quarterly vaiuaiions of ftuctucUing currencies.



Countries.



1894.



1895.



Monetary unit.



Jan. 1. Aprili. July i. Oct. i. Jan. 1. April i. ; July j. Oct. i



Dolivw Silver boliviano. 10.51,6 fo.46,5



Ceniral America... | Silver peso..

Shanghai tael....



Chin;i*..



Haikwan tael,
Tientsin tael,
\ j ChefoG tael

Colombia Silver peso ,

Ecuador do

India Silver rupee.

Japant ' Silver yen

Mexico I Silver dollar^

Peru I Silver sol

Russia^ Silver ruble

Tripoli I Silver mahbub..

Venezuela^ 1 Silver bolivar...




.51.6
.4»»3
.46.5 ,



.46,5


.45,7!


.37,2


.36.6


.4»-9


• 41,3



.46.4
.37,1

.4t.8



1



.45.5
.36.4
.41,1



! .44,1

I -35.3
' -39.8



«o.48.6
• 48,6
.71.8
.80 I

.75,2 1

.48,6 ;
.48,6

.a3,»

.52.4 '
.52,8

.48.6 I

.48,6 I

.38,9 !

.43,8 '
t



.48,6

.48,6

.71.8

.80

• 76,2

•75.2

.48,6

.48,6

•23,»

•52.4

.52,8

.48.6

•48.6

.38.9

.43.8



Countries.



Bolivia

Central America..



China*..



Colombia..

Ecuador

Indi.i

Japant.,

Mexico

Persia Silver kran <

Peni [ Silver sol...

Russia J Silver ruble

Tripoli ; Silver mahbub..



1896.



Monetary unit.

I



Jan. I. April i.l July i. ' Oct. 1.



Silver boliviano

Silver peso

Amoy tael

Canton tael

Chefoo tael

Chinkiang tael..

Fuchau tael

Haikwan tael...
Hankow tael .....

Ningpo tael

Niuchwangtael.
Shanghai tael...

Swatowtael

Takao tael

Tientsin tael

Silver peso

do

Silver rupee

Silver yen

Silver dollar



|o.49,i 1^.49,3
49*1 -49,3



^.49.7
•49.7



.76.3 .76,9



80,8 .81,2 .81,9



•72,5



.76,9 I
.49»i

•49." j

•23.3 I

.52,9 -

•53.3 :

.09 i

.49.»
•39.3 I
• 4^,3 I



•73.5



•77,3
•49.3
•49.3 ,
•23,4 I
• 53.2
•53.6 I
.09,1 I
.49.3
•39.5 I



•44.5



.78

•49.7

■49.7

• 23,6
•53.2
.54
.09,3

• 49.7
.39,8
•44.9



fo.49
! .49
i •79.3

•79

•75.8

•73.3

' .80,6

•74,2

• 76,2
•74.3
•72,4
•73.2
•79,8
.76,8

•49

•49

•23.3

.52,8

•53.2

.09

•49

•39.2

• 44.2



Januarj* » ,

1897.



|o.47,4
•47,4
•76.7
•76,5
•73,3
•74,9
.70,9
•78
•7».7
•73.7
•7'. 9
.70
.70,8
•77,2
•74,3
•47,*
.47.4
.22,5

.5i,»
.51.5
.08,7
•47.4
.37,Q



♦China (silver). The Haikwan t.nel is the customs tael, and the Shanghai tael that tised in trade. Con-
sul-Geucral Denny (Consilak Reports No. 43, p. 516) says: ** 'Jhe value of the tael varic'i in the different
ports of China, and every port has two taels, one being the (iovernment, or Haikwan, tael, in which all duties
have to be paid, and the other the market tael." The " British dollar " has the same legal value as the Mex-
ican dollar in Hongkong, the Straits Settlements, and Labuan.

fGold is the nominal sundard in Japan, but silver is practically the sundard. The fixed value ot the
gold yen is 99.7 cents.

