United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 196-199 online

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88,357
326,514

Total 3.037.947



Denmark

France

Sweden

Holland

Australasia

United Slates

Germany...

Canada

Other countries..



1896.



Quantity. 1 Value.



/Vr cftii.
40- 4
15-4
10. 7

7.7
7.2
4-7
3-5
2.9
7-5



1895.


1894.


1893.


Quantity.


Value.


Quantity.


Value.


Quantity.


Value,


Cn'fs.


Per cent.


Cwts.


Percent.


Cvsftx.


Per cent.


1,162,770


41.3


>,><», 493


42.8


934,787


40.1


454,843


i6.i


424,645


16. 5


468,317


20.1


310,809


11


366,306


10.3


267,401


II. 5


191,301


6.8


»65,i57


6.4


143,811




3«3.393


II. I


290,605


"•3


'69,439




66,933


a. 3


39,996


X.3


33,930




"a,338


4


137.755


5.4


164,985




38,949


«.4


30,8i7


0.8


43.«6o




174,422


6.1


136,991


5.3


« 13,644




3,825,663


100


2,574,835


100


2,327,474


100



(4) The importation of cheese for the years above named and the coun-
tries from which the product is received.



From—



Canada

United States...

Holland

Australasia

France

Other countries

Total



1896.



Quantity.

Civts.

1.234,397
581,187
292,988
55. M9
45.676
35,238



Value.

Per cent.
55

25.9
13
3.5
3
1.6



>895.



1894



Quantity. | Value. Quantity. Value.



Cu<t5.

,150,013

500,419
305.920

92, 759
56,393
28,310

100 3,133,619



\Pet



cent.
53-9
23- 4
M-3
4-4
3.7

».3



Cwts.

,142,104

672,347

398,693

54,378

52,969

45,654



100 2,366,145



Per cent.
50.4
29.7
13.3
2.4
2.3



'893.



Quantity. ^ Value.



Cwts.


Per cent.


,1,046.704


50-4


' 645,235


31


369,364


13


37, "4


1.8


58,346


2.8


30,699


t


2,077,463


100



I may, perhaps, add that on account of the inferior quality of some of the
cheese shipped here by unprincipled manufacturers of a compounded product
known commercially as ** filled*' cheese, buyers have been largely prejudiced
against the American product.

The difference between Canadian shipments (55 per cent) and those
of the United States (25 per cent) should induce our producers to investi-
gate the cause.

A. D. DICKINSON,

Nottingham, January 20, iSgj, Consul,



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NOTTES.

Two Looms for Woolen Weavers in Germany. — Consul Monaghan, of
Chemnitz, January 23, 1897, says:

For a long time, manufacturers of woolen cloths have been considering
the question of making weavers attend two looms, instead of one. Foreign
competition has compelled them to do so. To-day and henceforth, in this
country, woolen weavers are to run two looms. The principal cause of the
change is to be found in England*s power to put down Huddersfield woolens
in Aix la Chapelle, in spite of freights by land and sea, plus 10 per cent imp)ort
duties, cheaper than the Aix la Chapelle manufacturers can sell at their own
gates. For a long time, German manufacturers were unable to find out the
factors that made this possible. They claim to have discovered them in
England's two looms to each weaver. This reduces the price of production
for England so much that competition, not only outside, but at home, is no
longer possible on the old basis. The entire United States market, for a
long time held by Aix la Chapelle specialties, is now in the hands of Hud-
dersfield, Bradford, and other English cities. The thing to be done, in the
face of such facts, is to follow England's example and make weavers run two
looms. This is now the rule. The laborers find it hard, and it is hard.
No one who knows anything about the nerve tension consequent upon run-
ning all kinds of textile machines will fail to pity the people compelled to
run two looms, where formerly they tended only one. Less pay, relatively
more work, physical exhaustion, and quicker general debility and despond-
ency will be the results. Hundreds are to be turned out of employment who
know no other way to win a livelihood. The promises to find employment
for them in other branches are too hollow to have any effect, except to raise
hopes that will never be realized. All eyes here are turning toward the
United States with the hope that the one-weaver-to-two-looms system will
win back for Aix la Chapelle the trade of the firms that bought there for-
merly, but buy now in England. The employees urge that under the new
system they will break down and be unfit for work at 40 years of age, rather
than, as now, at 45. If in no other way, the eyes will wear out, making
good, fine weaving less possible. This danger, the manufacturers say, will
be met by putting in better material, thus lightening the labor for eye and
hand. How much this will help, if carried out, remains to be seen. That
wages will be less, relatively, is a foregone conclusion. Workmen and em-
ployers are not yet agreed as to how best to adjust the new rates. The whole
problem is engendering, or, certainly, is in danger of engendering, difficulty
between the interested parties. The manufacturers, if they are to hold their
own and to win back what they lost or were losing, must do as England has

