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Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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therefrom, I would suggest that the producers who desire to enter the com-
mercial field of Japan agree upon an agent, who, after posting himself
thoroughly as to details of the productions he is to represent, shall come to
Japan, secure the required space, have his samples sent to him, and, after
displaying them, proceed to do business in precisely the same manner as he
would do in the home markets. If the agent does not understand the Japan-
ese language, he can employ a thoroughly equipped interpreter (they are
known here as *'bantos'') at from 75 to 100 yen per month, which would
be equivalent to about J 40 in United States currency.

As to your query about lamp dealers in Osaka, I submit the following
names as those of the principal dealers : Waichi Araki, Minami Kiuhojimachi,
Kitaye iru, Shinsai Bashi dori, Osaka, Japan; Shotaro Komai, Minami
Honmachi, Shichome, Higashi ku, Osaka, Japan. But you will pardon me
for suggesting that should the members of your association determine to
send an agent to Japan, as hereinbefore advised, it would be wise to leave
the lamp ^business to him.



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382 THE CHINESE TREATY PORT OF CHEFOO.



THE CHINESE TREATY PORT OF CHEFOO.

The port of Chefoo, the only treaty, or open, port in the province of
Shantung, is situated on the northern side of the promontory of Shantung,
which juts out in a northeasterly direction, and with the Regent's Sword (Port
Arthur) guards the Gulf of Pechili, the water route to Tientsin and Peking.

Chefoo was opened to foreign trade by the treaty of Tientsin in 1858.
Tungchow, a port 40 miles further north, was the port stipulated, but for
several reasons, that port was abandoned in favor of Chefoo.

The United States consulate was established in this port in July of this
year, so that now there are consuls from Great Britain, France, Japan, and
the United States, and vice-consuls in charge of Russian and German inter-
ests, while other countries, such as Italy, Norway and Sweden, and Belgium
are represented by merchants of the port.

Chefoo is famed as being the healthiest port in all Asia, and as a result,
supports several hotels and many boarding houses; it has several fine beaches,
and the roads in the town and neighborhood are far superior to those gener-
ally seen in the treaty ports of China.

The foreign settlement is under the supervision of a committee elected
annually by the foreigners. Under this committee, all matters pertaining to
lighting, policing, and municipal affairs generally are placed. This com-
mittee, for ** general purposes,*' controls a local post-office, which does a reg-
ular postal business — receives, forwards, and exchanges mails, sells their own
stamps, which will carry letters to any of the other treaty ports of China,
but, of course, are not good elsewhere. The proceeds of the sales of stamps
have been so large that the committee have been able to greatly beautify the
walks, set out trees, pay for a small police force, lay out a recreation ground,
and in many other ways improve the foreign settlement. There are also
post-offices under the control of Japan, Russia, Germany, and the imperial
customs.

The local post stamp will frank a letter to all the treaty ports in China,
but not to Peking or into the interior; the customs stamp will carry a letter
to all places where a custom-house is established and to Peking. Japanese
stamps carry letters everywhere, except to Peking, and. Russian stamps to
Shanghai, Hankow, Kalgan, and Tientsin, in China, and throughout the
Postal Union.

The port of Chefoo is the only port north of Shanghai that is open all
the year, Tientsin and Niuchwang being shut off from the outside world
by the ice, which closes the rivers early in December.

There are excellent steamer connections with Shanghai. The steamers of
the three great coasting lines — Indo-China, China Navigation, and China
Merchants — all stop here en route to Tientsin and Niuchwang when those
ports are open, or make voyages to Chefoo only in winter. The China
Merchants, as agents for the China Inland Steam Lighter Company, runs a



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THE CHINESE TREATY PORT OF CHEFOO



383



Steamer (the Kwangchi) from Chefoo to Loongkow, Tiger Head, and
Yangkok-kow, ports to the north. About four trips a month are made.
The outward voyage cargoes consist of cottons and foreign goods ; inward
cargoes, the beautiful straw braid, besides pongee silks.

The ship belonging to the Chinese is allowed to touch at the above ports,
a privilege denied to foreign-owned vessels. The advantages the native
merchants have in patronizing this steamer is readily seen by the saving in
transit taxes.

Cost of transportation between Chefoo and TaichowfUy Tiger Head^ per steamship Kwangchi
and land routes^ respectively.



Description of goods.



To Taichaw/u, Tigtr Head.
Cotton yam „.p«r bale of 400 pounds..



