United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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posit is found a large percentage of corundum. This is valuable on account of its abrasive
properties, being used in the manufacture of emery wheels for gem cutting.

The zircons and other gems and metals are found in a gravelly and quartzite wash, about
an average of 2 feet from the surface of the banks creeks. It has been proved to extend over an
area of a chain in width and a mile in length, and has an average depth of 8 inches. The
wash rests on a blue-clay bed, under which a hard sandstone bar occurs. One ton of con-
centrates was shipped to Melbourne about three weeks ago, and another 1 5 cwts. is to arrive
during the week. It is the intention of the directors to ship about 5 cwts. to their London
agent at once, who is instructed to have a thorough analysis made.

The report of Mr. W, H. Gaze, an expert in gem mining, is as follows:

" As to the minerals used in incandescent- mantle lighting, they belong to the rare metallic
earths of the cerium series and zirconia. They are : Zirconia, the most important, and forming
about 60 per cent of the composition used; thorium, valuable white light; lanthanium, val-
uable white light; erbium, gives greenish tints to Welsbach mantle; jrttrium, used in small
quantities; cerium, less than I per cent used in mantles; niobium, not much used; didy-
mium, not much used; berillium, not much used; magnesium, only used in some lights of
non commercial value.

** The most valuable for lighting are the first three. The next three — erbium, yttrium, and
cerium — are used in small quantities only. Erbium and yttrium have high commercial value.



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BOOT AND SHOE TRADE IN AUSTRALIA. 367

Cerium is cheap, and only i per cent used. The first six are used in the now celebrated
Welsbach mantle; the others are used by various companies in combination with some of the
first six. But zirconia is the basis of all the known mantles, and will be even more extensively
used in the future.

" The minerals you have associated with the zircon samples which I have to-day selected
for exhibition to the meeting is a very rare mineral known as pyrochlore, of which there are
several distinct varieties. ' They are, however, all composed of two rare metals — niobium and
uranium — with some of the cerium metals. It may be described as niobato of uranium, with
cerium, thorium, yttrium, lydimium, and titanium. The percentages of each metal varies,
and often some of them are absent. Thorium and yttrium are often present to the extent of
10 per cent each. At present, I have only determined niobium, uranium, and thanium, and
have a residue containing the other rare earths. Uranium is contained in very considerable
quantities. It is a rare metal, of which there are only two mines worked in the world, though
small deposits have been worked out in America. It is much in demand for glass and porce-
lain painting and allied arts, and is of high commercial value on account of its rareness and
the fact that no substitute can be found.

** On the whole, I consider your deposit a valuable one, which should secure a ready sale
in the English and German markets, where the pyrochlore can be manufactured into rare
earths for the incandescent mantles and uranium pigments.

" Having now completed the analysis of your mineral, I have to report as follows:

" In the first place, the mineral varies much in composition. It is, therefore, impossible to
get two results alike, especially when one has to pick out hundreds of little grains to obtain
enough to operate on, and there is no certainty that all the grains are identical. The mineral
is of very complex nature, as the analysis below demonstrates. In some instances, chromium
has to a great extent replaced uranium; in others, lanthanium and didymium replace thorium
and yttrium. With more compact and larger specimens, better results should be obtained.
In some instances, only traces of the rare earths were obtained. I am not sufficiently in
touch with the market for these rare earths to place any value on your mineral; but while
less refractory ores, such as monazite, cadolinite, etc., are obtainable, the demand for so re-
fractory a mineral is not likely to be great. Zircons will, however, become of greater value
as the visible supply diminishes.

" Assay of Shekleton minerals, nitrate of uranium and chromium, a variety of pyrochlore :
Uranium,* 5 to 0.5 per cent ; chromium, 10.5 to 12.5 per cent; titanium, 1 2 to 13 per cent ; nio-
bium,* 4.5 to 2.5 per cent; iron, 25.5 to 27.7 per cent; magnesium, 2.2 to 0.5 per cent; alu-
minia, 7.3 to 6.2 per cent; lime, 2.6 to 1.5 per cent; silica, 15 to 12 per cent ; didymium,*
7.5 to 0.5 per cent ; lanthanium,* 6.2 to 2.2 per cent ; thorium,* I per cent to traces ; yttrium,*
1.5 per cent to traces."

DANIEL W. MARATTA,
Melbourne, November 18, i8g6. Consul- General.



BOOT AND SHOE TRADE IN AUSTRALIA.

