United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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ELECTRIC RAILWAY PROJECTS AT CATANIA. 295

coming to the city during the day to attend to business. This branch, leading also past the
bathing establishments, would have crowded cars during the season.

This subject has for some time been agitated in the local newspapers, and there are now
on foot two projects, by two different engineers, and the promoters of both plans have applied
to the municipal government for a concession, which will doubtless be granted, but to only
one of them. However, as yet, the city council has not been able to come to a decision as to
which of the plans and routes to accept.

One of the plans has been prepared and submitted by Engineer Virgilito, who, through
the mediation of a local exchange broker, Giulio Baurittel, is seeking to induce Belgian capi-
talists to build and operate the line (which would mean Belgian material), but they have not
yet succeeded.

The promoters of the other plan are Fratelli Prinzi, owners and operators of a large
steam flour mill at Catania. It is thought to be more likely that this firm will obtain the
concession.

In order to ascertain what might be the chances for American manufacturers and capi-
talists, I called upon the Fratelli Prinzi, who, in reply to my questions, informed me that in
case they get the concession, they intended to build the line themselves, and would not require
any motive power, as they have in their mills fully 250 horsepower more than they have any
use for. They would purchase the necessary dynamos, wires, poles, rails, and ten cars to
start with.

I suggested to them that American street-railway supplies were generally considered to be
superior to those of other countries and that our manufacturers would be able to successfully
compete. The gentlemen told me that they would be pleased to receive from American man-
facturers suggestions, illustrated catalogues, price lists, etc., and, if they secure the concession,
they would give Americans an equal chance with others.

Regarding the inquiry as to the conditions under which Americans could do business in
this city and country, I will simply state that Americans as well as any other foreigners can
engage in business, under the same conditions, rules, and privileges as those applicable to the
natives. Individuals must notify the local court that they are about to engage in a certain
business; they then have to pay an annual tax upon the net profit. The first year is generally
exempt from taxes.

Joint-stock companies must file two copies of their contract, one with the local chamber
of commerce and the other with the court, where they are required to pay a court tax or fee
(which is paid only once), according to the capital invested, a certain f)ercentage, amounting,
I was told, to not over loo to 1 50 lire. Then the articles relating to the formation of the
company, capital, etc., must be published in a local newspaper and in one in the nearest seat
of another chamber of commerce.

They have to pay the annual Government tax on the net profit, payable generally every
two, three, or six months; also, the annual contribution to the chamber of commerce.

The Government tax is 20 per cent of the net profit, but I am told that the collectors are
generally disposed to listen to arguments, and the real amount of the net profit is rarely as-
sessed; also, as stated before, the first year's taxes are rarely collected, as there may be no
profit or one difficult to establish. It is expected the concession will be granted before long.

In the first case, capital is wanted, and parties interested may address Giulio Baurittel,
Catania, Italy; in the second case, material (as before stated) is wanted, and parties inter-
ested may address Fratelli Prinzi, Catania, luly.



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296 FOREIGN DUTIES ON ELECTRIC MACHINERY AND LAMPS.



FOREIGN DUTIES ON ELECTRIC MACHINERY AND LAMPS.*

The following statement, showing the rates of import duty leviable on
dynamo-electric machinery and electric lamps in the principal European
countries and India, has recently been prepared by the Board of Trade:



Countries and tariff classification.



Rates of duty.



United Sutcs equiv-
alents.



Austria-Hungary :

Dynamo-electric machines

Electric lamps

Belgium :

Dynamo-electric machinery—

The duties are assimilated to thoseon machines
and machinery of all kinds which

Machinery of cast iron

Machinery of wrought iron or steel.
Machinery of copper or other metal

Electric lamps

Bulgaria



Denmark:

Dynamo-electric machines..



Electric lamps..



France :

Dynamo-electric machines weighing —

5,000 kilograms and more, containing at least

50 per cent of cast iron.
5,000 kilograms and more, containing less than

50 per cent of cast iron.
From a,ooo to 5,000 kilograms, containing at

least 50 per cent of cast iron.
From 2,000 to 5,000 kilograms, containing less
than 50 per cent of cast iron.

