United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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surplus seems to exist, but this has probably been consumed by the industries
within the country, which, during this year, have shown unusual activity.

The past year has been favorable for the producers of ingot metal. The
demand for Lancashire iron has increased, at higher prices, but as charcoal
has t)een very expensive, the profit has not been comparable to the profit on
ingot metal. A change for the better will probably take place, as the high
prices of charcoal have given impulse to increased production of this article,
so that the production will fully meet the demand.

The prospects of the trade for the first two quarters of 1897 may be con-
sidered as favorable.

The quotations of the society were fixed as follows, per ton of 1,016 kil-
ograms (2,204.6 pounds), free on board, without discbunt:



Kinds.



Ordinary hammered iron..

Ordinary rolled iron

Roiled fine iron (rods)



Gothenberg. I Stockholm.



42-58
43.80



$40.76
41.37
42.58



So far, the report cited. In addition, I may say that the export of steel
(hollow blooms, billets, etc.) from Gothenberg to the United States has
increased considerably during the last two years, and I understand that the
main portion of this steel is used by the manufacturers of bicycles.

OTTO H. BOYESEN,

Gothenberg, January 12^ i^97* Consul,



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514 IRON WORKS OF SWEDEN.



IRON WORKS OF SWEDEN.

I send herewith a brief description of the works of the firm Stora Kop-
parbergs Bergslags Aktiebolag, of Falun. I have not been able to procure
any details of the manufacture, as the owners are very reticent about infor-
mation regarding the process.

Stora Kopparbergs Bergslags Aktiebolag is the oldest stock company in
Scandinavia and one of the oldest in the world. Its origin belongs to the
prehistoric era and its development can be followed far back into the times
of the Saga.

The domains of the company, valued at about 30,000,000 Swedish crowns,
are mainly situated in the province of Dalecarlia and consist chiefly of vast
forests, rich iron and copper mines, and large waterfalls amounting to more
than 100,000 horsepower. On these natural resources three principal trades
are founded, viz, timber, iron and steel, and copper.

In the year 1735, the company built their first iron works, Svartnas, based
on the then discovered iron mines Vintjarn. One establishment after an-
other were later added, each intended for its own particular speciality, so
that the company has manufactured iron at some twenty places in all.

So many difficulties, however, were met in carrying on the manufacture
at different places, on account of the expensive communications existing,
that it was decided about 1870 to concentrate the iron manufacture and
for that purpose to build new works. One of the big waterfalls of the Dala
River was selected as the site. Domnarfvet is the name of the new works,
which are the largest in Scandinavia, and the largest in the world based on
charcoal as fuel. To them belong one hundred and sixty iron mines and a
number of waterfalls, together capable of developing about 50,000 horse-
power, of which, however, only a small part at present is utilized. The
works consist of the following departments: Charcoal-making plant, with
eight large kilns; blast-furnace plant, with four blast furnaces, six Westman
roasting furnaces, regenerative blast heating stoves, etc. ; Bessemer works,
with five converters, etc. ; Siemens- Martin works, with four furnaces of 15
tons each, etc. ; rolling-mill plant for sheet iron and plate, wire rods, rails,
beams, channels, angles, and all kinds of merchant iron; forge for ham-
mered tool steel and miscellaneous tools ; plate- pressing works for boiler
heads and similar articles; horseshoe- nail factory, etc.

The whole iron and steel manufacture is, as before said, exclusively based
on charcoal, by the aid of which the highest grade of steel for cutting and
other tools, for springs, coining dies, etc., is produced from the pure ore.

The principal manufactures at Domnarfvet are: Pig iron, extra pure;
ingots, blooms, billets, and slabs of Bessemer and Siemens-Martin steel; bars
in various shapes and nail rods, wire rods of Bessemer and Siemens-Martin
steel and Swedish Lancashire iron ; hammered bars of Swedish Lancashire
iron; rails; boiler and ship plates; sheet iron, corrugated and smooth;



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AMERICAN FLOUR IN IRELAND. 515

pressed and flanged work of plate; machine straightened shafting; ham-
mered steel (miners' drill steel, tool steel, shear steel, spring steel, file steel,
pin steel, machine steel, file blanks, etc.); stonecutting steel tools, hammers,
anvils, etc.; horseshoe nails, etc.

