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the opening out of good points of view or the facilitating of access to them ; the provision
of seats, shelters, and also of prospect towers in the case, say, of mountain tops where an
elevation above the height of the trees would give a greatly extended view ; the publication
of guidebooks and maps, and so on. The advantage of each club being split up into sections
is that the members in a particular locality are naturally better acquainted with it than those
living elsewhere would be and lake a more direct personal interest in carrying out the desired
arrangements therein as thoroughly as they can. Not only this, but each particular section
within the district becomes, practically, a separate club, which, besides the actual work done,
has excursions in the summer and periodical gatherings in the winter for the purposes either
of social enjoyment or of hearing lectures on travels, scientific subjects^ or questions of the
day. In a large number of instances, the branch club forms in its particular Stfldtchen, or in
its group of villages, a center of social and intellectual activity which tends largely to pro-
mote the well-being of the community.

As regards the general objects of the clubs it will be freely conceded that, from the point
of view of the ordinary tourist, the matter of first importance is the efficient indication of foot-
paths, and it is in this respect that the clubs are especially active. It may be asked how this
work is to be done effectually and economically by organizations possessed of comparatively
small financial resources, in the case, say, of a footpath through a forest where it is crossed
by so many other paths or tracks that an indication is necessary, in some places, every few

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hundred yards. To put up the regulation signposts everywhere would be far too expensive.
The favorite solution of the problem is the system of either color or letter markings. Take
the Thuringian forest by way of illustration. At Eisenach one buys for a few pence a map
on which the various tourist routes in that locality are indicated in different colors. One
notices the color for the particular walk one wishes to take, and follows the main road until
an indication of ihis color is seen either on a notice board or on a tree at the beginning of a
path branching olT from the roadside. Map and guidebook may now be put in the pocket.
Henceforth one has only to look out for the color — say it is red — a streak of which will be
found on some tree or stone at every point where there is the slightest possibility of the tour-
ist's going astray. The walk may last for many hours, and may lead through the most intri-
cate forests, where scarcely a soul will be met; but the friendly bit of red will always be seen
when it is wanted, and the tourist steps along with a perfect freedom from all anxiety as to
whether or not he is in the proper path. In some districts a preference is given for initial
letters instead of streaks of color. In the case of the Brocken, for instance, the tourist notices
on the summit a variety of footpaths, each of which is distinguished by a particular letter
painted on a stone at the side, and indicating the town to which it leads. Should he want
to go on foot to, say, Ilsenburg, he walks round until he sees the letter "I" painted on a
stone, and he takes the adjoining path. It leads right down the side of the mountain, over
the stony and rugged SchneelScher, and crosses scores of other paths or tracks; but the letter
** I " is in evidence at every turning. In other instances, small metal direction plates, mounted
on wood, are fixed on trees, in preference to either streaks of paint or letters; but whatever
may l>e the system adopted the general effect is the same — namely, to indicate the footpath
at every point where the traveler may be in doubt.

In the Taunus, the number of paint marks showing routes more or less obscure is over
15,000, this work having all been done by the club members themselves ani being supple-
mented by a special map on which the routes are distinguished by their several colors. There
are, indeetl, in this particular district quite a number of tourist clubs, the total membership
of which, according to a recent report, was nearly 1,900. Of these, 1,300 belonged to the
Stamm Club, at Frankfort, which has been at work over a quarter of a century, and has an
especially goo<l record. Its operations are controlled by various committees, each of which
takes charge of a particular branch of the operations. The tourist committee aims at devel-
oping and facilitating the Wanderlust of the members, and in pursuit of this object it organizes
excursions, negotiates with the railways concerning cheap tickets, and opens inquiry offices
at different points. Another committee looks after the marking or the making of footpaths,
the erection of signboards (with the different routes indicated in color) and the publication
of sj>ecial maps. The philanthropic committee has, since 1880, in which year great distress
prevailed in some parts of the Taunus, paid great attention to the planting of willows and to
the carrying on of a school for basket making at GrSvenwiesbach, while distributions of seed
potatoes in the poorest districts have been made from time to time. There is also a com-
mittee that takes charge of the social gatherings, which are a great feature of the club's