From 1,000 to a.ooo kilograms

From 50 to 1,000 kilograms

From 10 to 50 kilograms

Conductors for dynamo-electric machines and de-
tached pieces, such as metal coils, surrounded by
insulated copper, worked parts of copper weigh-
ing less than i kilogram, numbered and marked,
filled together or not for electric machines weigh-
ing-
More than a.ooo kilograms.....

From x,ooo to 2,000 kilograms

From 200 to 1,000 kilograms

From I to 200 kilograms

Less than z kilogram

Electric lamps —

Incandescent lamps of glass —

Wiih iheir mountings

Not with mountings

Arc lamps (regulators)

• From British Board of Trade Journal for January,
alents by Bureau of Statistics, Department of State.



5 florins per zoo kilograms....
50 florins per zoo kilograms..



a francs per zoo kilograms....
4 francs per zoo kilograms... '
za francs per zoo kilograms.

zo per cent ad valorem

zo^ per cent ad valorem



o.oajiyore per pund, or zo
per cent ad valorem, at
option of importer.

According to material of
which composed.



la francs per zoo kilograms.,
ao francs per zoo kilograms..
18 francs per zoo kilograms.,
ao francs per zoo kilograms..



..do..



30 francs per zoo kilograms..
80 francs per zoo kilograms..



35 francs per zoo kilograms..
40 francs per 100 kilograms.
45 francs per zoo kilograms..
60 francs per 100 kilograms..
75 francs per zoo kilograms..



350 francs per zoo kilograms.
700 francs per zoo kilograms.
60 francs per zoo kilograms.,



^z.a3 percwt.
Iza.37 per cwt.



Z95^ cents per cwt.
39 cents per cwt.
$z.z8per cwt.
I o per cent ad valorem .
ioJ4 per cent ad va-
lorem.

57 cents per cwt.



|tz.z8 per cwt.

$z.99percwt.

^z.78 per cwt.

$z.99 per cwt.

Do.
^.96 per cwt.
^7.9z per cwt.



$3.47 P«r cwt.
<3-9S P«r cwt.
;M.44 per cwt.
fc.94 pc*- cwt.
?7-4a P«r cwt.



$34.60 per cwt.
1169.22 per cwt.
#5 94 pe*- cwt.



Z897. Rates of duty reduced to United States cquhr-



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FOREIGN DUTIES ON ELECTRIC MACHINERY AND LAMPS. 297
Fore^n duties on electric machinery and lamps — Continued.



Countries and tariflf classification.



Germany :

Dynamo-electric machines (so far as they can not
be described as "Lokomotlvcn" or "Lokomo-
bilen")^

Preponderating material being of cast iron

Preponderating material being of wrought iron.
Preponderating material being of other com-
mon metal.
Electric lamps —

Incandescent (Gluh) lamps of glass in conjunc-
tion with other materials so far as the same
can not be classed as hardwares, etc., with
the exception of cases in which platinum
wire is used.
Electric arc (" Bogen ") lamps and other elec-
tric lamps.

Greece:

Dynamo-electric machines

Electric lamps —

If of glass

If of plain porcelain

If of porcelain, inlaid, colored, or gilt

All others..



HoUand :

Dynamo-electric machinery

Electric lamps and appliances for electric lighting
not forming part of the machinery.
Italy:

Dynamo-electric machines —

Weighing up to z, 000 kilograms

Weighing more than 1,000 kilograms

Detached parts of dynamo-electric machines..
Electric lamps —

Of bronze, brass, steel, or iron

Of other materials



Norway:

Dynamo-electric machinery

Electric lamps

Portugal :

Electric apparatus and machinery for whatever

purpose.
Electric lamps

Roumania :

Dynamo-electric machines

Electric lamps

Russia :

Dynamo-electric machines of all kinds

Electric lamps

Spain:

Dynamo-electric machines



Electric lamps, chargeable as ordinary lamps ac-
cording to material of which composed, as fol-
lows —
Of copper ,



Rates of duty.



