United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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fanning mills have been introduced from Japan, and Japanese have started
a few crude steam rice mills. The real business, however, is in the hands
of Messrs. Townsend & Co. From this firm I learn that the present price of
the best Korean rice is ^9.50 (silver) per 240 catties (320 pounds), or I2.97
(silver) per cwt. ($1.50 gold per 100 pounds). They also inform me that the
prospects are that the export of rice for the current year will be the largest,
so far, from Korea. This seems especially plausible considering the exten-
sive damage done to the growing rice in Japan by the storms of the past
summer.

H. N. ALLEN,
Seoul, Nmiember 4, i8g6. Acting Comul-GeneraL



A MARKET FOR AMERICAN OAK IN FRANCE.

There exists in the northern part of France a demand for oak lumber,
which is largely supplied from the forests of Hungary, and my attention has
been called to the fact by dealers in oak lumber that American forests supply
a quality of oak which, though said to be slightly inferior to Hungarian oak,
could, nevertheless, in a measure, take the place of it. I am informed that,
should American dealers in this lumber take the necessary trouble to send
agents here, they could, without doubt, secure some of this business.

An important firm informs me that they purchase $400,000 worth of oak
lumber per year, and that, could they form the proper connections in the
United States, they would undoubtedly purchase the entire amount there.
They have had small lots of American-grown oak, and state that it has proved
satisfactory.

Much of this oak lumber is used for cooperage and flooring. The de-
mand is for planks from 6 to 36 feet in length and from 7 to 16 inches in
width.

The accompanying diagram is intended to show how oak logs should be
sawn to meet requirements here.

The planks sawn from the heart of the tree should be from 9 to 36 feet in
length, the average width being 9 inches and the thickness from i to 2^
inches.

Planks sawn at right angles with those sawn from the heart, called here
the "quartier," should be from 6 to 36 feet in length, from i to 2 inches
thick, and of an average width of 9 inches.

The planks cut from the corners of the log, between the "dosse *' (heart
of the tree) and **quartier" (planks cut at right angles with the dosse), are



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A MARKET FOR AMERICAN OAK IN FRANCE.



391



used for flooring. The length should be about 6 feet, thickness i inch, and
width about 7 inches.

Oak lumber, cut square, is used in considerable quantities also, the sizes
approximately being 2^ by 2^ inches, 3^ by 3^ inches, 4 by 4 inches,
31^ by 4 inches, $}{ by 4}4 inches.

To meet the requirements of the trade, all planks should be clear and
free from sapwood, bark, etc. There should be no knots or wormholes in
first-quality lumber. Sound knots are accepted in second quality.





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Sir ; y\\


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Butt end of oak log, showing direction of sawings to produce lumber herewith described.

Red-oak lumber is not wanted on account of the wormholes, it not being
salable even as second quality.

Prices should always be quoted c. i. f. Havre or Dunkirk.

American dealers who may be interested in this subject may address me,
and I will take pains to place them in communication with dealers here.

STEPHEN H. ANGELL,

RouBAix, January 27, i8gy. Commercial Agent,



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392 THE MONGOOSE IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS,



THE MONGOOSE IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.

I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of a letter from the commis-
sioner of agriculture and forestry in relation to the mongoose, said letter
containing certain information asked for by the Biological Survey, United
States Department of Agriculture, in a communication addressed to me on
the 19th ultimo.*

ELLIS MILLS,

Honolulu, September 2j, i8g6. Consul- General.



mr. marsden to mr. mills.

Department of Interior,
Bureau of Agriculture and Forestry,

Honolulu^ September 22^ i8g6.
Hon. Ellis Mills,

United States Consul- General y Honoiulu, Hawaii.

Dear Sir : Your communication of the 7th instant, together with a letter from the United
States Department of Agriculture asking for information concerning the mongoose on Hawaii,
came duly to hand.

The mongoose was first introduced into this country about fifteen years ago. A few of a
large kind were brought from the East Indies by W. H. Purvis, a sugar planter. These were
liberated in the district of Hamakua, on the island of Hawaii ; they did not breed and none
of them have ever been seen since they were let loose.