The necessity of the United States buying so extensively of a few Aus-
tralian products impresses me with a feeling that our people should extend
their markets in these regions, and one line in which I feel sure our trade
may be extended is boots and shoes. I am not well informed as to the
trade throughout Australasia, but have given it some attention, as applied to
New South Wales.



♦Of great commercial value.



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368



BOOT AND SHOE TRADE IN AUSTRALIA.



The following table, taken from the Government Statistical Register for
1894, latest now out, gives the recorded facts regarding the industry:



Year.



1884-85 .,
1885-86..
1886-87..
1887-88..
1888-89..
1889-90..
1890-91..

1892 ,

X893

'894



Number

of boot

factories.



Hands employed.


Pain of
boots
made.


Males.

1,871
1,67a
1,856

1.837
1.618

x,95S
3,363
3,330

2,429
2,716


Females.


4x8
433
4x6
436
427
465
544
478
661
704






*i, 881,310
3,278,61a
2.559.980
3,196,815
2,634,254
8,500,000
2,545.061
3,611,700



•The earliest obtainable records.

The lasts are all imported; they are chiefly cast iron, and come mainly
from Germany. The manufacturers here, so far, have not published a cata-
logue, or, at least, the largest one tells me none have done so, though I am
informed that one will soon publish such a catalogue.

As the total population of the colony is but about 1,250,000, it is plain,
reasoning from the known average wear per capita for boots for the people of
other countries, that the local production satisfies a large part of the demand.

However, from my own observation (though I am not an expert), I think
there is little fine foot wear made in any of these factories. The leather,
locally produced and locally tanned, is very durable, but, as a rule, not very
fine. The coarse, heavy, everyday foot wear is locally produced, while the
fine wear, and more especially the ladies' ware, is imported.

The following table gives the total importations of boots and shoes into
New South Wales for 1895 •



From —



Victoria

Queensland

South .\ustralia

Western Australia..
Tasmania



Packages. Value.



■•|



New Zealand 1

United Kingdom 16,539

Canada....*.

Hongkong 1

Austria



France

New Caledonia..

Germany ,

Italy

Japan

United St.\tes



Total *ao,687



* I can not determine the number of pairs.



279


;C»2,349


103


^,335


324


3,730


3>


454


35


556


48


647


539


244,258


76


561


139


435


377


3,86i


78


1,936


2


27


258


19,409


5


794


z


8


503


7,513


687


297.763



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JAPANESE TRADE WITH AUSTRALIA. 369

The duty for the year under consideration was 10 per cent, which was
removed by the act taking effect on January i last. At the present time,
there is no duty on manufactured goods of necessary consumption.

It will be seen by the above tables, that of the total imports of boots
into New South Wales, but little over 0.025 P^^ ^^^^ came from the United
States.* Our manufacturers should not be satisfied with this condition of
affairs, especially when the superiority of American foot wear seems to be so
well understood in this country.

I have inquired for the reason of this of several extensive dealers, and
they say to me: ** Your people do not study our tastes or demands. The
American and the Australian foot, as well as habit and taste, is somewhat
different. Your boots, as a rule, are too narrow, too small, and too straight.
They are very fine and pretty, but they do not fit.*' Then, too, the foot
wear here is expensive and I really question whether our dealers bring their
best goods to Sydney. The ladies here, especially, like American boots,
but they wear them to a very limited extent, as the above table shows.

The people here are usually well dressed, but the feet are often neglected.
They do not, on the average, look dressy. We should have a large share of
the boot import trade of Australasia, and my notion is that, if some of our
great factories should send an expert, with authority to act upon his observa-
tions, we could very greatly increase our trade.

GEO. W. BELL,

Sydney, December 14^ i8g6. Consul,



JAPANESE TRADE WITH AUSTRALIA.

On the 5th instant, there arrived in Sydney harbor the Yamashtro Maru,
the pioneer steamer of the Japanese Shipping Company, bearing the appel-
lation of Nippon Yusen Kaisha. This great.company has already 70 ocean-
going steamers, with an aggregate tonnage of 186,000 tons, doing business on
the high seas, and about 50 smaller ones engaged in the coast trade of Japan.