3 marks per zoo kilograms....
5 marks per zoo kilograms....
8 marks per zoo kilograms....



34 marks per zoo kilograms.



According to material of
which composed.



Free..



z drachma per oke

50 drachmas per zoo okes....
200 drachmas per zoo okes...
According to material of
which made.



Free

5 per cent ad valorem..



35 lire per zoo kilograms..
16 lire per zoo kilograms..
35 lire per zoo kilograms..



30 lire per loo kilograms

According to material of
which made.

Free

According to material of
which chiefly made.

30 per cent ad valorem



According to material of
which made.

Free

50 lei. per zoo kilograms



Z.40 rubles per pood..
6 rubies per pood



Of cast ir(M)..



Z8.50 pesetas per zoo kilo-
grams.



135 pesetas per zoo kilo-
grams.

8.50 to Z7.50 pesetas per zoo
kilograms.



United States equiv-
alents.



37 cents per cwt.
6a cents per cwt.
98^^ cents per cwt.



^.96 per cwt.



Free.

$7.69 per cwt.
$3.89 per cwt.
I«5.57 per cw«.



Free.

5 per cent ad valorem.



$2.47 per cwt.
$z.58per cwt.
^2.47 per cwt.

1^.96 per CMTt.



Free.



30 per cent ad valorem .



Free.

UWA per cwt.

13-34 per cwt.
^14.34 per cwt.

^z.82 per cwt.



^12. Z7 per cwt.

84 cents to ^z.73 per
cwt.



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298 FOREIGN DUtlES ON ELECTRIC MACHINERY AND LAMPS.
Foreign duties on electric muchinery and lamps — Continued.



Countries and tariff classiiication.



Spain — Continued.

Electric lamps, etc. — Continued.
Of wrought iron



Of tin plate

Of other common metaUi..



Rates of duty



Of glass and crystal..



Of earthenware..



Of porcelain..



Sweden :

Dynamo-electric machinery..

Electric lamps

Switzerland :

Dynamo-electric machines....

Electric lamps ^

Turkey ,

United States :

Dynamo-electric machines...,

Electric lamps —

Of meul ,

Of glass



35 to 36 pesetas per zoo kilo-
grams.

50 pesetas per xoo kilograms

37.50 to 45 pesetas per 100
kilograms.

50 to zio pesetas per 100
kilograms.

37.50 to xao pesetas per xoo
kilograms.

52.50 to 120 pesetas per 100
kilograms.

zo per cent ad valorem

X.50 kronor per kilogram



4 francs per zoo kilograms....
6 francs per xoo kilograms....
8 per cent ad valorem



35 per cent ad valorem. .



....do..
....do..



United States equiv-
alents.



^.96 to $3.57 per cwt.

$4.95 per cwt.

$3.7X to $4.44 per cwt.

J4.95 to$zo.88 per cwt.

$3.71 to^xx.84percwt.

^5. 19 to$z 1 .06 per cwt.



I o per cen t ad valorem .
;|20.6o per cwt.

39 cents per cwt.
59 cents per cwt.
8 per cent ad valorem.

3 5 per cent ad valorem .

Do.
Do.



India.



Tariff classification.



Machinery, namely , prime movers and component parts thereof, including boilers and
component parts thereof; also including locomotive and portable engines, steam
rollers, (ire engines, and other machines in which the prime mover is not separable
from the operative parts.
Machinery (and component parts thereof), meaning machines or sets of machines to
be worked by elcctric,steam, water, fire, or other power not being manual or animal
labor, or which, before being brought into use, require to be fixed with reference to
other moving parts, and which are intended for —

{a) The preparing, ginning, pressing, spinning, weaving, sewing, knitting, bleach-
ing, and dyeing of cotton, jute, hemp, silk, wool, or other fibers, and any
other process intervening between the raw material and the finished prod-
uct as packed ready for the market.
[b) The smelting and milling of iron and other metallic ores and the manufacture

of iron, steel, and other metals,
(f) The manufacture of leather, sugar, indigo, silk, paper, soap, gas, oils, flour,
cordage, rope, and twine.

