United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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carriages, but a raining day, with head winds, added a further impediment to
speed.

♦Printed in Consular Reports No. 190 (J"ly» 1896).



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HORSELESS CARRIAGES IN ENGLAND.



303



Leaving London at about half- past 10 o'clock and traveling over 54
miles of the most hilly country in all England, the arrivals at Brighton were
in the following order :



Description of carriage.



Bollie car

Do

Panhard omnibus

A. J. Levassor's car...
Panhard et Levassor..
Britannic bath chair....

Daimler phaeton

Pennington tricycle....

Bersey landau..

Panhard wagonette....
Anglo-French phaeton

Daimler dogcart„

Bersey hansom



Time of ar-
rival at
Brighton.



h. m.





30


as




45


20




46


zo


4


53


30


4


53


>5


4


57


10




57


25




3







7


X3




14


45




«7


13




41


30



The time of those arriving later was not noted.

An American carriage started and made excellent time, but was for some
unknown reason omitted from the official record, which is greatly to be re-
gretted. It is difficult to form an estimate of the exact rate of speed taken
by the carriages to cover any part of the journey to Brighton. The rate
of speed to Brixton was very slow, but the Bolide cars must have attained a
speed of 16 to 17 miles per hour, considerably above that allowed by law.

The carriages taking part were of every type and pattern, including the
styles known as landau, phaeton, dogcart, and tricycles, and even a bath chair.

At a dinner following the arrival of the carriages at Brighton, the mayor
of that city remarked in the course of a lengthy speech :

For sixteen long years the lovers of science have waited patiently. During all this long
time, we have suffered with galling impatience that knowledge of the infinite superiority of
machinery, which it always has had, and always will have, over all kinds of animal power,
especially in the matter of Irafiic. Thank goodness, that day has come at last — a day of
deliverance for our roads and highways from the reign of quadrupeds. We are to-day wit-
nessing the dawn of great prosperity for all kinds of mechanical trades. We have been told
this week by the highest authority that the safety bicycle trades have now reached to no less
than ;f 1 1,000,000 ($53,531,500) to ;f 1 2,000,000 ($58,398,000) sales annually, while the
capital of the companies is no less than ;f 17,000,000 ($82,730,500). The orders and work
for this great industry already received for next year are proving many times greater than
ever before. Ten years ago we were considered foolish and too sanguine and these com-
panies were criticised by the always-toolate kind of people — the wise after the event — but
in spite of them, the British public have made millions and millions out of the bicycle-
company shares, and many a man finds himself in easy circumstances to-day with a little
fortune which has arisen from these very criticised companies. But if that is so with the
cycle — a comparative toy — what shall the motor become? How much employment will it
give to even millions of engineers throughout the country ? Nor will it take away, in my
belief, anything from the ordinary road traffic. We have all heard of the great railway mania



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304 HORSELESS CARRIAGES IN ENGLAND.

and excitement ; as soon as the people got to understand what machinery meant, which, though
it carries a whole nation by motors, has never interfered with animal-drawn cars in the least.
Motor traffic, however, has a far greater range. Railways are limited to one road and to one
distance from point to point. We, gentlemen, have railways everywhere, and for every kind
of transport. We have proved to-day what can be done. We started this morning a little
before 1 1 , and I am pleased to tell you that every one of the patent cars of the British Motor
Syndicate arrived in Brighton quite safely, although many of the drivers had never driven on
the road before. We have delivered British farmers' produce in London to-day for the first
time by motor, and even with our 1 2 miles' limit, we have shown it quite possible to leave
London with market goods at 5 in the morning and arrive in Brighton at 9, return again
to London by i o'clock, and once more return and make a second delivery here in the after-
noon by 5 o'clock, returning to London again by 9 o'clock in the evening — four journeys.
Indeed, we can go on all night doing the same work, and the motor will never be tired, nor
exhausted, nor ill; neither will it go slower because of the work, but at a full speed the
whole time. I believe our friend, the coach, has changed horses no lete than eight times
to-day on the same road down, and in one single journey thirty-two horses Were employed. I
ask, is it not a serious thing to waste the time of 37,ooo/xx> ]>eople for fear some person
may not look where he is going? The tremendous change which cycling has made in our
habits was no more anticipated a few years ago than the immense changes now about to take
place are anticipated. One thing is certain, they give those who are wise in time an oppor-
tunity to once more make such fortunes as our fathers made out of the introduction of
machinery in superseding animal power.