579



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580 NOTES.

done. The battle is to be fought out. Germany can not compel outside
forces or influences, except as she meets them in the world's markets. In
the past, those places that were most famous for their handmade products
fought hardest against power machines. Many of them lost all, manufac*
turers up with the times opening in less discontented districts.



Commercial Travelens in Germany. — Under date of January 23, 1897,
Consul Monaghan sends from Chemnitz a copy of an ordinance on the
above subject, as follows :

(1) All foreigners who intend to do peddling or who desire to ply their trade traveling
(from town to town) must have a license.

(2) A license, however, is not needed by foreigners who import and sell farm and garden
products, fruit, eggs, poultry, beeswax, and honey; but such foreigners may be prevented from
carrying on their trade (a) if they are afflicted with a repulsive or contagious disease, or if
they are disfigured in a repulsive manner; (d) if they are under police surveillance; (r) if they
have ever served a sentence of three months or more for any criminal act or misdemeanor,
unless at least three years have elapsed since the expiration of such sentence; (d) if they are
known as habitual drunkards or vagrants ; (^) if they are not yet 25 years of age, unless they
are the support of a family ; (/) if they have no residence as distinguished from domicile in
Germany ; (^) if they have ever been fined or punbhed in any way for violating any of the
ordinances referring to peddling; (A) if they have one or more children who are not properly
cared for or who, if between 6 and 14 years of age, are not receiving sufficient education.

(3) A license is to be refused if the full number of licenses allotted to the district has
already been issued, or if, in the district for which a license is sought, no want is felt for such
line of trade (or goods) which the applicant intends to carry on.

(4) Peddlers and menders of crockery, tin and wire ware, and similar articles, organ
grinders, and street musicians can get a license only when they have had one for the same
trade during the preceding year. No license is to be issued to gypsies.

(5) A license is only for the district for which it was issued, but may be extended by the
proper authorities. A license, however, at no time protects any foreigner from being sent out
of Germany, if the authorities see fit to do so.

(6) A license may be issued for a shorter period than the calendar year, or for certain
days only.

(7) Persons having a license must also have a special permit in order to be allowed to be
accompanied by others. Such permit, however, can not be granted for any- one who, if ap-
plying for a license himself, would be barred by reason of not meeting any of the require-
ments contained in the foregoing sections. Permission to take along persons of the opposite
.sex, unless in the case of husband and wife, or vice versa, or one's own children or nephews
over 21 years old, can be refused, unless as hereinbefore provided for.

Comttiercial traveUrs in particular, — ( I ) Commercial travelers who are in possession of
the special license specified in the treaties, are subject to all the stipulations of the treaties.
If commercial travelers carry the goods they sell with them, or if they buy goods or solicit
orders from other persons than merchants or manufacturers without express previous request,
they must comply with the regulations laid down under it (see above). Excepted, however,
are those soliciting orders for printed matter, books and pictures, wine, linens, and sewing
machines.

(2) The special license for a commercial traveler entitles the holder, after payment of the
regular fees, dues, usual taxes, etc., to carry on business throughout the E^npire. As to the
issuing, refusing, or forfeiting of the special license the same rules apply as above laid down



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NOTES. 581

(3) Goods tx>ught in the regular course of business may be taken along to their place of
destination. Commercial travelers selling goods are only allowed to carry samples (patterns)
of the articles they sell.

All foregoing stipulations are to take effect January i, 1897.