{d) The milling of rice

{e) The manufacture of tea in all its stages, from the drj'ing of the leaf to its
packing for the market, inclusive.

(/) The pulping of coffee ,

(£) Printing presses

(A) Foundries and workshops of iron and other metals

(/) Railway workshops

{j) The refining of petroleum and the manufacture of vegetable oils ,

(k) The crushing of bones and bricks ,

(/) The manufacture of lac

(wf) Potteries



Rate of duty.



Free.



(») Sawmills..



I



Do.

Do.

Do.
Do

Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.



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RAILWAYS OF EUROPE IN 1 896.
India — Continued.



299



TarifT classification.



Machinery (and component parts thereof), etc. — Continued.

[p) Agriculture, mining, navigation, dredging, and pumping

(» Such other manufactures and industries as the governor-general in council
may from time to time specify.
Provided that the term does not include tools and implements to be worked by manual
or animal labor, and provided also that only such articles shall be admitted as com-
ponent parts of machinery as are indispensable for the working of the machinery,
and are, owing to their shape or to other special quality, not adapted for any other
purpose.
NoTK. — Machinery and component parts thereof made of substances other than metal

are included in this entry.
Machinery and component parts thereof not included in the foregoing exemptions



Rate of duty.



Free.
Do.



5 per cent ad valorem.



RAILWAYS OF EUROPE IN 1896.

I inclose herewith translation of an article on the railways of Europe in
1896, published October 21, 1896, in the Cronicade Ferrocarriles, of Madrid.

* R. M. BARTLEMAN,
Malaga, November 2, i8g6. Consul,

[Inclosure.]

The department of railways of the Ministry of Public Works in France has just pub-
lished the statistics of the railways in Europe in operation on the 31st of December, 1895.
The following table shows their status as compared with December 31, 1S94.

Length in operation.



Countries.



December 31,
1894.



Germany.^

Austria-Hungary

Belgium

Denmark..

Spain ,

France ,

Great Britain and Ireland

Greece

Italy

Holland

Luxemburg ,

Portugal

Roumania ,

Russia

Finland ,

Servia ,

Sweden ,

Norway

Switzerland

Turkey, Bulgaria, and Roumelia...
Islands of Malta, Jersey, and Man^

Totol



Kilometers*

45,463

30,038

5,545

2,267

",757

39,979

33.64X

915

14,626

2,117

435

2,340

2,581

33,3"
2,249
540
9.234
1,726
3,477



244, 9'<



December 31,
1895.



Kilometers.*

46,451

30,899

5,660

2,267

12,052

40,209

34,058

930

>5,o57

2,117

435
2,340
2,741
35,323
2,394

540
9.755
«,777
3,527
2,199

110



251,391



Increase.



Kilometers.*

989
861
"5



295
230
4«7
15
431



160

2,012

MS



521
51
50

189



Per



cent.
2.17
2.86
2.07



2.51

0.57
1.23
1.63
2.94



6. 19
6.04
6.44



5.64
2.96
1.43
9-4



6,481



2.64



* 1 kilometer -0.621 mile.



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300 AMERICAN VS. EUROPEAN RAILWAYS.

Russia is increasing its net of railways at a tremendous rate, as can be seen. In 1895, it
took the lead with an increase of 2,012 kilometers, and more, not included in these statistics;
neither are those of the Transcaspian or Siberian Railroad. After Russia, comes Germany,
which has increased its lines by 989 kilometers. According to order, the next is Austria,
with an increase of 861 kilometers, and Sweden, with 521 kilometers. After Sweden, and
in the fifth place, is Italy, with an increase of 431 kilometers, and England, with 417 kilo-
meters. The seventh is Spain, with an increase of 295 kilometers, and the eighth, France,
with 230 kilometers.



