United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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86
106

59
109

lOZ

93
73
78
91
1x3

754

lOX

79
94i
74
74
77
74



Per pound,
United

States cur-
rency,
about-



Approximate value.



Cents.



36f
3»i|
38i!,
ail

37 I
362

33J|
a6?
28i


»7l

36i
28I
34i
26t

26|

28
26}



In Dutch
currency.



Florins.

8^030,000

2,580,000

1,940,000

1,000,000

1,720,000

1,550,000

1,040,000

595,000
565,000
575,000
610,000
365,000
355,000
265,000
232,000
135,000
130,000
90,000
70,000



In United
States cur-
rency.



$3,212,000
633,000
776,000
400,000
688,000
620,000
416,000
238,000
226,000
230,000
244,000
146,000
142,000
106,000
92,800
54.000
52,000



Value of Sumatra tobacco crops since the beginning of the culture.

Approximate total value.



Year.



1864.
1865.
1866.
1867.
x868.
1869.
1870.
1871.
1872.
1873.
1874.
1875.
1876.
1877,
1878
1879-
1880.
x88i.
1882,




Bales.
50
189
"74

224

890
X.381

3, "4

3,922
6,409

9,238
",895

15,355
29,030
36, 520
48,550
57,553
64,964
82,356
102,050



Approximate average
sale price.



Per half
kilogram,
Dutch cur-

'rency.



Cents.

48
149
X13

70
142
129

X22

"37

"32
182
150

170

»53i
137
"25
117
'»i3
"«5j
X38



Per pound,
United

States cur-
rency.



Cents.



"7l

54l

4"

25l

51I

46t

44i

49t

471

66

54!

6i|

55i

45l

45

42i

403

41J

493



In Dutch
currency.



Florins.
4,000
40,000
30,000

900,000

250,000

500,000

750,000

X, 000, 000

2,500,000

2,850,000

3,900,000

6,450,000

6,690,000

9,120,000

10,300,000

1,134,000

1,448,000

21,420,000



In United
States cur-
rency.



$z,6oo
x6,ooo

12, 000

8,000

80,000

zoo,ooo

900,000

300,000

400,000

1,000,000

1,140,000

1,560,000

9,580,000

2,676,000

3,648,000

4,X3O,0OO

4,536,000
5,792,000
8,566,000



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Google



TOBACCO IN THE NETHERLANDS. 545

Vaiu£ of Sumatra tobacco crops since the beginning of the culture — Continued.



Year.



1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888
1889.
1890.
1891.
189a.
1893.
1894.
1895.



Quantity.



Bales.

92,530
125,264
124,718
"39.5»a
»44»4oo
182,384
182,341
234,063
335,629
144,689
169,520
193, 767
«4»347



Approximate average
sale price.



Per half
kilogram,
Dutch cur-
rency.



133
M5
X414
i54i
130)

I27i

146

92
126
144
119

90



Per pound,
United

States cur-
rency.



Cents.



48

l^\

5ii

56

43J

46I

53

26^

33l
45f
5^1

43i
3^1



Approximate total value.



In Dutch
currency.



Florins r
29,050,000
27,250,000
26,800,000
32,700,000
26,400,000
35,500,000
40,445,000
25,800,000
31,600,000
27,300,000
37,600,000
35,000,000
28,325,000



In United
States cur-
rency.



^7,



620,000
900,000
730,000
080,000
560,090
200,000
180,000
320,000
640,000
920,000
040,000

330,000



At Amsterdam, — Twelve inscriptions were held The number of bales
sold was 174,641 ; average price, 91^ cents in Dutch currency per half kil-
ogram, or 33 cents per pound. The total value was about 24,610,000 florins
(i9»344,ooo).

At Rotterdam, — Three inscriptions were held . The number of bales sold
was 26,268; average price, 84 cents in Dutch currency per half kilogram, or
30 cents per pound. The total value was about 3,390,000 florins (J 1,356, -
000).

At Bremen. — Three thousand four hundred and thrrty-eight bales were
sold at 541^ cents in Dutch currency per half kilogram, or 19!^ cents per
pound.

The exports to the United States from April i, 1896, to date, were 16,-
172 bales of Sumatra wrapper tobacco.

BORNEO TOBACCO.



Imports of Borneo tobacco {crop of i8g^) at Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Bremen.



Marks.




Amsterdam.

B T E Vroyah

Darvel Lahas Paiu 1895

B T E Lamag

L A B (B) 1895

F S Mah6

J S B S 1895

Tangong Borneo 1895

N.895

M. O, X895.-



Per half
kilogram,
Dutch cur-
rency.