{The go'.d ruble is valued at 77.3 cenu. Silver ii the nominal standard, but paper is the acttial currency,
and its depreciation is measured by the gold standard.

JThe Venezuelan bolivar became fixed \\ value (.19.3 cents) on January x, 1893.



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FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

The following table embraces only such weights and measures as are
given from time to time in Consular Reports and in ('ommercial Rela-
tions:

Foreign weights and measures^ with Amtritan cfuivaicnls.

Denominations. i Where used. American equivalent.

AIniudc I Portugal 4.42a gallons.

Ardcb ^'gypt 76907 bushels.

Arc Metric 0.02471 acre.

Arohc Paraguay 25 pounds.

Arratel or libra Portugal ' i.oii pounds.

Arroba (dry) Argentin« Republic ^5 3»75 pounds.

Do P.ra/.il 3^,38 pounds.

Do Cuba 25.3664 pounds.

Do Portugal 3a 38 pounds.

Do Spain 23-36 pounds.

Do Venezuela ' ^5.4024 pound<i.

Arroba (liquid) Culu, Spain, and Venezuela ' 4.263 -:illons.

Arshine Russia t 28 inches.

Arshinc (square) do 5 44 square feet.

Artel Morocco | 1.13 j)ound5.

Baril .Argentine Republic and Mexico ' 20.0787 gallons.

Barrel Malta (customs) ' 11 4 gallons,

Do.„ Spain traisins) 100 pounds.

Berkovcl Russia 3*'» »2 pounds.

Pongkal India 832 grains.

Bonw Sumatra 7.oj6 5 Mpiarc meters.

Bu J.nj an o.i inch.

Butt (wine) Spain 140 gallons,

Caffiso Malta 5.4 g.illons.

Candy Inili.i (Bombay) 5.^9 pounds.

Do India (Madras) 500 pounds.

Cantar Morocco 1 13 pounds.

Do Syria (Damascus) 575 pt.unds.

Do Turkey 1^4.7036 pounds.

Cantaro (Cantar) Malt.i 1 175 pounds.

Carg.T Mexico and S.ilvador 3(X)poimds.

Catty China » 333' j (iJi) poiuids.

Do Jap:in 1.31 pounds.

Do J:»va, Siam. Malacca 1.35 pounds.

Do SuMialra 2.1,? p<>und«i.

Centaro Central America 4.26^,1 j:allons.

Centner ' Bremen and Brunswick 117 5 piiu:;ds.

Do D.irmstadt no 24 pounds.

l>o Denmark and Norway iio.ti pounds.

1*0 Nuremberg 112.43 pounds.

Do Prussi.i 113.44 pounds.

Do Sweden <^> 7 juninds.

t)o Vienna 123 5 pounds.

Do Zollvcrein no.?4 pounds.

Do Doullc or metric 220.46 pounds.

Chih China 14 inches.

Coyan Sarawak 3,098 pounds.

Do... Siam ( Koyan) 2,667 pounds.

X



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FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



XT



Foreign iveights and measures^ with American equivalents — Continued.



Denominations.



Cundra...

Do

Do

Do

Cubic meter

Cwt. (hundredweight)

Dcssiatine

Do.„

Drachme....

Dun

Egyptian weights and measures..
Fanega (dry)

Do..

Do

Do.„

Do..



Where used.



Do.„

Do.

Do

Fanega (liquid)..,

Fcddan

Frail (raisins)

Frasco

Do

Fuder

Gamice

Gram

Hectare

Hectoliter:

Dry

Liquid



Argentine Republic

Paraguay ,

Paraguay (stjuare)

Uniguay

Metric

British

Russia

Spain

Greece ,

Japan ,

{^See Consular Reihjkts No. 144.)

Central America

Chile

Cuba

Mexico ,

Morocco



Uruguay (double)

Uruguay (s nglc).....,

Venezuela

Spain..

%ypt

Sp.un

Argentine Republic

Mexico

Luxemburg

Russian Poland

Metric

do



Joch

Ken

Kilogram (kilo)..