Tax on Foreign Commercial Travelers in Norway. — Consul Gade writes
from Christiania, under date of February 10, 1897 :

A law of July 27, 1896, relating to a tax on foreign commercial travelers
was passed at the last session of the Storthing and went into effect on Jan-
uary 1, 1897. The law provides that foreigners or Norwegian subjects resid-
ing abroad and not subject to taxation in Norway, who are traveling in this
country with or without samples, and offering goods for sale which are to be
imported from abroad, shall, on their arrival in Norway, procure a certifi-
cate from the nearest police officer. The certificate shall be paid for in
advance at the "rate of 100 kroner (^26. 80) for each calendar month, and
the tax shall be paid into the treasury. In case of disobeying the provisions
of the law, the foreign commercial traveler shall be fined from 100 to 500
kroner ($26.80 to $134), besides paying the usual cost of the certificate.
This tax, which has a parallel in Sweden, has called forth strong protests in
the German and French newspapers.



New Transport Line to Berlin. — Consul -General de Kay, of Berlin, writes
January 25, 1897 :

Thinking that such action will assist trade between Germany and the
United States, afford great convenience to the public in both countries, and
incidentally favor the only considerable line of Atlantic steamships belong-
ing to Americans, I have issued a circular to the United States consuls in
North Germany and Saxony calling attention to a new venture in the way
of an express to the United States.

The firm of Brasch & Rothenstein has made arrangements with the Amer-
ican Line of steamers leaving Southampton, also with the customs authori-
ties in Holland and England, whereby they send goods valued at I500 or
under via Flushing and Queensboro to Southampton in time to catch the
American steamer. The regular time from Berlin to New York is to be ten
days; goods are to be passed on the dock, in accordance with act of Con-
gress passed June 8, 1896, and are to be delivered, duty and delivery ex-
penses paid, at the address of the consignee in any part of the United States.

Germany and Austria are arranged in zones and costs of expressage are,
as much as possible, fixed and equalized.

In accordance with discretionary power granted me by instruction of
February 11, 1896, I have given to Mr. Weil, the manager of the American
Express Line, a list of exporters to the United States from this consulate-
general.



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582 NOTES.

After consultation with Mr. Frank H. Mason, consul-general at Frank-
fort, and at his request, I forwarded to him copies of the circular prepared
for the officers in my jurisdiction, which he was to forward over his signa-
ture to those in his jurisdiction ; I also furnished some to Consul-General
Carroll, at Dresden.

The circular referred to states that the exact cost of delivering parcels
of a given weight to a given destination can be reckoned beforehand. Tariffs
and tables are given. For instance, to send 5 pounds from Aix la Chapelle to
Denver would cost ^2.41 ; to send 30 pounds from Frankfort to New York
would cost I3.92, etc.

Superiority of Banking in France. — On February 16, 1897, Consul Ger-
main writes from Zurich that the Paris edition of the New York Herald
contains, in its issue of February 15, an editorial on "The superiority of
banking in France.*' He thinks it will prove interesting and instructive to
the financial and mercantile circles of the United States. The article men-
tions the notable fact that the Bank of France still keeps its rate at 2 per
cent, which figure it has evenly maintained throughout all the monetary dis-
turbances of the past year, while the rates of national banks in England and
Germany are, respectively, 3 and 4 per cent; in Austria, 4 per cent; Russia,
4>2 per cent; and Italy, 5 per cent. The bank keeps the rate of discount
low and prevents variations; makes advances to the State without interest;
supplies the paper circulation and keeps it at a parity with gold all over the
world, and thus has elevated and maintains French credit at the highest
possible level. In the dolorous period following the war with Germany, the
bank advanced about 1,500,000,000 francs to the State, for which it received
only 1 per cent interest, and the money was not all repaid until 1879. Since
that time, the Bank of France in its operations has consulted the interests of
the State and of the commercial community rather than those of its own
stockholders; and yet, in spite of this, the profits for the past year equaled
1 1 ^ per cent on the par value of the shares or about one-half more than
the Bank of England earned for its stockholders, although it maintained its
discount rate for months at double that charged by the Bank of France.