A few months later, a few pairs of a smaller variety were imported from Calcutta. In
landing them on the coast of Hilo, they were nearly all drowned by a sling breaking and
dropping the boxes, which contained the mongoose, into the sea. Shortly after this, the
planters of the district of Hilo sent an agent to Jamaica, with instruaions to bring mongoose.
The agent returned with seventy-five mongoose. The little animals were liberated in the cane
fields.

Previous to the introduction of the mongoose, the planters suffered severely from the depre-
dations of the rats in the cane fields. At times whole fields of cane were utterly destroyed,
and, at all times, much damage was done. The mongoose soon changed this state of affairs.
In one year after the introduction of the mongoose, hardly a stick of rat-eaten cane could be
found.

The good work of the mongoose in the Hilo district induced the planters of Hamakua to
send an agent to Jamaica to bring mongoose to their district ; two hundred and fifteen were
brought and turned loose in the cane fields, with the same good results.

The plague of rats is now ended and we have the mongoose, who, although he loves
poultry, has never been so destructive to them as were the rats.

The mongoose are easily caught and one or two terrier dogs will keep a large premises
clear of them.

In 1892, a law was passed by the legislature forbidding the introduction, keeping, or
breeding of mongoose on the Hawaiian Islands. A sum of $1,000 was set apart to be ex-
pended by ihe Minister of the Interior in the payment of a bounty of not to exceed 25 cents



• Copy iransmitted lo Department of Agriculture.



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POWERS OF ATTORNEY IN ARGENTINA. 393

per bead for each mongoose destroyed on the island of Oahu. This bounty only applied to
the bland of Oahu, the mongoose being considered a necessary evil in the cane districts of the
other islands. None of the bounty has been paid, as no one has ever applied for it.
I have, etc.,

J. MARSDEN,
Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry,



POWERS OF ATTORNEY IN ARGENTINA.

American business houses frequently sustain losses here owing to irregu-
larities in the powers of attorney they send to attorneys. In view of the
importance of having such documents correct, I desire to call attention to
the requirements of Argentine law in this regard, and to the procedure that
must be followed in the United States.

To be legally acceptable here, powers of attorney must specifically set out
the authority by which the maker signs the document. In the case of com-
panies or corporations, the section of the by-laws or articles of incorporation
of such company or corporation, certified to by the secretary or other proper
officer, must be embodied in, or in the form of, a certificate, made part of
the power; that is to say, a power of attorney signed by John Doe, president
of the ABC Company, must show when and how John Doe was made
president of the company and must then set out in full the section of the by-
laws or articles of incorporation of the company which authorizes the presi-
dent to sign a power of attorney. If the by-laws or articles of incorporation
contains no such clause, the power must show that the president, or whoever
makes it^ was authorized to do so by a resolution of the directors of the
company, a copy of which resolution, properly certified to, must be attached
to or embodied in the power, as above explained.

The scope of a power of attorney here is limited by law. In order that
there may be no misapprehension as to these limitations, I deem it best to
insert here a translation of the sections of the Argentine civil code applying
to this subject :

Section 1880. A power conceived in general terms does not comprehend more than acts
of administration, notwithstanding the maker declares that no power is reserved and that the
holder of the power can do whatever is deemed necessary, or notwithstanding the power
contains the clause of general and free administration.

Sec 1881. Special powers are necessary:

(i) To make payments beyond the ordinary ex]>enses of administration.

(2) To make " novations " (extinguishments, renewals) of obligations that existed when
the power was made.

(3) To settle disputes, to waive jurisdiction, renounce the right of appeal, or to acquire
titles.

(4) To remit or gratuitously settle a debt.

(5) To contract marriages in the name of the maker.

(6) To recognize the rights of legitimate children.

(7) To make any contract that has for its object either the transfer or the acquiring of
authority over land, by compulsion or gratuitous titles.



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394 POWERS OF ATTORNEY IN ARGENTINA.

(8) To make donations other than small sums to employees or servants.

(9) To lend or borrow money, unless the business is that of lending and borrowing money ;
or unless the loans are part of and connected with the administration; or it is necessary to
borrow money to conserve the interests in hand.

(10) To rent property for more than six months.