Other speakers dwelt on the vast irnportance of motor cars in the service
they would render to agriculture.

The return trip from Brighton to London resulted in another victory for
the winner of the Paris-Marseilles race, a phaeton of the British Motor Syn-
dicate being second, and the "Present Times'* car third. The Panhard-
Levassor carriage accomplished the journey in three hours and fifteen minutes,
deducting stoppages, thus averaging a speed of 16 miles per hour. There
was no accident of any kind to mar the success of the trip. The second
carriage arrived only five minutes after the first and the third half an hour
later.

The London Times, in an editorial, predicts that enough has been done
to show that motor cars, either in their present form or with such improve-
ments as experience may suggest or ingenuity devise, are destined to play a
great part in the future transportation of people and merchandise. As far
as extensive use is concerned, the question is, of course, mainly one of econ-
omy, and its practical decision will turn upon the relative expenses of fuel
to fodder or upon the rate of the deterioration of a machine with that of
an animal. It is highly probable that motor cars will be brought largely into
use before there has been time or opportunity to train an adequate number
of drivers; if so, we must be prepared for a considerable catalogue of col-
lisions and other accidents, many of which, from the very nature of the
agencies concerned in producing them, are likely to be of a very serious
character. With every form of petroleum motor, the dangers of fire are
superadded to those of collision, and it would be a proper precaution to re-
quire that great pains should be taken in all such vehicles to protect the
reservoir from injury.



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HORSELESS CARRIAGES IN ENGLAND. 305

The Westminster Gazette, commenting upon the small number of motor
cars seen upon the streets of London, attributes the fact to the dearth of
skilled drivers. From January i, 1897, in England, it is proposed to license
motor cars; every one of these vehicles between i and 2 tons will have to
pay 2 guineas (| i o. 2 1 ) and between 2 and 3 tons in weight, 3 guineas (J 1 5 . 32),
in addition to the present carriage duty. Furthermore, it would seem that
every self-propelled bicycle and tricycle will be liable to a license at the rate
of I guinea (I5.11) per annum. For cars over i ton and under 3 tons, a
guinea (I5.11) will have to be paid unless they are used as public vehicles,
when the present hackney carriage rate of 15s. will be applied. The public
'bus of the future will be charged ;^i 17s. (^8.94) or jQ^ i8s. (^18.92),
according to weight. The weights will be on the unladen vehicle and ex-
clusive of accumulator, water, and fuel.

The Automobile Club of Paris proposes holding in July next a race for
heavy vehicles. At the time of the Paris-Marseilles race, a good deal of
comment was made as to the advantages of speed in connection with the
cause of automobilism, some critics maintaining that it mattered little
whether a horseless carriage was fast or not, but that a reasonable rate of
speed, combined with strength, was all that was required.

The Automobile Club de France, with a view of developing all branches
of automobilism, proposes to hold races with the minimum of ten persons
to a carriage and to consider a person equivalent to 100 kilograms (220.46
pounds), baggage included. It is to be hoped that American horseless car-
riages will be fully represented and that those interested will take note of
this announcement.

The much-vexed question of what name they should bear in England
seems to have been decided in favor of ** motor cars.'*

An electric landau caused some sensation on the London streets this
week. It demonstrated the fact that the horseless carriages can be steered
through the crowded thoroughfares with facility. This vehicle was fitted
with the Bersey system — the same adopted by the London Electrical Cab
Company.

One of the dangers arising from the use of the horseless carriages is the
employment of petroleum as a motive power. Attention has been called to
the inflammable nature of the vapor given off by some of the more volatile
forms of petroleum and has called for special care in handling and storing
them. The danger is small in electrical carriages, and in both forms it will
undoubtedly be greatly reduced in course of time.