The products from Domnarfvet are to a large extent exported to the great
countries of Europe, to America, Australia, the East Indies, China, and Japan.

The company, furthermore, owns two other works, Korsd and Lindesnds,
where especially soft Swedish charcoal wrought iron is made. The annual
production of iron and steel is :

Tons.

Pig iron 55, 000

Bessemer ingots 35, 000

Siemens- Martin ingots 26,000

Charcoal-iron blooms 7,000

Rolled and hammered iron and steel of all kinds 47,000

Horseshoe nails 600

For the works 450,000 cubic meters of charcoal are yearly used ; of these
140,000 cubic meters are made in the kilns at Domnarfvet.

THOS. B. O'NEIL,
Stockholm, January p, i8gy. Consul,



PASSPORTS IN TURKEY.

I have the honor to transmit the translation of a note verbale, dated Jan-
uary 27, from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which calls attention to the
importance of foreigners entering Turkey having passports with •a consular
vis^.

A. W. TERRELL,

Constantinople, February 2, iSgy, Minister,



[Translation.]

It turns out from a communication from the Imperial Department of the Interior that for-
eigners arrive sometimes at Constantinople without passports, or with passports without the
Ottoman consular vis6. This state of things, being contrary to the provisions of the regula-
tion on passports, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has the honor to request the legation of the
United States of America to kindly give, to whom it pertains, the necessary instructions, so
that any foreigner coming into the Empire may be furnished with regular papers, in order
not to find themselves threatened under articles 14, 17, and 18 of the said regulation.



AMERICAN FLOUR IN IRELAND.

In order that American millers may know one of the methods resorted
to on this side to injure their export trade, I inclose a clipping from the
Belfast News Letter of January 14, 1897. The article is in the nature of a
semieditorial, and, apparently, is intended to do all the harm possible to
the importing trade of American flour, of which there is probably more



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5l6 COST OF ILLUMINATING GAS IN BELFAST.

consumed in this city and vicinity in proportion to the population than in any
other part of the Kingdom. Furthermore, it is particularly gratifying from
the exporter's standpoint that the quantity keeps steadily increasing. The
returns for 1896 show that over 93,000 long tons of American flour were
imported into Belfast, which exceeds the imports for 1895, in round numbers,
by 17,000 tons. Unfortunately, this condition does not prevail in other
sections of the Kingdom. The substance of this clipping has been circulated
all over the Kingdom, no doubt, in somewhat similar form, each newspwiper
varying the verbiage to suit local conditions. It may be remarked that it is
only one of the methods in vogue to prejudice the consumer against Ameri-
can flour, which for obvious reasons has disastrously affected the milling trade
on this side.

JAMES B. TANEY,
Belfast, January 16^ iSgy. Consul.



The article in the Belfast News Letter, transmitted by Consul Taney,
attributes to the Cincinnati Price Current the statement that American
millers are mixing finely ground corn meal having the general appearance
of wheat flour with their genuine wheat flour; that ordinary tests fail to dis-
cover its presence up to 5 to 10 per cent in flour, and the great disparity in
cost offers an inducement to make such a blend and to sell it as flour. The
News Letter, commenting on this alleged practice, says:

There can be little doubt that this system of adulteration has been going on, and, naturally,
the effect has been to affect prejudicially the interests of our local millers, who, in offering the
genuine article in the market, are subjected to a competition that is unfair. * * * It is
a fact that Indian flour has a bluish color, while the ordinary flour made from Indian wheat
is rather brownish white. The effect of the adulteration would therefore be to improve the
appearance, though certainly not the quality, and thus give that imported of the character
described an undue advantage in the market.



COST OF ILLUMINATING GAS IN BELFAST.

The discussion in some of the cities in the United States of the cost of
illuminating gas has suggested that it would be of interest to learn that the
city council, which controls the gas works of Belfast, has reduced the price
to consumers from 66 to 60 cents per 1,000 cubic feet, beginning with the
current quarter. Here gas bills are collected quarterly, so that the reduc-
tion takes effect from the first of the year.

This charge is subject to the following discounts, providing the account
for the preceding quarter is paid on or before the 30th day of January,
April, July, and October of each year:

Per cent.