AMERICAN VS. EUROPEAN RAILWAYS.

I^ck of speed, lack of comforts, lack of cheap rates are the charges
brought against the German Empire's railways by men who have read the
report of the imperial commissioners sent a few years ago to study the United
States roads. The report is just out; it indicates faithful work. The com-
missioners went all over the Union, covering 13,000 kilometers (8,079 miles).
The New York Central and Hudson River Railroad is put down as one of the
world's best roads, with its express train to Chicago, covering 1,560 kilo-
meters (969 miles) in twenty hours, an average of 78 kilometers (48^^ miles)
per hour, going over one part — 48 kilometers (29.8 miles) — at an average
of 103 kilometers (64 miles) per sixty minutes. From Leipsic to Rome,
1,523 kilometers (945 miles), takes thirty-five hours. In a trial trip over
the. New York Central and Hudson River Railroad, reported by the commis-
sioners, a regular train, with coaches weighing 149 tons, went over 8 kilo-
meters (5 miles) at an hourly average of 138 kilometers (S6 miles), and over
a horizontal surface of 1.6 kilometers (i mile) at an hourly average of 165
kilometers (102^ miles). Another trial covered 180 kilometers (11 1.8
miles) in an hour; or from Berlin to Dresden in sixty minutes. Here, it
takes nearly three hours with a fast train. It is only when comi)ared with
European routes and time taken that the enormous time saving in the United
States can be realized. Based upon the New York Central and Hudson
River Railroad run to Chicago, the others are: New York to Chicago, 1,560
kilometers (969 miles) in twenty hours, average 78 kilometers (48)^ miles)
per hour; Ostend to Vienna, express, 1,321 kilometers (821 miles), average
56.8 kilometers (35.3 miles), 23 to 25 hours; Paris to Constantinople, 3,046
kilometers (1,892 miles), 65.4 hours, average 46.6 kilometers (29 miles);
Ostend to Edydtkuhnen, 1,681 kilometers (1,045 i^iiles), 27.1 hours, average
62 kilometers (;^^j.'2 miles); Paris to Lisbon, 1,891 kilometers (1,1 75 miles),
39.51 hours, average 47.8 kilometers (29.7 miles); Calais to Brindisi, 2,221
kilometers (1,380 miles), 40.35 hours, average 55 kilometers (34 miles);
Paris to Nice, 1,088 kilometers (676 miles), 17.3 hours, average 62.9 kilo-
meters (39 miles); Ostend to Constance, 2,670 kilometers (?), 52.3 hours,
average 51 kilometers (32 miles).

The European trains taken are such as save time by using the Belgian
system of through sleeping cars and avoiding delays from changes of all
kinds. The ordinary international trains are much slower than these. The



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AMERICAN VS. EUROPEAN RAILWAYS. 3OI

fast trains from Berlin to Madrid cover 2,531 kilometers (1,573 miles) in
fifty-six hours, an average of 45.2 kilometers (28 miles) per hour; Berlin
to Rome, 1,696 kilometers (1,055 miles), in 38.14 hours, average 44.5
kilometers (27.6 miles). This is all due to the limited capacity of the con-
tinental, especially the German, locomotives. The commission says, among
many other things, that the very considerable working capacity of the Ameri-
can locomotives is a matter upon which they wish to lay particular stress.
They are used up to their highest capacity and then set aside to make way
for new ones containing all the best features of modern progress.