The London Times thinks that as drivers gain experience and become
able to keep their machines thoroughly in hand, risks of collision will be
practically eliminated, except for the consideration that even then there
must be learners and that the nature of learners is to spoil a certain portion
of raw material. Apart from this, the safety of street traffic would probably
be increased if it could be conducted by motors alone without the occasional
interference of horseflesh as a disturbing element. It is quite within the



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306 REGULATIONS FOR MOTOR CARS IN IRELAND.

limits of possibility that such a condition may be reached in time, but for
the next few years, presumably, we must make up our minds to a combina-
tion of the two modes of traction and to some amount of friction between
them in consequence — friction which, in the words of Stephenson, will often
be very awkward for the horse and sometimes for his driver. But the great
gain of the new vehicles will arise from the tirelessness of the propelling
agency and from the facilities this will give for going as far as the driver
may desire and as fast as the current regulations allow. If it should be found
possible to introduce motor cars as a means of military transport, some of
the greatest difficulties of warfare will be at once superseded and removed.

In American cities, the symmetry of the streets and orderly plan of laying
them out render them much better adapted for the use of horseless carriages
than the narrow, crooked streets of the Old World, with their congested
traffic.

Are Americans fully awake to the importance of this new means of loco-
motion ?

THOS. EWING MOORE,

Weimar, November 20 y i8g6. Commercial Agent,



REGULATIONS FOR MOTOR CARS IN IRELAND.

The parliamentary act permitting the use of locomotives on highways
having become a law, the local government board have addressed to the sev-
eral urban sanitary authorities and grand juries in Ireland and to all others
whom it may concern rules for the governance of such traffic. I inclose
herewith the rules as promulgated by the Irish authorities, thinking that, per-
haps, they may be of interest to manufacturers who may wish to build motors
for the foreign trade.

NEWTON B. ASHBY,

Dublin, November 18, i8g6. Consul,



GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER LOCOMOTIVES ON HIGHWAYS ACT, 1896.

To the sn^eral urban sanitary authorities and grand juries in Ireland and to all others
whom it may concern.

Whereas by section 6 of the locomotives on highways act, 1 896 (hereinafter called the
act), it is enacted that " (i) the local government board may make regulations with respect
to the use of light locomotives on highways and their construction and the conditions under
which they may be used ; (2) * * * all regulations under this section shall have full
effect notwithstanding anything in any other act, whether general or local, or any by-laws or
regulations made thereunder."

And whereas by section 2 of the act it is enacted that <* during the period between one
hour after sunset and one hour before sunrise, the person in charge of a light locomotive shall
carry attached thereto a lamp so constructed and placed as to exhibit a light in accordance
with the regulations to be made by the local government board."



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REGULATIONS FOR MOTOR CARS IN IRELAND. 307

And whereas by section 3 of the act it is enacted that " every light locomotive shall carry
a bell or other instrument capable of giving audible and sufficient warning of the approach or
position of the carriage."

And whereas by section 4 of the act it is enacted that ** no light locomotive shall travel
along a public highway at a greater speed than 14 miles an hour or than any less speed that
may be prescribed by regulations of the local government board."

And whereas by section 1 1 of the act it is enacted that " in the application of this act to
Ireland, a reference to the local government board for Ireland shall be substituted for a ref-
erence to the local government board." * * *

And whereas by section 7 of the act it is enacted that ** a breach of any * * * regu-
lation made under this act * * * may, on summary conviction, be punished by a fine
not exceeding ;^io."

Now, therefore, in pursuance of the powers given to us by the act and by any other stat-
utes in that behalf, we, the local government board for Ireland, do by this our order make the
following regulations with respect to the use of light locomotives on highways and their con-
struction and the conditions under which they may be used, and direct that the same shall
have effect on and after November 14, 1896:

Article i. In this order the expression "carriage" includes a wagon, cart, or other ve-
hicle; the expression "horse" includes a mule or other beast of draft or burden, and the
expression "cattle" includes sheep; the expression " light locomotive" means a vehicle pro-
pelled by mechanical power which is under 3 tons in weight unladen, and is not used for the
purpose of drawing more than one vehicle (such vehicle with its locomotive not exceeding in
weight unladen 4 tons), and is so constructed that no smoke or visible vapor is emitted there-
from except from any temporary or accidental cause. In calculating, for the purposes of this
order, the weight of a vehicle unladen, the weight of any water, fuel, or accumulators, used
for the purpose of propulsion, shall not be included.