50,000 and not exceeding ioo,ooo cubic feet 5

100,000 and not exceeding 200,000 cubic feet lo

200,000 and not exceeding 400,000 cubic feet 15

Above 400,000 cubic feet 20



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COST OF ILLUMINATING GAS IN BELFAST. 517

The reduction in price was contemplated last year on the ground that
the profits were so large {£(>1,m 9s. id.^327,892.10 for the year ended
June 30, 1 896) that the current price was unjust to the consumers.

For an intelligent understanding of how so large a net revenue was realized
at 66 cents per 1,000 cubic feet, less discount, a condensed reproduction of
the official statement of the receipts and expenditures for the financial year
ended June 30, 1896 (figures reduced to United States money), is herewith
subjoined :

/Receipts.

Sale of gas 1659,812.37

Less discounts l53i295-54

BaddebU 1,209.24

54,504.78



Public lighting of streets, buildings, etc 88,713.61

Less cost of lighting and repairing public lamps 24,226.05

Sales of coke, breeze, etc. (less labor, |20,ii8.22) 162,821.61

Sales of tar 28,650. 15

Sales of ammoniacal liquor 21,668.97

Sundries 369.21



1605,307.59
64,487.56

213,509.94

Total 883,305.09

Expenditures.

Coal (87,536 tons of 2,240 pounds, including all expenses of depositing same

at works) #270,534 58

Purification and sundries, including labor 17,898.7

Salaries of engineer and assistant 6,740.10

Wages (carbonizing) 69,024.23

Repairs and maintenance of works and plant (including renewal of retorts),

machines, apparatus, tools, materials, and labor 30,306.90

Coal and coke used for steam boilers 2,504. 15

Carburetted water gas :

Oil (1,073,018 gallons) 43,632.20

Wages and fuel 27,906.25

Repairs of carburetted water-gas plant 1,200.94

Salaries of chief inspector, inspectors, and clerks in department 8,475.81

Repairs, maintenance and renewal of main and service pipes, including mate-
rials, laying, paving, and labor 7,040.69

Repairing, renewing, and reBxing meters 18,407.20

Rents (grounds and offices) , 26,578.16

Salaries of cashier, accountant, clerks, office keepers, and messengers 11,714. 06

Salaries of collectors 7,541.70

Sundries 5,907.80

Balance carried to net revenue account (profit) 327,892.10



Total 883,305.09

The disposition of the net revenue was in sundry ways, such as for new
works, meter investments, contributions to public library, parks, etc., in-
terest on mortgages, sinking fund, stock dividends, etc.



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5l8 PHOTOGRAPHY IN NATURAL COLORS.

It will be observed that the largest item of expense is for coal, which
costs J3.09 per ton (2,240 pounds) delivered at the works.

Below is submitted some additional information, furnished, at the request
of this consulate, by the courtesy of the manager of the works :

Cubic feet.

Coal gas (year's oatpat) 892,911 ,000

Carburetted water gas (year's output) 324,460,000

ToUl gas made 1,217,371,000

The cost per 1,000 cubic feet of the several items required in making
the product until it passes into the gas holders was:

C«nts.

Coal (less residuals).... 6.54

PuriBcation... 1.45

Salaries 546

Carbonizing (wages) 7-624

Wear and tear 3-34^

Fuel for boilers 276

Total 19.584

Or, a small fraction over 19^ cents.

The cost of production has been very much reduced since the use of
cannel was displaced by the introduction of carburetted water gas, the
quantity being nearly one-third of the output of coal gas. With the new
system, the works are enabled to continue the present increase, for the coal
gas alone would yield only about 16 candlepower, whereas the combination
produces a gas of 18 candlepower.

In this last presentation of the cost of manufacture, no account is taken
of any expense connected with the running of the gas works, except the
items which directly enter into the manufacture of the article until it passes
into the gas holders, as the object is to show simply the cost of the material
and labor required for the manufacture of gas ready for consumption. The
conditions are so distinctly dissimilar in each locality that the extraneous
outlay in connection with the supply to the consumer must vary, especially
when it is a question of public or private control.

JAMES B. TANEY,

Belfast, February 12, iSgy. Consul.



PHOTOGRAPHY IN NATURAL COLORS.