Lack of comfort is due to the fact that Germany, like all continental
countries, built its cars on England's model of an antediluvian stagecoach.
These swinging boxes, rattling from side to side, are the horror of English
and continental travel. Of these, the United States railroad system knows
nothing at all. The cars there are models of comfort, easy riding, and
convenience. Here follows a detailed enumeration of our various cars, with
graphic descriptions of their comforts and practical conveniences. Our
sleeping-car system is compared with the European to the advantage of the
former. With us, a double bed costs ili.50; here, there is no such conven-
ience, and a single bed costs JI2.15. This is followed by a description of
our baggage system, which is infinitely better than any over here. We send
68 kilograms (150 pounds) free; here, only 25 kilograms (55 pounds) are
free, and then only on certain tickets. The commissioners picture the
advantages of our brass-check system as compared with the red tape run off
here before baggage is ** checked.** They describe approvingly our acci-
dent insurance arrangements in the stations, our free time-tables, bureaus of
information, and methods of selling newspapers, fruits, candies, and lunch-
eons.

A round-trip ticket for 600 kilometers (373 miles) all over central Europe,
costs exactly 5 pfennigs (1.19 cents) per kilometer (0.621371 mile), second
class; ordinary fast trains in Prussia cost 2.14 cents first class, 1.59 cents
second class, and 1. 1 1 cents third class per kilometer. In the United States,
the price per kilometer is 1.34 cents. This is astonishingly cheap when
one thinks of the standards of value and supposed standards of living in the
two countries (I may say that most, if not all, of the comparisons are made
with German conditions).

Here, the lighting on the trains is wretched; with us, as is well known,
nothing is left to be desired, many of our trains being lighted by electricity.
The numerous accidents, ofttimes due to too much carelessness, the absence
of pensions, the uncomfortable stations, especially in certain sections of the
United States, are dealt with ; but evidently with no desire to do us injustice.
The Empire is urged to copy that which is good or better than what Europe
offers; and that, happily, is by far the largest part of the entire system.

If an effort were made by men interested in pushing the sales of our loco-
motives and railroad material, such evidence as the report of this commis-
sion furnishes would be worth a great deal. The Saxon Machine Company



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302 HORSELESS CARRIAGES IN ENGLAND.

of this city is filling an order for 117 locomotives for Java. It is building
branch shops in Russia; this, in spite of the well-known fact that certain
American locomotives are better than the best in foreign countries.

J. C. MONAGHAN,
Chemnitz, January 8y i8gj. Consul.



HORSELESS CARRIAGES IN ENGLAND.

In a former report, *' Horseless carriages in Europe,*** mention was made
of the existence in England of a law known as the ** highways and locomo-
tives act,*' which prohibited any locomotive propelled by steam or other than
animal power from being driven at a speed of more than 4 miles an hour
on the common roads and highways. This law embodied several other
observances in the use of locomotives, which practically prohibited modern
horseless carriages in England, they being deemed to come under the mean-
ing of this act. I expressed my belief that it would not be long before
Parliament would amend this law so as to remove the restrictions in so far
as horseless carriages were concerned. This has since been accomplished,
the limit of speed now fixed by law being 12 miles, instead of 4 miles, per
hour.

Following the example of French owners of horseless carriages, whose
road race from Paris to Bordeaux was described in the report above referred to,
the English have just had their first successful road trial, which took place on
the 1 6th instant between London and Brighton. The trial, or, more properly
speaking, race, aroused the most intense public interest, which was mani-
fested by the enormous crowds at the place of departure and along the route
to Brighton. The masses of people around the Hotel Metropole, in London,
where the start was made, were so dense that the police could not keep
people from blocking the street and regular order in starting and placing
the vehicles was out of the question.

The start took place promptly at half- past 10 a. m., Mr. Hy. Lawson
leading the way in his phaeton, followed by one of the Panhard-Levassor
carriages which had been successful in the Paris-Marseilles race ; after this,
came a Daimler phaeton and a private carriage, also of the Daimler type, and
Mr. Lawson*s second carriage, which took part in the lord mayor's proces-
sion recently. It was hoped that the police would be able to preserve perfect
order, but the immense throng of people rendered this impossible, with the
unfortunate result that about half of the carriages were unable to start at
all. The progress through the city of London was, owing to the crowding,
necessarily slow; and not only did the crowds impede the progress of the



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