(11) To constitute the maker a " depositario," upless the business is that of receiving
goods on deposit.

(12) To promise that the maker will lend his services in any capacity.

(13) To form a company.

(14) To sign bonds or indorse notes.

(15) To cede rights over real property.

(16) To accept legacies.

(17) To recognize or acknowledge obligations made prior to the power.

Sec. 1S82. A special power to settle a dispute does not include the power to agree to
arbitrations.

Sec. 1883. A special power to sell does not include the power to mortgage or to receive
the money from a sale when time is given, nor does the power given to mortgage a thing in-
clude the power to sell.

Sec. 1884. -A. special power for certain determined things is limited to the things for which
it was given and can not be extended to analogous things, notwithstanding these might be
considered as the natural consequence of the things the holder was authorized to do.

Sec. 1885. A special power to mortgage real property does not include power to mortgage
it for debts anterior to the power.

Sec. 1886. A power to contract an obligation comprehends the power to cancel it, it being
always understood that the maker is to deliver to the holder of the power the money or means
with which to make the payment.

Sec. 1887. The power to sell the property coming from a legacy does not comprehend
the power to deliver it up before having received it. •

Sec. 1888. The power to collect debts does not include the power of demanding
payments of debtors, nor to receive one thing for another, nor to make "novations" (extin-
guishments, renewals), nor to remit or cancel a debt.

Each signature to a power of attorney must be certified to by a notary
public. This applies to the signature certifying the maker's authority, above
referred to, as well as to the maker's signature. The notary's signature must
then be certified to by the Secretary of State, and the latter's signature
must always be certified to by an Argentine consul.

The omission of, or an irregularity in, either of the above requirements,
such as the notary's or the Argentine consul's certification being attached
to the wrong document, or an error on the part of officials in properly writ-
ing the names of signers, renders the document valueless here, and makes it
necessary to return it to the United States for correction, Involving three or
four months' loss of time.

Every document presented before a court here must be in Spanish. If
documents reach here in English, they must be translated before they can
be used. This not only means a delay in beginning an action, but an ex-
pense of J 1 00 (Argentine paper), more or less, for translation.

All large business firms in England, Germany, and France, and several
in the United States draw their powers of attorney for this country in Span-
ish. This, if possible, should always be done. If not, a Spanish transia-



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THE LARGEST COFFEE ESTATE IN BRAZIL. 395

tion should be secured before sending the document to the Argentine consul
for his certification, provided always that the translation is a correct one.
If this is done, the consul can bind the original and translation together with
his sealing ribbon and can and should certify to the correctness of the trans-
lation at the same time he attests the signature of the Secretary of State.

If the above requirements and suggestions are carried out and care is
taken before forwarding the document to see that the signatures and certifi-
cations are correct, no excuse for delay will be possible after the papers
reach an attorney here, who, it must be remembered, can not proceed with-
out a power of attorney ; consequently, but little can be accomplished in
the absence of a power by cabling instructions to an attorney to proceed
against a firm.

Matured drafts or notes made payable in the United States must be pro-
tested there before they can be used by an attorney here. Such protest
papers must be certified to and translated, draft and all, before being presented
to the court here.

Where the makers of a draft maintain no office in the United States, it
would be better in almost all cases to have their drafts made payable at some
bank here. If this w^re done and firms doing business with this country
would take the precaution to always have some one here represent them by
power of attorney, action could be promptly brought in cases of failure and
fewer losses would occur to our merchants than at present. Such a method
would be more effective and more economical than that now adopted by
many of our merchants, who make the drafts for goods sold here payable in
the United States; then, when the draft is not paid, they frequently find
themselves without anyone in the United States on whom to serve protest
papers. They must then select an attorney here, send him a power of at-
torney — often incorrect in form — have their papers translated after they reach
here, and will then, in all probability, meet the plea of thecreditor*s attorney
to the effect that, inasmuch as the draft was made payable in the United
States, proceedings must be begun and the usual means exhausted there be-
fore the case can be brought into court here.

Should the subject be of interest to our merchants and manufacturers, I
will be glad to prepare and forward a blank power of attorney in Spanish,
for use in this country.