Bates.

73a
1,299
826
475
320
21
648
368



Cents.



164
138
136
120
116
100



Per pound,
United

States cur-
rency.



Cents.



59l
5oi
49l
43l
424
36i

31*



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546



TOBACCO IN THE NETHERLANDS.



Imports of Borneo tobacco (crop of i8gs) ^^ Amsterdam^ etc. — Continued.



Marks.



Amsterdam — Continued .

N. L B T C<> Bandan

N. L B T C° Bongon

N. L B T C° Ranan PIsiate

N. L B T C° Tandck ,

G J. N 1895

IC M

T L



L...„

N. V. B. A

P

Tringin ,

J. S

M-BN. B

G H. Bonjco

BSM

A T. M-T

LCM-ABTM...



ToiaL..



T. C. B.-B N. Borneo..
Temcgang

Total



Bremen.



Benkuka...



Quantity.



Bales.
1,107

1.608
956
464
119

7
100
56
109

131
170



6

176

13

"0.94S



J78
1,058



Per half I Per pound,
kilogram. United

Dutch cur- I States cur-
rency. , rcncy.



Cents.



x8i
58

•160





.SI
184
«^

164

9






* Average.

The total imports were 13,034 bales; average price, 103 cents in Dutch
currency per half kilogram, or 37^ cents in United States currency per
pound; value, about 2,070,000 florins ($828,000).

At Amsterdam, — Eleven inscriptions were held. The number of bales
sold was 10,945; average price, loi cents in Dutch currency per half kilo-
gram, or 36^ cents in United States currency per pound. The total value
was about 1,700,000 florins ($680,000).

At Rotterdam. — Two inscriptions were held. The number of bales sold
was 1,058; average price, 160 cents in Dutch currency per half kilogram,
or 57^ cents in United States currency per pound. The total value was
about 260,000 florins ($104,000).

At Bremen, — One inscription was held. The number of bales sold was
1,031 ; average price, 72 cents in Dutch currency per half kilogram, or 26^^
cents in United States currency per pound. The total value was about
110,000 florins ($44,000).

A few bales of Borneo tobacco have been exported this year to the
United States.

JAVA TOBACCO.

Six inscriptions of Java tobacco were held at Amsterdam in 1896, and
67,748 bales were sold. Four inscriptions were held at Rotterdam, 41,991
bales being sold.



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THE LACE INDUSTRY OF CALAIS. . 547

MISCELLANEOUS.

England bought a considerable amount of Borneo and Java tobacco and
some Sumatra. Belgium bought Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and Mexican
tobacco. The different regies bought Sumatra and Java largely. The
greater portion of all kinds of tobacco sold here was bought by Dutch and
German dealers, who resell it all over the world.

EDWARD DOWNES,

Amsterdam, November it, i8g6. Consul,



THE LACE INDUSTRY OF CALAIS.

The great and increasing importance of the manufacture of machine-nr.ade
lace warrants an official report on the present local condition of this industry,
and a few preliminary historical facts will be found interesting.

About the year 1600, an English clergyman named Lee, whose wife
earned a few pence by making lace by hand, but whose income in spite
of this was hardly sufficient to live on, tried to replace finger work by me-
chanical appliances. His inventive genius succeeded, but like most great
inventors, he personally derived little benefit from his invention, and died in
France in the year 1 610 in great poverty. The second step toward the pres-
ent lace machine is due to John Hindres, about the year 1656, who first ap-
plied the warp to the then imperfect machine. For over a hundred years,
men of genius struggled for its perfection, but without practical result, until, in
the year 1799, Lindley, of Nottingham, England, invented the bobbin which
made the production of the mesh of real lace possible. In 1809, a workman
named Heathcote found a way of producing the regular hexagonal mesh, and
this new product was named ** bobbin net lace,*' and rapidly secured uni-
versal favor. Since that time, many attempts have been made to perfect the
lace machine. In 181 2, the first straight-bolt machines were built, followed
by circular machines, which, during a long time, were considered the height
of perfection, but when Leavers entered the field and applied the invention
called after him, it was found that a thorough revolution had taken place in
producing lace.