The scientific sensation of the moment in Europe is a new and apparently
successful method of reproducing in photography, by chemical means, the
colors of nature. When the art of photography was first developed, it was
expected that the reproduction of natural colors by means of the camera
would soon be achieved, and many of the ablest chemists of a generation
ago devoted years to the study of that interesting and difficult problem.



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PHOTOGRAPHY IN NATURAL COLORS. 5I9

The farther their researches were pushed, the more hopeless the task appeared
to be, and it is only within the past few years that any substantial progress
has been made.

Lippmann, by an ingenious application of the principle known to optical
science as ''interference/' wherein certain waves of reflected light may be
made to "interfere** with or cancel each other, leaving the remaining col-
ored rays visible, produced a theoretical solution of great beauty and inter-
est, but his process has had, thus far, only a scientific value.

Another scientist, Mr. Ives, developed a process in which, by taking
three photographs of the same object, through blue, green, and red media,
respectively, and illuminating each of these with light of the corresponding
color, the three images could be so combined in the eye as to form a single
composite picture, embodying more or less perfectly all the colors of nature.
By this method, which, from its nature, is mainly mechanical, as distinguished
from a chemical process, lantern slides have been made which, when used
for projection on a screen, produce effects of great brilliancy and beauty.

But it remained for a French savant, M. Villedieu Chassagne, of No. 40
Avenue des Ternes, Paris, working out a theory suggested by Dr. Adrien Dan-
sac, to find the real philosopher's stone, and to produce, by purely chemical
means, on sensitized plates, paper, or films, photographs showing the actual
colors of the subject as they appear in nature. The process of M. Chassagne,
to which he has devoted many years of study and costly experiment, is ex-
ceedingly direct and simple in its practical application, and may be briefly
described as follows:

An ordinary sensitized gelatin plate is first treated by immersion in a col-
orless solution of certain salts, the secret of which the inventor has not yet
revealed. This plate, being exposed in a camera, receives a negative im-
pression, and is developed, fixed, and finished in the ordinary manner, pro-
ducing a monochromatic negative precisely similar in appearance to any
other. That is to say, the treatment of the dry plate by the mysterious liquid
of M. Chassagne entails no visible effect in the appearance of the negative
which is produced therefrom.

From this negative there is then printed, by the usual process of contact
and exposure to light, a positive, which may be made on sensitized paper,
or film, or glass gelatin plate, which has been likewise treated before print-
ing with the same colorless and unexplained solution. Thus far, all is mono-
chromatic, and does not differ in appearance from any ordinary negative
and the paper print or transparent positive made therefrom. The miracle
now appears in the fact that the treatment of the negative plate and positive
print with the limpid solution has imparted to the latter the occult instinct
of selective absorption; in other words, the power to absorb and assimilate
from solutions of the primary colors the exact quantity and proportion of
each tint that is required to produce all the hues and gradations of nature.

The positive is now passed successively through three colored solutions —
blue, red, and green — and from these it takes up by absorption the propor-



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520 PHOTOGRAPHY IN NATURAL COLORS.

tionate amount of each color that is required to give the colors and grada-
tions of tint which were present in the natural subject of the photograph.
If this photograph is a portrait, the flesh tints become warm and vital, the
colors of the eyes, hair, and every detail of hue and texture in the costume,
jewelry, etc., are faithfully reproduced. If the subject is a landscape, the
sky becomes blue or gray as in nature, the grass and all the elaborate gamut
of green, brown, and purple shadows, which occur, for instance, in a wood
or group of trees of different species under strong sunlight, are brought out
with marvelous fidelity. Such a positive, printed on glass as a transparency,
hung in a window and studied from behind with a strong monocle, pro-
duces the effect of looking upon the actual landscape. Paintings, either in
oil or water colors, are reproduced so literally as to fairly deceive the eye,
in all except size, the photograph copies being, of course, generally much
smaller than the originals.

From this brief description it will be obvious that the discovery of M.
Chassagne is embodied in the chemical composition of the four liquids, one
of which is colorless, one blue, one green, and the other red. The process of
using these liquids, which is so simple as to be within the easy reach of any
professional or good amateur photographer, has been patented in all civilized
countries where patents are granted, but the composition of the liquids is
thus far a secret, and is not described in the applications.