The Black Forest Tourist Club was founded in 1864, and has forty-eight sections, the
total membership being about 5,350. Each of the sections makes its own report to the an-
nual general assembly, and a few extracts from these reports will show in more detail the
kind of work that is going on. The Achern section, with 180 members, reports, for instance,
that during 1894 it made a new footpath on the Ziegelberg, facilitated access to the highest
ix)ints of the Ilornis-grinde, erected iron steps on the Brennleschroffen, repaired roads in
various parts, put up seventy-one signboards, and provided thirteen seats. The Karlsruhe
section made a number of new paths, besides repairing and cleaning old ones, constructed one
new bridge and repaired three others, and put up ninety new direction notices, while during
the winter there had been meetings every Wednesday evening, lectures being given on twenty-
seven of these occasions. These are illustrations of the work done by merely two out of forty-
eight sections of a single club, and when one remembers that, as already said, every tourist

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district in Germany has a club of its own, one gains some idea of the vast amount of activity
that is being shown.

The Vosges Chib was founded in 1872 and has 3,400 members distributed among thirty-
six sections, which now embrace the whole of the Vosges Mountains, and, as their individual
reports show, are extremely energetic in their labors there. One special feature of the club
is its literary and historical branch, which publishes every year a volume on the history,
dialects, and literature of Alsace-Lorraine, bringing together in this way a great fund of infor-
mation which might otherwise be lost.

The Ilarz Club was founded in 1887 and has seventy sections with a total of 6,600 mem-
bers. It claims among other things to have put up seven thousand direction plates along
more than 2,000 miles of roads and footpaths in that most picturesque district, besides making
or improving 13 miles of footpaths, providing two thousand seats, opening out one hundred
and thirty-five points of view, and constructing a large number of shelters. It has, too, been
the good fortune of the Harz Club to bring about something like a federation of the different
parts of a scattered district which formerly had very little in common one with another.

The operations of the Mountain Club for Saxon-Switzerland are carried on by thirty-six
sections with nearly 3,000 members, and those of the Riesengebirge-Verein by seventy-
four sections with nearly 9,000 members. The Eifel Tourist Club was founded only in 1 888,
but to-day it embraces fifty-eight districts, has 4,000 members, and, among other things, has
o|)ened up a number of charming valleys, which were previously either unknown or inaccessi-
ble, and has also constructed numerous bridges and towers. Then, there are special clubs
for the Erzgebii^e, the Vogelsgebirge, the Odenwald, Vogtland, the Knlillgebirge, Sauerland,
Hunsriick, and a host of other places ; while a number of the clubs not only publish guide-
books and maps, but bring out periodicals of their own, devoted to ofHcial notices, historical
sketches, descriptions of new tours, etc. Some of the clubs, too, keep a watchful eye on the
landlords of the inns, seeing that they do not charge tourists too much ; and others have even
arranged a reduced tariff for their members, though a British tourist who finds what absurdly
low prices are charged in some of the mountain districts in Germany may well wonder how
such a request could have been made. Thus the present writer and a friend once stayed at
the "first" hotel in a charming resort in the Taunus, where they had afternoon coffee, sup-
per, bed, and breakfast, and were charged 7s. 6d for the two. Yet if they had been mem-
bers of the Taunus Tourist Verein they would have been entitled to *• a reduction of 10 per


The result of last year's census of mechanics and working people in the
German Empire shows that there are over 1,000,000 persons employed in
the textile industry alone. The exact number is 1,017,1 12, comprising males
and females. In the census of 1882, 932,592 persons were enumerated.
Since 1883, the fact may be of interest that there has been a decrease in
the number of male employees from 582,070 to 552,230, a reduction of
29,840 males. Their places have been filled by females, whose number has
multiplied from 350,522 to 464,316 in the same space of time, showing that
the textile industry is especially adapted to women, who seem to be ignoring
all other branches of labor, particularly that of domestic service, to go into
the factories. As a result of this growing industry and occupation for so
many thousands of human beings, the factories are being remodeled and
built on the most improved plans as to sanitary surroundings and with the
comfort of employees as an object. Their every interest is in this way