Kilometer

Klaflcr

Kota

Korree..

Last

Do

Do



do

do

Austria-Hungary

Japan

Metric

do

Russia

Japan. ,

Russia

Belgium and Holland .,
F.ngland (dry mall) ....
Germany



Do

l>o

Do

League (land)..

Li

Libra (pound)..

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Liter

Livre (pound)..,

l>o



Prussia

Russian Poland

Spain (salt)

Paraguay

China

Castilian

Argentine Rei)ubric.,

Central America

Chile

Cuba

Mexico ,

Peru

Portugal ,

Uruguay

Venezuela

Metric

Greece

Guiana



American equivalent.



4.2 acres.
78.9 yards.
8.077 square feet.
Nearly 2 acres.
35,3 cubic feet.
113 pounds.
I 2.6997 acres.
1.599 bushels.
Half ounce.
I inch.

I 1.5745 bushe'.*.
' 2.575 bushcis.
j 1.599 bushels.

1.54728 bushels.

Strike fanega, 70 lbs.
full fanega, 118 lbs.

7.776 bushels.
j 3.883 bushels.
\ 1 .599 bushels.
' 16 gallons.

1 03 acres.
\ 50 pounds.
j 2.5096 quarts.

2.5 quarts.

264 1 7 gallons.

0.88 gallon.

15 432 grains.

2.471 acres.



2.838 bushels.
26.417 gallons.
1.422 acres.
4 yarvls.

2 2046 pounds.
0.621376 mile.
216 cubic feet.
5.13 bushels,

3 5 bushcis.
85.134 bushcis.
82.53 bushels.

2 merric tons

pounds).
112.29 bushels.
wy^ bushels.
4,760 pounds.



(4.480



4,633 acrei.
] 2,115 feel.
7,100 grains (troy)
1 0127 pounds.
1.043 poands.
1.014 pounds
1.0161 pounds.
1. 01 465 pounds
1.0143 pounds.
I. oil pounds.
1.0143 pounds.
1.0161 fKJunds
i.o_,67 quarts.
1.1 pounds.
X.0791 pounds.



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XII



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



Foreign weights and measures^ with American equivalents — Continued.
Denominations. | Where used.



I^ad... I England (timber)..



Manzana .

Marc

Maund

Meter

Mil



Do..

Morgen

Oke



Do..
Do..
Do..
Do..



Pic...
Picul..



Do..
Do..
Do..
Do..



Do..



Pik„ ,

P.»od

Pund (pound)..

Quarter

Do

Quintal



Do..
Do..
Do..
Do..
Do..
Do..
Do..



Rottlc..
I

Sagen .
Salm...
Se



Do.



Seer

Shaku

Sho

Standard (St. Petersburg)..

Sionc

Sucrte



Costa Rica ,

Dolivia

India

Metric ,

Denmark ,

Denmark (geographical)

Prussia

Egypt

Greece

Hungary

Turkey

Hungary and Wallachia

F-^'Pt

Dornco and Celebes

Chir.n, Japan, and Sumatra

Java

Philippine Islands (hemp)

Philippine Islands (sugar)

Argentine Republic

Castilun

Turkey

Russia

Dcnm.Trk and Sweden

Great Britain

London (coal)

Argentine Republic

Hrazil

Castile, Chile, Mexico, and Peru..

Greece

Newfoundland (fish)

Paraguay

Syria...-.

Metric

Palestine

Syria

Russia

Malta

Japan

India

Japan ,

do

Lumber measure

Piritish

Uruguay ,



Tacl

Tan

To

Ton

Tondc (cereals)..

Tondeland

Tsubo

Tsun

Tunna

Tunnland

Vara

Do

Do



Cochin China

Japan

' do

Space measure

Denmark

do

Japan..

China ,

Sweden

do

Argentine Republic.

Ca.stile

Central America



American equivalent.