Having perfected his process to a point where his pictures commanded
the admiring wonder of French experts, M. Chassagne went, on the 15th of
January this year, to London, where on two occasions about the 20th of that
month he demonstrated it at the laboratory of King's College, in presence
of Sir Henry Trueman Wood, Captain Abney, president of the Camera Club,
Professor Thompson and Mr. Herbert Jackson, of King's College, all men of
the highest authority in photographic science. The demonstrations were so
complete, the results, when Sir Henry Wood and Captain Abney operated
with English apparatus on plates treated in their presence with the liquids
brought by the inventor from Paris, were so successful that the process became
the sensation of the day in London, and the whole invention, with its patents
granted or pending in all countries, was sold on the 28th of January for a
large sum to a British syndicate that had been hastily organized for its pur-
chase.

For the information of Americans who may wish to know how and under
what conditions the materials and right to use this process can in future be
obtained, it may be pertinent to state concisely the plan upon which the
syndicate proposes to operate. A parent company, located in England, will
reserve the exclusive right to prepare gelatin plates and manufacture the
liquids for use in all countries. The liquids are to be manufactured in a
special laboratory at Paris, under the supervision of M. Chassagne, who be-
comes a paid employee of the syndicate for that purpose. No patent or
exclusive right in any country or province is to be sold, but in each foreign
country a branch establishment will be created, which shall draw its supply



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THE FRUIT TRADE OF SICILY. 52 1

of prepared plates and liquids from the parent house in England. If de-
sired, dry plates of any approved make may be sent for treatment, and will
be returned after having been so prepared. For the privilege of owning
and conducting one of these exclusive foreign agencies, a large bonus or cash
payment is to be demanded, besides which the syndicate will fix the retail
price of plates and liquids, and claim a percentage of the net profits from
each branch concern. The amount of the bonus demanded varies natu-
rally with the importance of different countries, but as an indication of the
value set upon the entire invention it may be stated that an offer of ;£3o,ooo
(1145,995) for the exclusive franchise in Germany, subject to the foregoing
conditions, has been refused.

The relative proportions of the four liquids employed in ordinary use
are: Four liters of the colorless solution to i liter each of the blue, the
green, and the red, and this quantity of each will be sufficient to color six
hundred positives above cabinet size.

It is perhaps unfortunate for the interests of science and art that an in-
vention of such wide-reaching interest and application has fallen so early
into hands so adept and so financially powerful, and has become from its
inception a capitalized and strictly guarded monopoly. No explanation is
offered of the scientific principle through which this power of selective
absorption is conferred by the primary liquid upon the sensitized plate, paper,
or film nor of the nature of the reactions which take place at any stage of the
process. The whole demonstration was so new and astonishing that the Eng-
lish experts ventured no theory to account for the miracle that had been
wrought before their eyes. Without complete information as to the materials
used and the exact chemical nature of the liquids, the character of the reac-
tions upon which the result depends can only be vaguely guessed. The im-
portant fact is, however, that they do occur, and that with materials properly
prepared, the practical process is so simple and should be so inexpensive as
to be available to every photographer, and thus open a new era in repro-
ductive art.

FRANK H. MASON,

Frankfort, February 18 y iSgy. Consul- General,



THE FRUIT TRADE OF SICILY.

The quarter ended December 31, 1896, showed fee receipts for invoice
certificates to be J500 less than for the corresponding quarter in 1895. The
value of the green fruit exported was also less by ^388,731. These figures
tell an eloquent story of shattered confidence and hundreds of thousands of
dollars lost which will never be recovered. Last season the indiscriminate
distribution of letters of credit made fruit exporters of paupers who had
nothing to lose and all to win, and enabled them without a cent of capital
to do a business which, when honestly conducted, requires plenty of ready



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52 2 THE FRUIT TRADE OF SICILY.

money. Naturally their appearance upon the market in competition with
old and responsible shippers caused injustice. Those importers whose bene-
ficence caused this trouble last season are now chewing the cud of bitter
experience and issue credits only to those upon whom they think they can
rely. The result has been a most appreciable reduction in the quantity
shipped as compared with the previous season. Those who have been rele-
gated, by the refusal of credits, to the commercial obscurity they so richly
deserve, claim that excessive shipments last season were not the cause of low
prices, since, with the reduced exports of this season, the prices have not
materially improved. This is true ; but it must be remembered that a malady



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 71 of 82)