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being considered, to encourage from them good and satisfactory service to
employer. Washrooms and lockers for nonworking apparel are supplied;
also dining rooms, where coffee can be prepared and potatoes (one of the
chief components of the luncheon fare) roasted or boiled, in an esf>ecially
adapted wire receptacle. This is inclosed in part of a large heating appa-
ratus, constructed for the purpose, and the cooking thus completed. Sepa-
rate lunch rooms are provided for whole families employed in the factories,
where they can distribute food from the family basket and enjoy together
the recreation afforded by the noon meal. Some of the larger factories are
provided with a buffet or lunch counter, where can be purchased, at a merely
nominal price, beer (the favorite beverage), sausages, rolls, coffee cake, or
any little luxury in the form of sweet cake or pastry. More than half of
the mentioned thousands of persons are engaged in the dress-goods and
cloth-weaving branch of the industry, in the different departments of weav-
ing, spinning, hatcheling, reeling, spooling, twisting, wadding, etc. The
other half are employed in the manufacture of hosiery, fringes, and trim-
mings, comprising knitting, weaving, bleaching, dyeing, pointing, finishing,
etc., in all branches of which both men and women are employed. In all
the groups, but more Isirgely in the weaving, spinning, and hosiery manu-
factures, the women employees have greatly increased. Of course, there is
an increase in the number of both sexes employed during the busier seasons.
In the quieter times, those men temporarily employed in the factories find
use for their 'services as carpenters, farm hands, bricklayers, etc., until the
busy season reopens.

As a proof of the development of the German textile industry during
the last thirteen years, it may be stated that in 1882, 4,178,320 double
hundredweights of raw material were imported for working up in the
textile branch in Germany, and in the present year the figures reached
8,230,230 double hundredweights for the same branch, showing an enormous
increase. The quantities of exported manufactures in the last year amounted
to 1,198,128 double hundredweights, an advance of 335,838 since the year


Glauchau, October 20, i8g6. Consul.


In regard to the export of dates from this port (on the Persian Gulf,
Asiatic Turkey) during the past season, no statistics are available from the
custom-house, but the closest approximation from returns of shipping agents
and merchants shows that —

(i) Shipments by direct steamers to London amounted to about 490,000
boxes, each containing about 64 pounds of dates, of which 235,000 boxes
were Hellawees, 58,000 were Kedrawees, 163,000 were Sairs, and 34,000 were

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(2) Shipments by direct steamer to New York amounted to 53,000 boxes,
chiefly Hellawees.

(3) Shipments to Bombay and to Mediterranean ports amounted to
42,000 boxes, chiefly Hellawees and Sairs.

The total export of boxes for 1896 is thus shown to be 585,000, while
for the five preceding years the returns of export showed: In 1891, 730,000
boxes; 1892, 540,000 boxes; 1893, 550,000 boxes; 1894, 740,000 boxes;

It has only been by combination among the shippers that during 1895 and
1896 exports have, in the interests of the market, been reduced to these figures.

In 1895, the import of boxes for packing amounted to 770,000 and 30
per cent were retained under seal in the importing houses by general consent
of shippers. In 1896, the import was 850,000 boxes, of which 40 per cent
were put under seal by general agreement, while the 30 per cent retained in
1895 ^^^^ released.

Owing to the scarcity of dates this year and the exorbitant prices asked
by growers, shippers have not been able to fill even the boxes available
under the reduced total.

The average free-on- board value per box of Hellawees may be taken as
1 1. 60; of Kedrawees, J 1.35; and of Sairs and Deris, |i.io, making the
total export of box dates in 1896 aggregate about J8oo,ooo.

Of the 490,000 boxes shipped to London, it is thought that fully 140,000
have been transshipped to the United States, bringing up the estimated ex-
port to the United States to 193,000 cases, valued at about ^280,000.

The demand for Bassorah dates in America is increasing annually, and
there is room for more direct steamers to New York to carry this and other

The boxes in which the dates are packed are of whitewood, chiefly im-
ported from Norway, where the boards are cut to size and smoothed and bun-
dled for shipment in shooks to Bassorah, ready for nailing up. There is an
opening for American wood to meet this yearly demand.