Referring to the lace industry in Calais, it is supposed that the first lace
machine ever introduced into France was by Francis Clark in the year 181 7,
though some maintain that Robert Webster laid the foundation of the industry
by surreptitiously importing from England in the year 1816 the first loom,
for at that time a prohibition existed against the exportation of machinery
from Great Britain. As far back as 1825, several shops existed in Calais
where lace machines were constructed by Messrs. Austin, Howell, Dobbs,
and others. From 1825, say for the next forty to fifty years, the manufac-
ture of machine lace in Calais made slow but steady progress. Not the
least of the difficulties which Calais fabricants had to overcome was the ob-
taining of the fine cotton yarns required, as they were not spun in France



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548 ' THE LACE INDUSTRY OF CALAIS.

until later years, and had to be brought from England, with a very consid-
erable import duty; the latter was, in fact, so prohibitive that the greater
quantity of the cotton yarn was, until i860, smuggled, a proceeding which
was winked at by the French Government in favor of the lace manufactu-
rers of Calais. During the past twenty years, Calais manufacturers have over-
come all competition and made this place the most important center of lace
production of the world, especially for silk and fine cotton laces, which are
here made in an immense variety of design and perfection of workmanship.
The finish of Calais lace is admittedly better than that of rival manufacto-
ries in other countries, and this superiority is due to the fact that the manu-
facturers themselves exercise extra care and supervision over their goods
before they leave the factory. There is hardly any kind of real lace enjoy-
ing various national or world-wide reputation which at one time or another
has not been perfectly imitated by the highest grade of artistic draftsmen
and reproduced on the lace machines of Calais. Scarcely a year has passed
which has not recorded some remarkable progress in design and fineness of
execution, and at such a reduction of'cost that millions of consumers are now
enjoying the benefit in place of the comparatively few who could afford to
buy the handmade article.

The laces now being produced by the Calais manufacturers are comprised
in the following list :

Siik laces. — Chantilly laces for millinery purposes; Chantilly laces for
mantles, dresses, etc. ; guipure laces; Bourdon laces; Spanish laces; Valen-
ciennes laces; Chantilly and guipure mixed laces; silk-application laces;
imitation Plauen laces; Irish point laces; point d'esprit laces; muslin laces;
Luxeuil laces; Bayeuxlaoes; beading laces; buttonhole laces; narrow silk
edgings and insertions.

Cotton laces. — Valenciennes laces; maltese laces ; Alen^on laces; Bour-
don laces; imitation Plauen laces; Piatt Valenciennes laces; Migniadise
laces; Madeira laces ; Venise laces; Luxeuil laces; Irish point laces; button-
hole laces; beading laces; point d'esprit laces; point a I' Aiguille laces;
duchesse laces; moresque laces; Cluny edgings and insertions; Honiton
braids.

Silk and cotton mixed laces, — Fedora laces; application laces; Bourdon
laces (all Bourdon); Bourdon laces (with net top); point a T Aiguille laces;
duchesse laces; Venise laces; Mai ines laces; moresque laces ; Alen^on taces;
Madeira laces; Honiton braids.

Veilings. — Veilings with **russian'' ground; veilings with "friquette"
ground ; veilings with **bouclet ** ground; veilings with plain ground ; Brus-
sels net; bordered net; also nets with small figured patterns or spots (all
the foregoing are made in all silk and also silk and cotton mixed); chenille
nets (all silk).

Dress nets. — Chantilly nets, made in all silk or silk and cotton mixed ;
Malines nets, made in all cotton or silk and cotton mixed ; fancy dress nets,
all silk; guipure dress nets, all silk; Russian dress nets, all silk or silk and



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THE LACE INDUSTRY OF CALAIS. 549

cotton mixed ; friquette dress nets, all silk or silk and cotton mixed ; filet
dress nets, all silk or silk and cotton mixed ; Tosca dress nets, all silk or
silk and cotton mixed; dotted dress nets, all silk or silk and cotton mixed;
striped dress nets, all silk or silk and cotton mixed ; fedora dress nets, silk
and cotton mixed.

Miscellaneous. — Fancy cashmere laces and nets, wool laces and nets, plain
laces, mohair laces, Van Dyke laces, Gigolette laces, braids, scarfs, fichus, col-
lars, flounces, and Andaluse, silk or cotton ; gauzes, grenadines, silk; torchon
laces, all cotton or linen ; blonde laces, all silk or silk and cotton.

Already, steps have been taken by some of the largest and most enter-
prising of the Calais manufacturers, by the introduction of the so-called
Plauen machine, to actively compete with these manufacturers of Saxony
and of St. Gall, in Switzerland.

A point of great importance bearing on the future of the lace business
with the United States has been but lately developed, viz, the ea^, and
especially the quickness, with which the trade in the United States can ^p^
supplied. It transpires that lace can be put into stock in New York within
eight days from the time it leaves the makers in Calais, and in ten and a half
days on the shelves of the buyers in Chicago. This seemingly impossible
annihilation of space has been lately recorded on two shipments via the ex-
press steamers of the American Line, the St. Louis and St. Paul, from South-
ampton to New York.