Square, 50 cubic feet ;

unhewn, 40 cubic fct ;

inch planks, 600 .super

ficial feet.
i| acres.
0.507 pound.
82^ pounds.
39.37 inches.
4.68 miles
4.61 miles.
0.63 acre.
2.7225 pounds.
2.84 iK>unds.
3.0817 pounds.
2.8541S pounds.
2.5 pints.
21 5^ inches.
>35-'^4 p«>unds.
133*3 l*ounds.

135.1 pounds.

139 45 pounds.

140 pounds.
0.9478 foot.
0.91407 foot.
27.9 inches.
;/>.ii2 |>ounds.
1. 102 pounds.
8.252 bushels.
36 bushels.
101.42 pounds.
130.06 pounds.
101.61 pounds.

173.2 pounds.
112 pounds.
i<K> pound**.
125 pounds.
220.46 pounds.

6 pounds.
5^4 pounds.

7 feet.
490{>ounds.

3 6 feet.

I pound 13 ounces.
10 inches.

1 6 quarts.
165 cubic feet.
14 pounds.

2,700 cuadras {sre cua-

dra).
590-75Brains(troy).
0.25 acre.

2 pecks.

40 cubic feel.
3.94783 bushels.
1.36 acres.
6 feet square.
1 .41 inches.

4 5 bushels.
1.22 acres.
34.1208 inches.
0.914117 yard.
38.874 inches.



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FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



xni



Foreign weights and measures^ with American equivalents — Continued.



Denominations.



Where used.



Vara Chile and Peru ..

Do 1 Cuba

Do.„ Curasao

Do.„ Mexico

Do.~ j Paraguay

Do » ' Venezuela^

Vcdn)„ Russia

V'ergces„ Isle of Jersey.,...

Verst Russia

Vlocka Russian Poland..



American equivalent.

33.367 inches.
33.3S4 mches.
33-375 inches.

33 inches.

34 inches.
33.3G4 inches.
2.707 gallon:*.
71. 1 square rods.
0.663 mile.
41.98 acres.



METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Metric weights.

Milligram (xoV^y B*^"*) equals 0.0154 grain.

Centigram ( ^ J^ gram) equals 0.1543 grain.

Decigram (j'^ gram) equals 1.5432 grains.

Gram eciuals 15.432 grains.

Decagram (10 grams) equals 0.3527 ounce.

Hectogram (100 grams) etjuals 3.5274 ounces.

Kilogram (1,000 grams) equals 2.2046 pounds.

Myriagram (10,000 grams) e(|uals 22.046 })ounds.

Quintal (100,000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds.

Millier or tonnea — ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 |)ounds.

Afetric dry measure.

Milliliter (^505 liter) equals 0.061 cubic inch.
Centiliter (jjg liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch.
Deciliter (j^g liter) equals 6.1022 cubic inches.
Liter equals 0.908 quart.
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts.
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.838 bushels.
Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 1.308 cubic yards.

Metric liquid measure.

Milliliter (xjyo^ liter) equals 0.0388 fluid ounce.

Centiliter ( jjy liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce.

Deciliter ( ^^ liter) ecjuals 0.845 §'''•

Liter equals 1.0567 quarts.

Decaliter (10 liters) ecjuals 2.6418 gallons.

Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.418 gallons.

Kiloliter (100 liters) equals 264.18 gallons.

Metric measures of length.

Millimeter (jAo ™eter) equals 0.0394 inch.

Centimeter (yj^j meter) equals 0.3937 inch.

Decimeter ( j^^ meter) equals 3.937 inches.

Meter c*<iuals 39.37 inches.

Decameter (10 meters) equals 393.7 inches.

Hectometer (100 meters) equals 328 feet i inch.

Kilometer (1,000 meters) equals 0.62137 mile (3,280 feet 10 inches),

Myriameter (io,ooo meters) ecjuals 6.2137 miles.

Metric surface measures.

Centare (I square meter) equals 1,550 square inches.
.Arc (100 square meters) e(|uals 119.6 scjuare yards.
Hectare (10,000 square meters) ecjuals 2.471 acres.