Art. 2. No person shall cause or permit a light locomotive to be used on any highway
or shall drive or have charge of a light locomotive when so used unless the conditions herein-
after set forth shall be satisfied, namely :

(i) The light locomotive, if it exceeds in weight unladen 5 cwts. shall be capable of being
so worked that it may travel either forward or backward.

(2) The light locomotive shall not exceed 6)4 feet in width, such width to be measured
between its extreme projecting points.

(3) The tire of each wheel of the light locomotive shall be smooth and shall, where the
same touches the ground, be flat and of the width following, namely: (a) If the weight of
the light locomotive unladen exceeds 15 cwts., but does not exceed i ton, not less than 2)4
inches; {d) if such weight exceeds I ton, but does not exceed 2 tons, not less than 3 inches;
{c) if such weight exceeds 2 tons, not less than 4 inches. Provided, that where a pneumatic
tire or other tire of a soft and elastic material is used, the tire may be round or curved, and
there may be upon the same projections or bosses rising above the surface of the tire if such
projections or bosses are of the same material as that of the tire itself, or of some other soft
and elastic material. The width of the tire shall, for the purpose of this proviso, mean the
extreme width of the soft and elastic material on the rim of the wheel when not subject to
pressure.

(4) The light locomotive shall have two independent brakes in good working order, and
of such efficiency that the application of either to such locomotive shall cause two of its wheels
on the same axle to be so held that the wheels shall be effectually prevented from revolving,
or shall have the same effect in stopping the light locomotive as if such wheels were so held.
Provided that in the case of a bicycle this regulation shall apply as if, instead of two wheels
on the same axle, one wheel was therein referred to.

(5) The light locomotive shall be so constructed as to admit of its being at all times under
such control as not to cause undue interference with passenger or other traffic on any high-
yray.



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308 REGULATIONS FOR MOTOR CARS IN IRELAND.

(6) In the case of a light locomotive drawing or constructed to draw another vehicle or
constructed or used for the carriage of goods, the name of the owner and the place of his
abode or business, and in every such case and in the case of every light locomotive weighing
unladen i^ tons or upwards, the weight of the light locomotive unladen shall be painted
in one or more straight lines upon some conspicuous part of the right or off side of the light
locomotive in large, legible letters in white upon black or black upon white, not less than I
inch in height.

(7) The light locomotive and all the fittings thereof shall be in such a condition as not to
cause, or to be likely to cause, danger to any person on the light locomotive or on any highway.

(8) There shall be in charge of the light locomotive when used on any highway a person
competent to control and direct its use and movement.

(9) The lamp to be carried attached to the light locomotive in pursuance of section 2 of
the act shall be so constructed and placed as to exhibit, during the period between one horn-
after sunset and one hour before sunrise, a white light visible within a reasonable distance in
the direction toward which the light locomotive is proceeding or is intended to proceed, and
to exhibit a red light so visible in the reverse direction. The lamp shall be placed on the
extreme right or oflf side of the light locomotive in such a position as to be free from all ob-
struction to the light.

The foregoing provision of this regulation shall not extend to any bicycle, tricycle, or other
similar machine. There shall be carried by the person riding or being upon such machine a
lamp attached to the machme and so constructed and placed as to exhibit a light in the direc-
tion in which he is proceeding adequate to signal the approach or position of the machine.

Art. 3. No person shall cause or permit a light locomotive to be used on any highway
for the purpose of drawing any vehicle, or shall drive or have charge of a light locomotive
when used for such purpose, unless the conditions hereinafter set forth shall be satisfied
namely :

(1) Regulations (2), (3), (5), and (7) of article 2 of this order shall apply as if the vehicle
drawn by the light locomotive was therein referred to instead of the light locomotive itself,
and regulation (6) of the article shall apply as if such vehicle was a light locomotive con-
structed for the carriage of goods.