Duty.,



Total-



Sheetings per package of 90 pieces..

Duty



Total..



From Taichow/u, Tiger Head.

Silk pongees... per 100 pieces..

Duty:



Total..



Straw braid ..per 133^^ pounds..

Duty



Total..



Per steam-
ship Limd route.
Kwangchi.



•I0.30
.X9



#x.58



(t)



•49


«.58


.23

.IZ


X.26

(t)


•43


1.36


•30

.27


.70

(t)


•57


•70


•23
.08


.60

(t)



* Approximately Chefoo taels at 75.8 cents.



t Goods sent by land pay no duty.



Besides these lines running from Shanghai to Chefoo, Tientsin, or Niu-
chwang, there is the great and far-reaching Japanese line, which must now
be considered one of the largest in the world — the Nippon Yusen Kaisha.
This company now sends, on schedule time, a steamer twice a month from
Kob6 that touches at Shimonoseki, Nagasaki, Tsushima, Fusan, Jinsen
(Chemulpo, Korea), and Chefoo, making the round trip from Kob^ to Chefoo
and back to Kob^ in fifteen days. Another steamer of this company leaves
Hongkong once a month, calling at Shanghai, Chefoo, Jinsen (Chemulpo,
Korea), and Nagasaki, making the round trip in about three weeks.

The Russian Steam Navigation Company dispatches a steamer about twice
a month from Shanghai to Chefoo, Chemulpo or Jinsen, and Vladivostock,
Siberia ; besides these regular lines, there are extra steamers constantly call-
ing from the south or Japan.

During the nine months ended September 30, 1896, 921 ships, of a total
tonnage of 820,528 tons, entered, against 878 ships, of a total tonnage of
819,828 tons, for the twelve months of 1895, showing a very appreciable
increase for this year.



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384 THE CHINESE TREATY PORT OF CHEFOO.

The principal articles of export are : Bean cake, beans, bristles, cotton
clothing, dates, fish, fresh fruit, straw hats, licorice, oil (bean and ground-
nut) raw yellow and pongee silk, strawbraid (white and mottled), and
vermicelli.

The principal imports are : Cotton and woolen goods, metals (principally
old iron), coal, matches, needles, and kerosene oil.

The principal direct exports to the United States are straw braid, pongees,
brown silk, and wool.

The province of Shantung is one vast mineral field; gold, silver, copper,
iron, lead, coal, and even diamonds are found. The gold mines have been
worked by California miners, but they had to abandon the task owing to the
obstructiveness of the native officials ten years ago. It is expected that, with
the advent of the locomotive in the near future, great activity will be shown
in exploiting for gold, coal, and other minerals. Were this province under
any other rule, it would be one of the greatest mining sections in the world.

So confident are old residents here of a new era and consequent boom
that land is going up in value by leaps and bounds.

Chefoo is the rendezvous for all the foreign squadrons at least twice a
year; in the summer, it is not an unusual sight to see ten, fifteen, or even
twenty men-of-war in the harbor. During the Japan-China war, as many
as thirty-seven were in the harbor at one time.

Chefoo is but a day's sail from Tientsin, Chemulpo (Korea), Japan, Port
Arthur, and Wei-Hai-Wei, thus within easy reach of any of the strategical
positions that have played so important a part in the past in Asiatic affairs.

The foreign firms are: L. H. Smith & Co. (American), steamship agents,
coal, and commission; Cornab^ & Co. (British), steamship agents, coal,
and commission; Fergusson & Co. (British), steamship agents, coal, and
commission; Fuller & Co. (British), ship chandlers; H. Sietas & Co. (Ger-
man), general stores and ship chandlery; James McMullan (British), general
stores and ship chandlery; Anz & Co. (German), general commission and
exporters of straw braid and silks; John Smith (British), vineyards, Chefoo
wine, etc. Besides the above, there are many native stores that deal exclu-
sively in foreign goods, I.. W. Singtai & Co. being a very large house, with
branches in many ports of China.

There are several industries carried on by foreign machinery, notably
the Silk Filanda, an extensive establishment.

Several vineyards have been set out with cuttings of grapevines from
California, there being a well-developed effort to make wine for export.
The results, so far, are quite satisfactory. One native company has sent to
Austria for an expert, but I have not been able to get any data, as all decline
to give any information as to methods, number of vines, or future prospects;
but the industry is now very large. Some years ago American missionaries
brought out from the United States cuttings or graftings of Bartlett pear
trees, peach, plum, grapes, etc., and under the wise and skillful guidance of
the late Dr. Nevins, the natives met with good success, so that to-day Chefoo



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SILK-LACE INDUSTRY AT CHEFOO. 385

is noted for its fruit. There is now a jam and fruit-pressing factory under
foreign auspices.