In addition to the whitewood boxes, containing about 64 pounds of dates,
there are also small quantities of half-size and quarter-size boxes shipped,
and fancy cardboard boxes are packed for special requirements. This trade
is still in its infancy, and the chief difficulty has been in getting the Arab
packers to do the work neatly.

American buyers, it is understood, prefer to have their dates repacked in
America for the confectionery trade, although it could be done cheaper by
sending out the boxes to Bassorah.

Quantities of dates, to the value of about ^500,000, are annually ex-
ported in baskets, mats, and skins to India and Africa and to Red Sea and
Mediterranean ports by steamer and sailing craft. These are for native con-
sumption, but a new use has been found in London and on the Continent of
recent years for refuse dates, in distillation and in the manufacture of vinegar.


Bassorah, December /j, 18(^6, Consular Agent.

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The following account of the double spar may be of interest. According
to the Museum of Mineralogy in Copenhagen, calcite, or chalk spar, is the
scientific name of the mineral known variously as Iceland mineral spar, Iceland
double refracting spar, and double spar (pierre doublante). The mine from
which it is obtained is located on the east coast of Iceland, about 4 miles from
the trading station of Eski fjord, on a mountainous slope 350 feet above the
level of the sea. The double spar is found, mixed with clay and white calcite,
filling a crevice in the basalt mountain. The mineral was formerly visible
on the surface, but as this outside supply was exhausted, a small mine was
gradually formed. Although its existence was known long before, no attemi)t
was made to develop the mine prior to 1859, and even for some years later
only small quantities of the spar were gathered for the use of museums and as
a matter of curiosity. In the course of time, however, it was discovered
that owing to its doubly refracting (jualities (hence the name **double spar*')
the spar was of great value in the manufacture of fine optical instruments,
polarization apparatus, ^etc. ; and as this mine is the only one known to con-
tain this particular kind of spar, a demand was at once created for clear
pieces fit for optical use.

In 1872, the Government of Iceland, which up to that time had owned
the mine jointly with C. D. Tulinius, a merchant of Eskifjord, bought out
Mr. Tulinius and became sole owner. A large stock of clear spar being
then on hand, the Government, in view of the importance of the double
spar to science and to preserve the same, shut down work.

No exact information as to the capacity of the mine can be obtained at
present, but it is thought at the Museum of Mineralogy that the future yield
will not be as great as heretofore. By 1895, ^^^ supply of spar was exhausted,
and to meet the demand, the Government leased the mine for a term of
years to Mr. Thor E. Tulinius, Havnegade 43, Copenhagen, who is prepared
to furnish the mineral on application. The mine is worked during the sum-
mer months and the proceeds brought to Copenhagen for sale. The output
is of very different qualities and only a part of it is clear and fit for optical use.
These clear pieces, weighing from i pound upwards, are very expensive
($26.80 per pound), while smaller pieces of the same quality are much
cheaper. Through the kindness of Mr. Tulinius, I am able to furnish the
Department with samples of the different qualities and prices for same, as
follows :

First class, clear pieces fit for optical use. — {a) Pieces weighing from half
a kilogram (i.i pounds) upwards, 100 kroner ($26.80) per half kilogram;
(J)) pieces weighing from one-tenth of a kilogram (0.22 pound) to half a
kilogram (i.i pounds), 50 kroner ($13.40) per half kilogram; {/) pieces
weighing less than one-tenth of a kilogram, 25 kroner ($6.70) per half

Second class y clear pieces not fit for optical use. — Quality C — Weighing
from 2 to 5 kilograms (4.4 to 11 pounds), 20 kroner ($5.36) \>Qr half kilo-

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gram; weighing from half a kilogram to 2 kilograms (i.i to 4.4 pounds),
12 kroner (I3.22) per half kilogram; weighing less than half a kilogram, 8
kroner (I2.14) per half kilogram. Quality D — Weighing from 2 to 5 kilo-
grams (4.4 to II pounds), 10 kroner (^2.68); from half a kilogram to 2
kilograms (i.i to 4.4 pounds), 8 kroner (|2. 14); weighing less than half
a kilogram (i.i pounds), 6 kroner (J1.61).