(2) The vehicle drawn by the light locomotive, except where the light locomotive travels
at a rate not exceeding 4 miles an hour, shall have a brake in good working order of such
efficiency that its application to the vehicle shall cause two of the wheels of the vehicle on the
same axle to be so held that the wheels shall be effectually prevented from revolving or shall
have the same effect in stopping the vehicle as if such wheels were so held.

(3) The vehicle drawn by the light locomotive shall, when under the last preceding reg-
ulation a brake is required to be attached thereto, carry upon the vehicle a person competent
to apply efficiently the brake ; provided that it shall not be necessary to comply with this reg-
ulation if the brakes upon the light locomotive by which the vehicle is drawn are so constructed
and arranged that neither of such brakes can be used without bringing into action simulta-
neously the brake attached to the vehicle drawn, or if the brake of the vehicle drawn can be
applied from the light locomotive independently of the brakes of the latter.

Art. 4. Every person driving or in charge of a light locomotive when used on any high-
way shall comply with the regulations hereinafter set forth, namely :

(1) He shall not drive the light locomotive at any speed greater than is reasonable and
proper, having regard to the traffic on the highway, or so as to endanger the life or limb of any
person, or to the common danger of passengers.

(2) He shall not under any circumstances drive the light locomotive at a greater speed
than 12 miles an hour. If the weight unladen of the light locomotive is i}4 tons and does
not exceed 2 tons, he shall not drive the same at a greater speed than 8 miles an hour, or
if such weight exceeds 2 tons at a greater speed than 5 miles an hour ; provided that what-
ever may be the weight of the light locomotive, if it is used on any highway to draw any
vehicle, he shall not under any circumstances drive at a greater speed than 6 miles an hour;



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OBSTACLES TO AMERICAN TRADE IN SPAIN. 309

provided also that no light locomotive shall travel along any public highway within the limits
of the Dublin metropolitan police district or of any city, town, or village at a greater speed
than 6 miles an hour, or, if its weight, unladen, exceed 2 tons, at a greater speed than 5 miles
an hour; provided also that this regulation shall only have effect until we may by order other-
wise direct.

(3) He shall not cause the light locomotive to travel backward for a greater distance or
time than may be requisite for purposes of safety.

(4) I le shall not negligently nor willfully cause any hurt or damage to any person, carriage,
horse, or cattle, or to any goods conveyed in any carriage on any highway, or, when on the
light locomotive, Le in such a position that he can not have control over the same, or quit
the light locomotive without having taken due precautions against its being started in his ab-
sence, or allow the light locomotive or a vehicle drawn thereby to stand on such highway so
as to cause any unnecessary obstruction thereof.

(5) He shall, when meeting any carriage, horse, or cattle, keep the light locomotive on
the left or near side of the road, and when passing any carriage, horse, < r cattle proceeding
in the same direction, keep the light locomotive on the right or offside of the same.

(6) He shall not negligently nor willfully prevent, hinder, or inteiTupt the free passage of
any person, carriage, horse, or cattle on any highway, and shall keep the light locomotive
and any vehicle drawn thereby on the left or near side of the road for the purpose of allowing
such passage.

(7) He shall, whenever necessary, by sounding the bell or other instrument recjuired by
section 3 of the act, give audible and sufficient warning of the approach or position of the
light locomotive.

(8) He shall, on the request of any police constable, or of any person having charge of
a restive horse, or on any such constable or person putting up his hands as a signal for that
purpose, cause the light locomotive to stop and to remain stationary so long as may be reason-
ably necessary.

Art. 5. If the light locomotive is one to which regulation (6) of article 2 applies, and the
particulars required by that regulation are not duly painted thereon, or if the light locomotive
is one to which that regulation does not apply, the person driving or in charge thereof shall,
on the request of any constable, or on the reasonable request of any other person, truly state
hi* name and place of abode and the name of the owner and the place of his al)ode or
business.

Art. 6. This order may be cited as "the light locomotives on highways (Ireland) order,



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 44 of 82)