The great advantages to the lace industry from the geographical situation
of Calais are manifested in more ways than one.

The growing importance of Calais as a principal seaport of the north of
France, which, by the recent completion of the great and comprehensive
scheme of harbor and dock improvements, in .connection with its railway
connections and direct system of canals throughout France, guaranties com-
petitive, and therefore cheap, foreign and domestic supplies of coal, raw
cotton, and the many things required by the resident lace manufacturers,
and gives them a corresponding and great advantage over all their inland
competitors.

The fact of Calais being the nearest seaport to Great Britain has firmly
established the Calais and Dover continental route as the quickest, most pop-
ular, and desirable for the great number of traveling business men or buyers
from all parts of the world, and especially from the United States, who
can be so quickly and easily transferred from the boats or connecting trains
into the lace manufactories of Calais.

Without going into a description of the intricate workings of the per-
fected lace machine, suffice it to say that it is a fact peculiar to the industry
that the worker, in order to master its complications, must of necessity start
as a boy.

There are at the present time about 1,850 lace machines in Calais, valued
at about j2,ooo each, with accessories or inclosing buildings, etc., at about
J3,ooo each, representing a capital of over J5, 500,000. Between 600 and



Digitized by LjOOQ IC



550 THE LACE INDUSTRY OF CALAIS.

700 of these machines are engaged in the making of cotton lace, and the re-
maining 1,100 are particularly adapted to the manufacture of fine silk goods.
These looms are distributed among about 350 manufacturers, and apart from
some 1,000 hands working on those making silk and 600 on cotton, give em-
ployment to many thousands in the various processes of winding, dressing,
dyeing, cutting, mending, carding, packing, etc., and repairing of machines.
It is almost impossible to give exact figures as to the number of these people
(men, women, and children), many of whom live in the country adjacent
to Calais and turn to other occupations when the lace business is dull. As to
the amount of production, it is very difficult to arrive at a proper estimate,
for, until within a few years, statistics have been properly prepared in France
covering only certain lines of manufacture. Notwithstanding the dullness
in the lace business, which has lasted for some years, it is hardly an exagger-
ation to put down the average yearly production of lace in Calais as valued
at Ji 2^00,000, of which one-half is silk and one-half cotton. All thefore-
. ^fing points of advantage, in connection with the cheapness of the various
grades of labor, guaranty the continuance of the preeminent position of
Calais — the French Nottingham — in the machine-laceindustry of the world.
The interesting statement is made in this connection that the free furnishing
of the necessary samples in order to put the different styles, patterns, widths,
etc., before the buyers of the world, entails an annual expense on some of
the largest manufacturers of 125,000 francs ($25,000).

What proportion of the yearly product of Calais is exported to the United
States it is difficult to say, estimates varying all the way from two-fifths to
three-fifths. It is also to be regretted that statistics covering direct ship-
ments from Calais or comparisons previous to June, 1894, when this consu-
late was established, are not available, as no authentic records exist covering
the amount of business at the former consular agency. Neither is it possi-
ble to estimate the value of lace of Calais manufacture which is annually
sent to the United States from Paris, London, Nottingham, and other
places.

As to the condition and future prospects of the Calais lace industry, and
particularly in its relations to the United States, evidences multiply that the
long condition of depression is about at an end. The dictates of fashion
have decreed for some years past the substitution of artificial flowers, ribbons,
feathers, and other trimmings for lace ; also, the plain tailor-made cloth gar-
ments, in place of the lighter fabrics, the trimmings of which required large
quantities of lace. Now, however, the ever-revolving wheel of fashion is
seemingly bringing back the old regime of lace. The depression of the past
has not been an entire misfortune, for it has stimulated the fabricants of Calais
to develop, enlarge, and in every way perfect their productions, so that with
the anticipated recurrence of a large demand for lace, everything that me-
chanical ingenuity, artistic merit, and expert skill, for which this country is so
noted, can devise, will be found ready and capable of unlimited products. In
confirmation of the improved condition of the industry, it is to be noted that



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CREDIT-PROTECTING UNIONS IN GERMANY. 55 1

the value of the lace invoices, as declared at this consulate for the third quarter
of the year (July to September, inclusive) and which is always understood
as being the dullest of the year, shows an increase of nearly 80 per cent
over the corresponding quarter of 1895.