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CONSULAR REPORT^S.



COMMERCE,



Vol. LIII. MARCH, 1897. No. 198.



ELECTRIC RAILWAYS IN EUROPE.

Locomotion by means of electricity is gradually gaining ground in the
various states of Europe, though not to the same extent as has been the case
in the United States, which could hardly be expected, considering the ad-
vances in construction and working of the different systems employed there.

During 1895, the total number of electric railways, or tramways, in Eu-
rope rose from 70 to iii, the length of lines from 700 to 902 kilometers
(435 to 560 J^ miles), and the power of the "centrals*' from 18,150 to
25,095 kilos watt, while the number of cars increased from. 1,236 to 1,747.

In mileage of electric railways, Germany is foremost among European
nations, having 406 kilometers (252 miles) of lines; then follow France,
with 132 kilometers (82 miles); Great Britain and Ireland, 107 kilometers
(66^ miles); Austria- Hungary, 71 kilometers (44 miles); Switzerland, 47
kilometers (29 miles); Italy, 40 kilometers 24^ miles). Servia, Russia,
Belgium, and Spain have but from 10 kilometers (6.21376 miles) to 30 kilo-
meters (18.64128 miles), while the remaining countries have less than 8
kilometers (4.971 miles) each.

Of these iii lines, 91 are worked on the overhead surface system, 12 on
the underground system, arid 8 by means of accumulators.

A large number of electric railways which were building during 1895
have been finished in 1896. It is estimated that the new lines of the present
year will exceed in number and mileage those constructed in 1895, and it
would appear from the activity shown in planning and laying out new routes
that next year will show a like increase.

The capital invested in Germany alone in electric lines is estimated at
100,000,000 marks ($23,800,000). German industry and German capital
No. 198 1. 293



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294 ELECTRIC RAILWAY PROJECTS AT CATANIA.

are responsible for the advance sHown in this new departure in the Empire.
It is due in a great measure to the Rhenish-Westphalian iron industries hav-
ing been for years trained in the production of street-railway material, both
for the home and foreign market.

German electrical companies and supply manufactories have greatly in-
creased in number and capital during the past few years and are constructing
electric lines with steam engines down to the smallest isolator, thus giving
an impetus to the boiler and car manufacturers.

Among the larger cities, Berlin is just about to introduce general electric
locomotion in its streets. At present it is almost entirely dependent on the
old horse tramway and omnibus service. Hamburg and Leipsic have their
electric street railways nearly completed.

The overhead surface system, owing to its being cheaper than the two
remaining systems, will continue to be preferred for the lines contemplated
or in course of construction.

THOS. EWING MOORE,

Weimar, December j^ i8g6. Commercial Agent,



ELECTRIC RAILWAY PROJECTS AT CATANIA.

I have the honor to send you herewith a letter to the editors of the Street
Railway Journal, of New York, in response to their request for information
for publication regarding concessions for new street railway lines, or such as
•are already in operation.*

I beg to state that in a previous report to the Department, I called atten-
tion to the fact that Catania, a city of 120,000 inhabitants, has as yet no
street railway, but that there were at the time several projects on foot for con-
structing a line of electric cars to connect Catania with its suburbs.

LOUIS H. BRUHL,

Catania, December g^ i8g6. Consul,



[Inclosurc.]



Catania, a seaport city at the foot of Mount Etna, population 120,000, does not as yet
possess a street-railway system, but there are a great number of common hacks, drawn by
poor horses, to be found on the streets. The fare is very cheap, /. ^., 7)^ cents for one, two,
and even three persons per trip, anywhere within the city proper. Besides, there are running
between the city and the suburbs a number of onmibuses, but these are rarely patronized by
the better classes.

It is generally thought that an electric street-car line would pay well, especially a branch
running through Ognina, a suburban town along the seacoast, where, during the spring, sum-
mer, and fall, many of Catania's people spend a few months in their own or rented cottages,



•Copy forwarded lo Street Railway Journal.



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