WILLIAM I. BUCHANAN,

Buenos Ayres, December p, j8g6. Minister,



THE LARGEST COFFEE ESTATE IN BRAZIL.

As a contrast to the manifold complaints emanating from growers of
agricultural products concerning the depreciation of staples such as wheat,
cotton, sugar, corn, etc., and the slim profits derived from the culture of
the soil, I believe that the following description and figures published on the
occasion of the recent sale of the largest coffee estate in Brazil, and probably



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396



THE LARGEST COFFEE ESTATE IN BRAZIL.



in the world, will prove of interest in a country that imported in 1895 nearly
$100,000,000 worth of this article.

These figures concern the transfer sale of the Companhia Agricola Fa-
zenda Dumont, situated in the districts of Ribeirio Preto, and Parapa
Panenea, of this State, to an English syndicate, and were ascertained and
certified to by a firm of London accountants sent out to examine the books
and adjudge the value.

The estates are freehold and comprise about 1 10,000 acres of land, of
which 13,000 acres are planted with coffee, 20,000 acres are estimated to be
still available for coffee extension, and the balance is suitable for the culti-
vation of tobacco, sugar, maize, etc. The work is carried on by about 6,500
laborers, forming 25 colonies of 25 dwelling houses each. The expense
for labor is about $200,000 per year. The colonists are almost entirely
of Italian nationality; only about a dozen negroes remain of a once large
slave contingent.

A butchery, bakery, hotel, brewery, drug store, and general stores were
established to supply their various wants. The property also possesses a
light railway of 35 miles to collect the crop, the main line of which connects
with the neighboring town of RibeirSo Preto, an important station on the
Mogyana Railroad Company*s line.

The purchase price was ^1,200,000 ($5,838,800), payable two-thirds in
cash and one-third in shares, based on the following valuation:

7,000 acres of coffee in bearing, giving a profit $650,000 in 1895, at seven years'

purchase $4,550,000

6,000 acres of young coffee of various ages, at $200 per acre 1,200,000

Railway, machinery, buildings 500,000

land suitable for coffee, say 250,000



Total 6,500,000

fhe following is a statement of the trees in bearing and of the yield and
profits from 1892 to 1895 ^^^ estimated profit for 1896.



Year.



Coffee trees I
in bearing.



Yield.



1893 1,300,000

1893 1,400,000

1894 1,500,000

1895 1 3,069,700

1896 9,476,500



Profit.



Poundt.




3,897,600


5^69,895


4,aoo.ooo


340,645


5,107,000


432,946


8,400,000


637,-66


9 000,000


•7". "33



♦ Estimated.

The estimate for the profits of 1896 is based on an exchange of 20 cents
per milreis (par value 54.6 cents — value on this day 16 cents), and the other
profits are calculated at the average rate of exchange ruling during the year.

The total number of trees in this plantation was, in June, 1896, 4,426,604,
of various ages, including 194,000 planted in October and November, 1895,



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GERMAN FARMERS AND THE PRODUCE EXCHANGES. 397

and it is estimated that two- thirds of the trees being new, from 1897 on an
average harvest of 100,000 bags (13,200,000 pounds) may be expected, and
that, when all the trees will have arrived at an age of 3 or 4 years, the yield
may increase to 250,000 bags of coffee, or about 32,500,000 pounds per
annum.

The next largest estate is owned by Carlos Schmidt, who arrived in this
country from Germany some thirty-five years ago. The area of his property
is 9,785 acres, with 1,800,000 trees, populated by 9 colonies with 260 fam-
ilies, furnishing some 1,500 laborers. There are several other plantations on
which grow more than 1,000,000 coffee trees.

JULIAN HAUGWITZ,

Santos, November ij^ i8g6^ Vice- Consul.



GERMAN FARMERS AND THE PRODUCE EXCHANGES.*

The merchants and brokers of the produce exchange of Berlin, assembling
at the exchange on the last day of the year to the number of 460, resolved
that hereafter they would not do any business in that building. They have
followed the lead of the merchants of Halle, on the Saale, and those of
Stettin, on the Baltic. The produce exchanges of Kdnigsberg, Posen, Mag-
deburg, Gleiwitz, and other towns have also practically ceased to exist.