The adoption of a system of reciprocity between the sister republics
of France and the United States whereby the fine creations of this long-
established and honorable industry of Calais could be exchanged for the
many surplus products of the United States, particularly in the line of lum-
ber and its innumerable manufactured products, of which this part of France,
owing to the rapid obliteration of the forests, is in such need, would receive
the encouragement and active support of all identified with the lace industry
as well as those interested in the commercial and maritime importance of
the seaport of Calais and the north of France.

CHARLES W. SHEPARD,

Calais, November 11, i8g6, ConmL



CREDIT-PROTECTING UNIONS IN GERMANY.

An institution of great merit, and one almost unknown in the United
States, is the Credit-Protecting Union. Besides doing original work, it
supplements Dun and Bradstreet. Its motto is *' International union of
merchants and manufacturers for protection against bad credits.'* It has
six hundred branches and special correspondents all over the world. ^ It
took a premium at the World's Exposition at Antwerp in 1894. It gives
written and oral information to members as to the credit of concerns all
over the world. It collects bad bills, charging nothing therefor except
postage. It helps to find debtors who have fled, it warns against swindlers
and bad payers, acts as arbitrator in doubtful cases, secures the services of
excellent lawyers at reduced rates in all the cities where unions exist, and
furnishes a union newspaper free.

Following are extracts from the rules and regulations :

(1) The union for reforming credits has for its object: [a) To protect members, by con-
fidential information, against business losses by bad credits; {b) through pressure brought
by the unions to make collection of bad bills easier; [c) to provide the surest possible infor-
mation concerning the business ability, standing, and credit of parties with whom members
desire to do business; (^Z) to bring about a timely reform in the granting of credits and to
hinder, as far as possible, the misuse of credits.

(2) These objects can best be obtained {a) by erecting bureaus to take care of the com-
mon interests and to see that the rules and regulations of the unions are properly carried out;
{h) by holding meetings for the exchange of ideas and information regarding such business
experiences as are of interest and value; [c] by giving out *• black lists" of persons unwill-
ing to pay just debts after having been duly warned by the officers of the union; (</) by means
of the union journal, with its lists of cjuestions and extra lists of names concerning whom
special inquiries are to be made; (^) by seeking to cooj)erate and unite with other organiza-
tions with the same object; {f\ by keeping up constant correspondence with other credit-
reform unions for the purpose of exchanging notes, etc., regarding good and bad business
houses.



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552 CREDIT-PROTECTING UNIONS IN GERMANY.

(3) The business manager can admit members, as can also the executive committee
(Vorstand). A member is admitted to all rights and privileges as soon as he receives notice
thereof. Meml)ers must remain in a union at least two years, and must give three mooths*
notice of intention to resign. The business manager may leave after giving three months' no-
tice. From day of notice of intention to leave all claims between him and members are at
an end, except that he must return part of the yearly fees paid in, according to the time that
must elapse l)efore the end of the year; 1)esides this, he must buy back all question cards at
the original sale price.

(4) The yearly fee is 12 marks ($3), plus an admission fee of 3 marks (75 cents).

(9) The material gathered from time to time, by the business manager, shall belong to
the union and must be handed over by him to his successor.

METHODS OF CONDUCTING BUSINESS.

Motions to proceed to warn debtors must be made out in prescribed fomis
and must be given by members to the union. In the interest of creditor and
debtor, the latter will be offered the aid of the union to effect a settlement,
absolutely free of all charges. The creditor will have to pay all postage.
When, in consequence of warning, payment is proffered, the business manager
must receive, receipt, and turn over the same without deducting a dollar
except for postage. Information will be sought, upon request, not only in
Germany, Austria, and Hungary, but in all parts of the world.

Money to pay for written information must be sent at the time inquiry is
made, otherwise no attention will be paid to the demand. The price for
each written notice of a firm's or person's credit is 80 pfennigs (18 cents) ;
from places abroad, where there are unions, i mark (24 cents). Notices from
places in foreign parts where there are no unions cost a great deal more,
and can not be fixed. Information sent by telegraph or cable costs 24 cents
extra. Telegraphic notices can only be obtained through the unions of which
the party seeking information is a member.

To make matters easy, question forms are printed and sold at 18 cents
each. One such printed form entitles to a reply as to the standing of one
person, business, or firm. Upon receipt by post of such a form (card) the
bureau will give, if possible, the desired information. In case the informa-
tion covers foreign firms, persons, etc., 18 cents (the value of the card) counts
in the costs to be estimated. These cards can be sent direct to foreign bu-



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