Chefoo lace is beautiful and very cheap. Once seen it would command
a ready and large sale in the United States.

Nearly all the straw braid goes to the United States.

The province of Shantung covers over 65,000 square miles; in it is the
Huang Ho, or Yellow River (''China's Sorrow"), the birthplace of Con-
fucius and Mencius, the two sages of China.

The Americans have many hospitals, schools, and churches in the district.

The future of Chefoo is full of great possibilities, and, all are waiting for
the **boom'* that is expected to come.

JOHN FOWLER,

Chefoo, December 16^ i8g6. Consul.



SILK-LACE INDUSTRY AT CHEFOO.

I submit herewith a brief report upon the silk-lace industry of this port,
kindly furnished me by Mr. James McMullan. In the absence of photo-
graphs, Mr. McMullan has courteously accompanied his report with the in-
closed samples.* This silk lace is so fine and cheap that I feel confident
that it would meet with a ready sale in the United States.

There are many industries carried on in China of which the general pub-
lic at home and a vast number of people in China know nothing. Europe
produces no finer or more beautiful work than the silk embroideries of Ningpo.
Under the guidance of the Sisters of Charity in that port, the native women
make magnificent dresses for many royal courts of Europe, table pieces,
doilies — in fact, every kind of embroidery — the patterns on the finest of silk
or satin being not the Chinese atrocities, but delicate flowers, violets, chrys-
anthemums, birds, and butterflies, the designs for the most part coming from
Paris. The silk and silk thread, all being made on the spot, are of the very
best. The labor of Chinese women costs not more than 10 cents (gold) a
day, so it is easily seen how very cheap these beautiful works of art are. A
few years ago the Sisters executed a large order for dresses of white satin,
embroidered in gold, the pattern being bamboo, for a royal house in Europe.

An application for samples to the Sisters at Ningpo would, I am sure,
meet with a ready response.

The report of Mr. McMullan is as follows :

The manufacture of Giefoo handmade silk lace is a comparatively young industry. This lace
can be made in any color to order, but is mostly made in cream or ^cru silk thread, which is
also made in the district. The workers are all of the poorer classes and are under the con-
trol of the director of the Shantung Industrial Scheme. The majority of the girls work in
schools and the women in their own homes. The lace industry demands cleanliness and
thrift; consequently, it is of great use in developing these habits in the native women, besides
being a valuable means of support.

• Samples filed in Bureau of Statistics, Department of State.



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386 MANUFACTURE OF ALBUMEN AT CHINKIANG.

The silk iised is of the best quality procurable, and no work is passed which is not of a
high standard of excellence. As some Chinese (formerly pupils) have started lace making
apart from our control and are producing a very* inferior lace, the director of the Industrial
Scheme is making arrangements to protect the industry, so that buyers may be certain of get-
ting the real lace.

Small consignments of the lace have been sent to the United States and Great Britain,
and the director is desirous to treat with reliable firms who are willing to take up the sale of
the article. We guaranty that the Chefoo lace we send out will compete very favorably with
any handmade lace in the market, besides being made of Chinese silk and by the natives,
which adds to its value.

Information and samples will be sent on application to James McMullan, director Shantung
Industrial Scheme, Chefoo.

JOHN FOWLER,

Chefoo, December //, i8g6. Consul,



MANUFACTURE OF ALBUMEN AT CHINKIANG.

An enterprising German firm has undertaken the manufacture of albumen
at Chinkiang, it having been found that this place offered the best field for
the business on account of the cheapness and plentiful supply of eggs. The
factory is now successfully established, with possibilities of conducting it on
a much larger scale.

The country surrounding Chinkiang has always been noted for the rais-
ing of ducks and other domestic fowls, and much attention is given by the
farmers to this industry. It is not an unusual thing for a farmer to have
four and ^\t, thousand ducks under his care, and they may be encountered
any day in a walk of a mile or two, marshaling their ducks in battalions of
well-drilled ranks to graze on the luxuriant grasses of the neighboring hills
or to swim in the numerous ponds and water courses.

In China, the duck is a fine, large, hardy bird, a prolific layer, and re-
quiring little attention and less expense, as he can readily find his food for
himself.