Third class y only for museums. — Price, from 5 to 100 kroner (;Ji.34 to
I26.80) per half kilogram (i.i pounds).

Fourth class, only for manufacturing use, — Quality R, J[^2i ($^4- 60) per

I am indebted to Mr. Thor E. Tulinius and to Director Ussing, of the
Museum of Mineralogy, for the information contained in this report.


Copenhagen, August 7, i8g6. Consul.


At the meeting of the Swedish Society of Ironmasters on the 30th of
November last, the managers gave the following report on the Swedish iron
trade, showing increase or decrease from January to October, 1896, inclusive,
as compared with the export during the same time in 1895.

Total export.


Blooms and rough bars..,

Bars -

Bar ends



Pig iron...

Rods, rolled

Sheet iron„

Wire, drawn

January to







I a, 500
























The total export in 1896, however, shows an increase of 9,800 tons.

On October i, 1896, 32,400 tons of iron were "lombarded *' in the banks,
against 52,500 tons at the same date in 1895 — a decrease of 20,100 tons.

The average export from January i to October i during the last ten
years was as follows :


Total export 198,400

Pigiron 47,5oo

Ingots 4) 100

Blooms 9»7«>

Bars 126,700

No. 199 5.

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The total export was greatest in 1889 — 224,500 tons; smallest in 1894 —
165,400 tons. The export of ingots was greatest in 1889 — 6,500 tons;
smallest in 1893 — 2,400 tons. The export of blooms was greatest in 1896 —
18,900 tons; smallest in 1892 — 6,900 tons. The export of bar iron was
greatest in 1887 — i45>3ootons; smallest in 1894 — 102,600 tons. The ex-
port of pig iron was greatest in 1895 — 60,700 tons; smallest in 1888 — 36,700

The export during January to September, 1896, exceeded the average


Total export 22,500

Pig iron 6,800

Ingots 200

Blooms 9,200

Bar iron 4*300

During the quarter July-September, 1896, 104 blast furnaces were
working, against 99 in 1895; 276 bar-iron furnaces or hearths, against
287; 29 Bessemer furnaces, against 26; and 32 Siemens-Martin furnaces,
against 25.

The production from January i to October i consisted of:


Bessemer ingots..


Martin ingou

Pig iron ,









This shows an increase in the production of Bessemer ingots by 14,000
tons; of Martin ingots, 22,700 tons; and of pig iron, 19,500 tons. But the
production of blooms shows a decrease of 600 tons, compared with the pro-
duction in 1895.

The average production for the time January to September during each
of the last seven years was :


Pig iron 351,800

Blooms 156,600

Bessemer ingots 69,600

Martin ingots 64,600

The production of pig iron was greatest in 1896, with a total of 380,306
tons; smallest in 1890, with 325,300 tons. The production of blooms was
greatest in 1890, with 166,100 tons; smallest in 1896, with 138,400 tons.
The production of Bessemer ingots reached its maximum in 1896, with 87,600
tons; its minimum in 1893, with 62,700 tons. The production of Martin
ingots was largest in 1896, with 95,600 tons; smallest in 1890, with 48,200

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The production in 1896 shows the following relations to the average
production :


Pig iron, above average 28,500

Bessemer ingots, above average.... 18,000

Martin ingots, above aveiiage 31 ,000

Blooms, below average 18,200

These figures are of special interest and show a considerable increase in the
production of steel. Although the production of pig iron in 1896 increased
by 19,500 tons above the production in 1895, ^^^ ^^^ export of the same
article decreased by 6,400 tons, the supply on hand does not show any in-
crease, but the surplus has been used for the production of steel, which shows
considerable increase — 14,000 tons increase of Bessemer and 22,700 tons in-
crease of Martin steel.

The items of the statistics of export which show increase represent to-
gether 25,900 tons of iron and ingot metal. The difference between these
figures and the increase in the production of ingot metal amounts to 10,800
tons, which thus should represent a surplus. The fact is, however, that no

Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 70 of 82)