The Berlin exchange includes the functions of a stock and produce ex-
change. According to the new rules proposed by the Eldest of the Merchants'
Guild, the directors were to be divided between the stock and produce de-
partments, the stock brokers electing, say, fifteen directors, the produce
brokers nine. Then the Eldest of the Merchants' Guild, a corporation
which has hitherto managed the exchange, was to furnish from its own body
five members to the stock directors and three to the produce, making thirty-
two directors in all, twenty for stocks and twelve for produce.

The view that this pressure of the Government on the merchants would
do harm is shared by the cliamber of commerce of Hamburg, which remarks,
in the annual report just published, that the new law for exchanges is hamper-
ing to the industry of the individual and may bring to the public generally an
amount of harm difficult to estimate. At the same time, it says that the mer-
chants fail to understand what usefulness can result from the activity of a
commissary of state attached to the Hamburg exchange.

The Berlin Produce Exchange could only dissolve so tardily because the
exact wording of the rules by which it was to be governed was not known
until the morning of the 30th. The Eldest of the Merchants' Guild had
sent to the Minister for Commerce and Industries, some months ago, a care-
fully framed list of rules for the government of the exchange, placing the
direction in the thirty- two members just mentioned. But the minister kept
these rules until the 23d of December ; at least, that is the date of the signing



•See " German law against exchange speculation/' Consulak Rbports No. 194 (November, 1896), p. 447.

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398 GERMAN FARMERS AND THE PRODUCE EXCHANGES.

of the document. It was not officially published, however, till December
30, when it was found that the minister had injected into the management
of the produce exchange seven appointees of the Government, five of them
representatives of agriculture, appointable by the Minister of Agriculture, and
two representatives of the milling interests, appointable by the Minister of
Commerce and Industries. Other changes were made not at all to the taste
of the merchants, but the addition of seven outsiders to a governing board of
twelve for the produce department of the exchange simply meant that the in-
truders would rule the exchange so far as produce is concerned and, so the
merchants firmly believe, would have tampered with the price lists. But,
in any case, they did not care to see themselves outvoted by paid and perma-
nent representatives of a class which has exhausted invective against them,
and so dissolved the produce exchange.

They then proceeded to form a free union of the produce exchange and
have received congratulations from the Society of Merchants and Trades-
men of Berlin and from the joint committee of the local mercantile and
industrial societies.

The Agrarians do not consider themselves beaten by these tactics, but
hope to see other merchants supply the places of the secessionists. They
wish, then, through the pressure of the directors appointed by the Govern-
ment, that prices of produce shall rise to a height at which farming in
Germany will pay well. Their next move will be against the treaty with
Russia, and they will let no microscope rust which may find for them bac-
teria that will serve to keep out American produce.

Just now, the Berlin markets and those of other large German cities are
full of delicious apples, cheap, large, firm, fragrant, and fine-flavored. Be-
cause they come from the United States, certain papers are against them and
others dare not point out their superiority to European fruit. It has already
been suggested that they may bring in some beetle or moth whose worm
might eventually play havoc with German apples; and that suggestion may
still be elaborated to the satisfaction of the Agrarian papers by some micro-
scopist who is ambitious of preferment.

A paper let the cat out of the bag recently regarding the rule that keeps
Russian swine out of Germany, when protesting violently against a removal
of the ban on the ground that all the eastern provinces of the Empire would
be filled with Russian beasts.

Much the same antecedents have brought the Hungarian produce ex-
change at Budapest to a very similar pass. The agrarians of Hungary have
made the same demand, namely, that various landed proprietors shall be
made directors of the produce exchange at the appointment of the Minister
of Commerce, without election on the part of the members of the exchange,
whether such appointees are merchants and understand the rules and customs
of the exchange or not.

The sharp proceedings against the exchanges of Prussia seem part of a
general movement here by which all the places worth having are gradually



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GERMAN TRADE JOURNAL FOR JAPAN. 399

brought into the power of the titled and landowning classes. Thus, in
1848, merchants were appointed to hold office as Prussian Ministers of State.



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 55 of 82)