The egg of the duck is preserved by the Chinese by a process described
in my report on the fowls of China,* and will keep when so preserved ten
and twenty years. It is a favorite food of the people, especially of the higher
classes, and is to be met with at all their dinners and entertainments. Ducks
are sold in the market for about 30 cents (Mexican) a pair and the eggs at
about 6 cents a dozen.

The establishment of this albumen factory has made a good market for
the eggs and the country people bring them in by thousands. The factory
uses duck eggs in the manufacture of albumen in preference to chicken eggs,
solely on account of their greater cheapness. They are bought, not by the
dozen, but by the thousand, the factory paying an average of ^8 (Mexican)
per thousand.

•Sec poultry report in Consulak Reports No. 159 (December, 1893), p. 563.



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MANUFACTURE OF ALBUMEN AT CHINKIANG. 387

The process of the manufacture of albumen is by no means new, but has
not heretofore been a financial success, owing to inability to utilize the yolk
as well as the white of the tgg. This difficulty has now been successfully
overcome.

As the present capacity of this factory is forty thousand eggs per day,
with an early prospect of a considerable increase on the introduction of
machinery, it may be assumed that the farmers are greatly benefited by the
establishment of this new industry.

As soon as the eggs are received at the factory they are tested by a very
simple but ingenious process. They are held in pairs in front of a circular
opening in a tin cylinder open at the top, containing a lamp giving a power-
ful light, which is concentrated on the opening. Every speck and flaw in the
egg is distinctly seen in this process and all eggs showing the slightest sign of
defect are at once rejected. The percentage of rejected eggs is remarkably
small, rarely amounting to fifty per thousand. The good eggs are sent to the
rooms prepared to receive them, where a number of Chinese girls are em-
ployed to break them and to separate the yolk from the white, placing each
into separate vessels. The white then undergoes one of two processes — it is
either carefully cleaned of all stray clots of yolk and then put through a
course of stirring in a large vessel by means of a heavy rod or paddle worked
by hand, when it is ready for the drying room; or, after being cleaned,
it is run into large vats and allowed to ferment, the process of fermentation
being accelerated by the admixture of certain chemicals, which chemicals,
by the way, are held by the firm as a secret. When it is found in drawing
off" that all impurities have either been deposited or thrown off" in the form
of a thick froth, and the resulting liquid is albumen, as clear as water, the
albumen is ready for the final process of drying. This is performed in a
series of three rooms, each hotter than the last, the temperature ranging
from 40° to 50° C. The albumen is run into shallow tin pans about i foot
square, which are placed in ranges of shelves in the drying rooms. Frequent
examinations are made to see that the temperature is maintained, and that
the process of drying is sufficiently gradual, uniform, and complete, a
period of sixty to seventy hours being found necessary for that purpose.
When thoroughly dry, the albumen, which now presents the appearance of
isinglass, with a yellow tinge, is, after cooling, placed in large, square pack-
ing boxes, lined with tin, holding about 400 pounds each, and is ready for
shipment.

The principal use of albumen is in the preparation of fast dyes for superior
kinds of cotton goods and it is shipped to England, Germany, and France.

An inferior kind of albumen, I am informed, is manufactured in the
United States from bullocks* blood and used for inferior goods.

The yolks of the eggs, after separation from the white, is passed through
two sieves— one coarse and one fine — and is then run off* into vessels holding
about 20 pounds each, in the form of a yellow, even-running liquid of the
consistency of rich cream. It is then poured into vats holding about 100



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388 RICE CROP OF KOREA.

pounds, and a lo per cent solution of salt, borax, and an unrevealed chemical
is then added for the purpose of preservation. The mixture is thoroughly
stirred until it assumes the consistency of thick molasses and of a dark-
orange color, and is then poured, or rather forced, through a funnel into a
cask holding about 500 pounds net. It is then ready for shipment. This
is used in the preparation and dressing of superior leather goods and is in
much demand in England, Germany, and France.

No use has yet been found for the empty eggshells, and they are thrown
away.

A. C. JONES,

Chinkiang, November 2, iHg6. Consul.



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT.

In the report on the manufacture of albumen at Chinkiang, which I had
the honor to forward to the Department on the 2d instant, I was not able to
furnish the names and kinds of chemicals used in the manufacture of albu-
men, for the reason that the firm regarded this as their secret and would not
reveal it; but to-day, I am enabled to supply this omission.