The Yamashtro Maru is a fine iron steamer 301 feet long, 43 feet beam,
and 19 feet depth of hold, with a gross measurement of 2,528 tons. She is
built on the spar-deck plan and carries Lloyd's highest class. She has ex-
cellent passenger accommodations, with electric lights and other modern
conveniences. She has fine engines of the compound type, and has a speed
of 14 knots an hour. The termini are Yokohama (Japan) and Melbourne
(Australia), and the ports of call are Nagasaki, Moji, Hongkong, Thursday
Island, Townsville, Brisbane (Queensland), and Sydney (New South Wales).

The distance between the termini is 6,818 miles and the time of the
voyage, including stops, is to be about twenty-eight days. Besides the
freight business, it is believed there will soon be a large passenger traffic,
chiefly from tourists. The service is to be monthly, and this new line, I am



*This is a little misleading, as some American boots are "imported" from England.



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370 JAPANESE TRADE WITH AUSTRALIA.

informed, has an extra direct annual subsidy of ;^7o,ooo ($340,200). The
Nippon Yusen Kaisha has one line running to London and Antwerp, one to
India, and one to the United States, and now, this one to Australia. All
are heavily subsidized by the Japanese Government.

Considerable of the cargo of the Yamashiro Maru was for New Zealand,
transshipped here, and consisted largely of porcelain, pottery, lacquer work,
and fish oil.

The Yamashiro Maruy like many others of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha
steamers, is commanded by an Englishman, Capt. John Jones.

From the Daily Telegraph of November 6, 1 clip the following, published
as an interview with Captain Jones, who, I am informed, has a large knowl-
edge of Japan, her commercial possibilities and aspirations, and it seems to
me this information will be as valuable to our people as to Australians :

The Japanese people (Captain Jones observed) are in very much the same position as the
people of England. They number 40,000,000— about the population of Great Britain and
Ireland ; they live in an island country of the same area; and they are becoming dependent
upon foreign countries for a large proportion of their food. With the lapse of each year, and
especially since the war, this dependence on outside sources is increasing. The Japanese
authorities have been much concerned to know why their people are smaller than the Euro-
pean races. They believe they have discovered the reason. They have concluded that it is
owing to their dieting almost exclusively on rice and fish and to the want of meat. The
Japanese are consequently now becoming meat eaters, and the movement in this direction is
a national one — almost a patriotic one. The heads of families make a point of giving their
children meat once a day if they can afford to do so, and when they are drilling or working
hard, Japanese men have meat twice a day. The older generation do not take to meat very
readily. The taste for it has to be acquired; but when a Japanese does acquire the taste for
European food, he can not do without it.

With this change in habit, the live stock in Japan is rapidly decreasing. Eight or ten
years ago, I could purchase roasts of beef in Japan for 8 cents per pound ; now it can not be
got under 28 cents. With these facts in mind, the Nippon Yusen Kaisha expect that there
will soon be a big export trade in frozen and tinned meat from Australia to Japan. As the
Japanese are a prosperous, go-ahead people, and as they number 40,000,000, there is the possi^
bility of a tremendous trade of this description, for Australia is essentially a meat-producing
country.

Another trade that is bound to assume very large proportions is the wool trade. The
Japanese, whose clothing has hitherto been cotton, imported from India, are taking to wear-
ing wool. Woolen clothing is more suitable for the climate, and the demand for this material
has already led to the establishment of one or two large woolen mills.

There is another line in which a very large trade may be done with Australia. Japan
has a force of about 20,000 cavalry. Japanese horses are small and useless for military pur-
poses. The attempt to improve the breed by the importation of high-class stallions has prac-
tically failed. When, at the outbreak of the late war, the Japanese made drafts upon the
Government horse-breeding establishments, it was found that only 5 per cent of the horses
were really serviceable. Yes, only 5 per cent. The class of horse the Japanese want is a
light, medium-sized animal — a class of stock you have in plenty and which is not accepted by
the Indian Government. But to develop this trade cheap freights are necessary, as these
horses are low priced. Yes, Australian horse breeders have already tried unsuccessfully to
dispose of stock in Japan, but the horses they took there were too big and too expensive.
Somewhat weedy animals, with plenty of endurance — the characteristics of your common
horses — ^that is the kind the Japanese want.



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JAPANESE TRADE WITH AUSTRALIA. 37 1

I would call especial attention to the last paragraph. I have given some
attention to the study of the Japanese horse and to the Japanese people as
horsemen. The horse most suitable for the Japanese cavalry should be
as tough as rawhide, not overgentle, and easily suited, both in quantity and
quality, with food. I believe that the best horse extant for the use of the
Japanese cavalry could be selected from the herds that thrive so well on our
western plains, in eastern Washington, Oregon, California, and other moun-
tain States.

The starting of this new line of steamers, the business calculations upon
which the venture is based, and the Government policy which makes its
continuance possible, suggests many interesting inquiries.

No people in the history of the world ever shook off the old and put on
the new civilization with half the alacrity exhibited by the Japanese during
the last dozen years. The suddenness in the national change, the impatient
desire for the necessities and luxuries of modern civilized life, the tastes for
improved food, raiment, and ornamentation, have well-nigh quieted the fears
that these curious people will remain patient workers at old wages — while
skillfully producing by new methods — and thus swamping the world with
goods, without buying the products of others with what they sell to others.

It seems that civilization, whether it comes through the social evolution
of a thousand years or social revolution of ten years, brings the same result —
an insatiable desire for a higher plane of living. It seems almost certain
now, that the wants of the 40,000,000 people of Japan will so far outrun
their power to produce, even though aided by modern methods, that their
trade demands will increase with their productive capacity, and that it will
require their whole surplus to fill their total deficiencies.

Another interesting conclusion presents itself by the opening of this line,
and that is, when any one great nation resorts to the policy of granting ex-
tensive subsidies for ocean carriage, all other nations may have to follow
suit or surrender the sea. In this, Japan, which has just aroused from centu-
ries of torpor, is in advance of the United States. She is yet willing to toil
in the garden, though she insists upon marketing her own vegetables.

In the near future, the great Pacific will be the theater of mightier com-
mercial movements than was ever known in any former age. The question
now is, shall a new player, who, but yesterday, was born to the realization
of the beauties of progress and who has just appeared on the stage, take
the leading part in this stupendous drama? Is the great Republic, whose
2,000 miles of western shore is washed by the Pacific, to busy herself with
the pleasing task of simple production, while other people enjoy the splendor
of the sea and the profits and pleasures of traffic ?

Japan now has a larger steamer-carrying trade on the broad Pacific than
the United States, and Americans who are near enough to watch the shifting
scenes of this new and rapidly developing contest for commercial supremacy
find little matter for pride in the present tendencies.

GEO. W. BELL,

Sydney, November 16, i8g6. Consul,



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572 COMMERCIAL MUSEUM IN JAPAN.



COMMERCIAL MUSEUM IN JAPAN.

I transmit herewith a pamphlet issued by the management of the Osaka
Commercial Museum, in which are set forth the rules and regulations of that
establishment.

The Osaka Commercial Museum is located in the city of Osaka, the great
manufacturing center of Japan. Osaka is a city of about 600,000 inhab-
itants located at the head of the bay of that name and distant about 18
miles from the port city of Hiogo (Kob6). It is the center of the cotton-
spinning industry, and, I may add, of nearly every other industry of the
Empire.

The purpose of the museum is to afford a central place for the exhibition
of the productions of native and foreign producers. I would advise Amer-
ican producers desiring to take advantage of this means of placing their
products before the consumers of Japan, to put them into the hands of a
competent agent, as it would scarcely pay any one producer to send a special
agent to act for him alone. The agent employed should be thoroughly
posted in the lines he intends representing as to every detail, so as to be able
to figure on such alterations as to style, material, etc., as the Japanese dealer
may desire. It would also be wise for him to measure up his exhibits and
precede them to Japan for the purpose of procuring required space and reg-
istering in the patent office such devices as it may be desired to protect
from imitation.

I am of opinion that the trade of Japan in American productions can be
appreciably increased if our producers will take advantage of the offer of the
Osaka museum and will follow out the methods above described, which will
bring their productions to the immediate attention of the consumers of this
Empire with the least possible expense.

JAS. F. CONNELLY,

Osaka and Hiogo, December 2p, i8g6. Consul,



Rules ok the Osaka Commercial Museum.

l — the object of the instrrution.

(i) The object of the Osaka Commercial Museum is to increase the exportation of home
produce and manufactures and to facilitate the importation of foreign merchandise and to
serve, at the same time, as a means of promoting domestic trade and improving the various
branches of industry in this city.

n. — THE ARRANGEMENT OP' SAMPLES.

(2) The sample department consists of the three following sections: {a) The section of
exports, {b) the section of imports, {c) the section of domestic produce and manufactures.

(3) The section of exports contains samples, patterns, and raw materials of foreign prod-
uce and manufactures which are calculated to supply useful information in the development



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COMMERCIAL MUSEUM IN JAPAN.