Assuming that American manufacturers dealing in goods requiring the
use of albumen would be interested in all the methods and secrets of its
preparation and perhaps benefited thereby, I have thought it advisable to
forward the information as a supplement to the report and respectfully re-
quest that it be inserted in the report.

The average price paid for eggs is %% (Mexican) per thousand.

The ingredients used in the preparation of the whites and yolks separately
are: Salt, acetic acid, ammonia, boracic acid, chloride of calcium. The
exact proportion of each ingredient must be ascertained by actual observa-
tion and experiment.

A. C. JONES,

Chinkian(;, Noveinber ^y i8g6. Consul. "



RICE CROP OF KOREA.

The food of the people of Korea is rice. They use more meat than do
the Chinese or Japanese, and always have some fresh or salted vegetables to
go with the rice, but the meats and vegetables are mere accessories, rice
being the staple. In the extreme north, where rice can not be raised ex-
tensively, wheat, millet, and beans are used as substitutes, but whenever
rice can be had it is always preferred.

The Korean rice is of excellent quality, some of that raised on the plains
to the north being considered almost equal to the best Japanese rice. As a
rule, however, the average is a little below the quality of the Japanese prod-
uct. As it can be had for less money than that raised in Japan, it is the



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RICE CROP OF KOREA.



389



custom of late for the Japanese merchants to ship the best quality of Japan-
ese rice to England, where it commands a high price, and then supply .the
home market with the cheap but good Korean rice.

It is difficult to determine the amount of rice raised in Korea, as no
proper statistics are kept. I have made an estimate as follows : Allowing
12,000,000 as the probable population of Korea, there would be 2,400,000
families of 5 persons each. Leaving off 400,000 as the probable number
of families living in the extreme north, where rice can not be had regularly,
there would be left 2,000,000 families of rice eaters. A family of 5 persons
must have at least i bag of rice per month. Each bag contains 40 measures,
or 160 pounds. The actual consumption at this rate would be 2,000,000
bags per annum, or 320,000,000 pounds. This seems to be a reasonable
estimate.

In former years, the surplus was stored in Government granaries against
a bad year, the old rice being issued the next season, bag for bag, for new
rice. In 1886, however, the export of rice from Korea began in a small way
and has increased year by year, subject, of course, to the condition of the
yield.

Export of rice from Korea, chiefly to Japan.



Year.



1886.
X887.
x888.
1889.
1890
1891,
1899,
1893,
1894,
1895,



Quantity



Picuis*
8,454
67,589
16,065

34,527
874,665
938,010
487,601
170,077
376,239
305,196



Pounds.
1,124,382
8,979,337
2,136,64s

4,59a.o9«
"6,330,445

"5,425,330
64,850,933
22,620,241

50,039,787
40,591,068



Value in silver.



I"i
90.

2X,

77.
2,037.
1,820,

998,

367.

979.

305i



193.00
071.00
810.00
578.00
868.00
319- 00
516.00
,165.00
,292.00
,196.00



Value in gold.



19,754-40

72,056.80

17,448.00

62,062.40

,834,081.20

,456,255.20

748,087.00

220,299.00

499,646.00

152,048.00



•i picul=»i33 pounds.

The approximate rate of exchange from 1886 to 1891, inclusive, was 80
cents; in 1892, 75 cents; in 1893, ^^ cents; and in 1894-95, 50 cents.

The export for 1894 and 1895 ^^ affected by the war between Japan
and China, which was largely waged on Korean soil, and the visiting armies
made a home demand that influenced the exports for those years.

The crop for this year is now all harvested, and it is known to be a most
remarkable one for its abundance. The past summer has been exceedingly
wet, allowing of the cultivation of rice on high ground not usually cultivated.
The rainfall during June, July, and August was 34 inches out of an average
annual fall of about 38 inches. This was most favorable for the rice crop,
and the quality is said to be exceptionally good.

The American firm of Townsend & Co., at Chemulpo, conduct an ex-
tensive rice-cleaning business. They have a large steam rice mill and work
No. 198 7.



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390 A MARKET FOR AMERICAN OAK IN FRANCE.

a number of Engleburg hullers, buying rice in the "paddy'* and cleaning
it \^ithout breaking, thus preserving the shape and giving a fine luster to the
kernels. The native method of cleaning is by pounding in stone or wooden
mortars and separating the chaff by winnowing. This leaves much gravel
with the rice and causes injury to the teeth in eating. Lately, a number of



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 54 of 82)