373



of export trade of Japan, and, especially, of those articles which offer, or are likely to offer,
competition with similar exports from Japan, as well as those articles in foreign markets
which Japan may hope to supply in future, though at present their supply is obtained only
from some other foreign countries.

(4) The section of imports contains samples, patterns, and raw materials of those articles
of merchandise of foreign origin which form the principal items of importation into this
country.

(5) The section of domestic produce and manufactures devotes itself to the exhibition of
the samples, patterns, raw materials, etc., of domestic produce and manufactures at the request
of exhibitors belonging to this city and various other cities and prefectures.

(6) The classification and arrangement of the exhibits in the first two sections above
enumerated shall be made in accordance with the following schedule. The arrangement in
the third section shall generally follow the system adopted in the section of exports.

Th€ section of exports.



Group I. — Mineral products:

Class 1. — Copper, ingot.

Class 2. — Copper, bar, slab, etc.

Qass 3. — Coal.

Class 4. — Sulphur.

Class 5. — Antimony.

Gass 6. — Bronze.

Class 7. — Stones for building.
Group II. — Marine products:

Class I.— ^Shells of "sea ear."

Class 2. — Sharks* fins.

Class 3. — Seaweed.

Class 4. — Fish wax.

Class 5.— Fish oil.

Gass 6. — Fish, preserved.
Group III. — Animal and vegetable products:

Class I. — Hairs, skins, furs, shells,
horns, etc.

Class 2. — Oil, tallow, etc.

Class 3. — Vegetable wax.

Class 4. — Tobacco leaves.

Gass 5. — Charcoal.
Group IV. — Timbers and wood:

Class I. — Timber for building puri>oses.

Class 2. — Railway sleepers.

Class 3. — Wood for cabinetwork.
Group V. — Cereals and flours :

Class I. — Rice.

Gass 2. — Flours.

Class 3. — Wheat.
Group VI. — Beverages and provisions:

Class I.— Tea, black.

Class 2. — Tea, green.

Class 3.— Tea, brick.

Class 4. — Beer.

Gass 5.— Salt.

Gass 6. — Sauce.

Class 7. — Preserved provisions.
No. 198 6.



Group VI. — Beverages and provisioi
Continued.

Gass 8. — Pepper.

Class 9. — Ginger.
Group VII. — Drugs and medicines:

Class I. — Camphor.

Class 2. — Camphor oil.

Class 3. — Menthol crystal.

Class 4. — Menthol oil.

Class 5. — Gallnuts.

Class 6. — Sulphuric acid.

Gass 7. — Ginseng.
Group VIII. — Dyes and paints:

Gass I. — Indigo.

Class 2. — Dyeing barks.

Class 3. — Safflower.

Class 4. — Ink (for painting).
Group IX. — Silk and materials for textile
fabrics :

Class I. — Silk, raw.

Class 2. — Cocoons.

Class 3. — Silk, waste.

Class 4. — Silk thread.

Class 5. — Floss silk.
Group X. — Textile fabrics:

Class I. — Silk piece goods.

Class 2. — Silk and woolen mixtures.

Class 3. — Cotton piece goods.

Class 4. — Silk and cotton mixtures.

Class 5. — Cotton and woolen mixtures.

Class 6. — Figured cotton goods.

Class 7. — Cotton lamp wicks.

Class 8. — Linen.

Class 9. — Silk and linen mixtures.

Gass 10. — Linen and cotton mixtures.

Class II. — Linen and woolen mixtures

Class 12. — All other textile fabrics.

Class 13. — Embroidery.



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374



COMMERCIAL MUSEUM IN JAPAN.



Group XI. — Porcelain and earthen ware :

Class I. — Porcelain ware.

Class 2. — Earthenware.

Class 3. — Unglazed earthenware, bricks*
and tiles.
Group XII. — Manufactures of metal :

Class I. — Copper wares.

Class 2. — Bronze wares.

Gass 3, — Wires and wire works.

Class 4. — All other manufactures of
metals.
Group XIII. — Bamboo wares, woodworks,
etc.:

Class I . — Bamboo wares.

Class 2. — Woodworks.

Gass 3. — Rattan wares.
Group XIV. — Paper and paper wares:

Class I . — Wall papers.

Gass 2. — Paper of strong texture.

Class 3. — Imitation leather.
Group XV. — Lacquered wares (foreign imita-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 52 of 82)