German TraflSc Through the Suez Canal. — Consul Germain, of Zurich,
writes under date of February 24, 1897 :

The imperial German mail steamers contribute annually 2,500,000 francs
($500,000) in round numbers to the Suez Canal Company for passage money,
or a sum equal to nearly half the mail subsidies received from the Imperial
Government. The charges imposed by the canal company are 8 francs
(1 1. 5 4) per register tonnage and passage. The German mail steamers pass-
ing the Suez Canal en route to East Asia are : The Bavaria^ with a register
tonnage of 5,343 ; the Prince Henry^ with 6,613; ^^^ Prussia, with 5,615 ;
the Saxony, with 5,338. They make in all twenty-four trips per annum.



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NOTES. 583

One ship sails to and from East Asia once a month. To Australia and re-
turn there are also twenty-four sailings of twelve trips each way, and the
steamers engaged in that traffic are : The Prince Regent Luitpold, with 6,592
tons; the Oidenburgh, with 5,318; the Gera, with 5,319; the Darmstadt,
with 5,316 ; the Frederick the Great, with 10,700 ; and the Barbarossa, with
10,700 register tonnage.

A Lesson in Economy. — Consul Germain writes from Zurich, February
2, 1897, in regard to a plan recently introduced in the public schools of
several European cities. In Brussels, the children attending public schools
were requested by their teachers to gather up, on their way to and from the
school, all such apparently valueless objects as old metallic bottle capsules,
tin foil, tin cans, paint tubes, refuse metals, etc., and deliver their collections
daily to their respective teachers. In the period from January i to October
I, 1895, o"" within eight months, the following amounts were collected: Tin
foil, 875 kilograms (1,925 pounds); old paint tubes, 100 kilograms (220
pounds); bottle capsules, 2,007 kilograms (4*415 pounds); scraps of metal,
555 kilograms (1,221 pounds); total, 3,537 kilograms (7,781 pounds). This
apparent rubbish was disposed of and the proceeds applied so as to completely
clothe 500 poor children and send 90 sick ones to recuperation colonies, and
there still remained quite a balance, which was distributed among the poor
sick of the city.

The Production of Large Artificial Diamonds. — Consul Germain, of Zurich,
sends, February 4, 1897, the following:

Diamonds of a very small size have been produced artificially heretofore,
but no one has as yet succeeded in producing large ones. Mr. E. Moyat
claims to have discovered a new process by which to produce diamonds of
large dimensions. In principle, his process is about the same as the one
already invented by others, and that is to obtain crystallized carbon out of
iron and coal, by means of high pressure and high temperature. Yet there
is some improvement in the Moyat process as regards the technical operation.
Pulverized coal, iron chips, and liquid carbonic acid are placed in a steel
tube and hermetically sealed. The contents are then subjected to the action
of an electric arc light by means of two electrodes introduced into the tube.
The iron liquefies, is then saturated by part of the pulverized coal, at the
same time the liquid carbonic acid evaporates, thereby creating an enormous
pressure on the mixture of iron and coal. This pressure again considerably
increases the dissolution of the coal in the liquid iron. While the mixture
is cooling, the carbon crystallizes partly in the form of real diamonds and
partly in the form of similar stones. These crystals are then segregated by
dissolving the iron in diluted muriatic acid. The mixture, by the above
method, remains under high pressure during the operation of the electric
current, while by other methods the pressure is obtained later on only by
means of the rapid cooling process of the crucible.



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584



NOTES.



Railways in Spain. — Consul Bartleman, of Malaga, January 30, 1897,
sends the following statistics taken from the Cronica de Ferrocarriles (Rail-
way Chronicle) of Madrid, in reference to Spanish railways in 1896:

The railwa3rs opened to public service during the past year are as follows: June 21, the
section from Salamanca to Bejar of the railway from Plasencia to Astorga, West Spain, 87
kilometers; July i, from Lucainena de las Torres to Ensenada de Agua Amarga, 37 kilo-
meters ; July 6, the section from Orejo to Aranguren of the railway of Zsdti to Solares be-
tween Santander to Bilbao, 78 kilometers; October 22, the section from Guadix to Moreda. of
the railway from Linares to Almeria, 26 kilometers; December 26, branch from Sama to
Samuiio of the railway of Langreo, 2 kilometers ; total, 230 kilometers.

During the last ten years the increase in railways has been 3485 kilometers, according to
ofiScial data, divided as follows:



Year.



1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
189a.



Length.

KUotneters.
aoo.33
161.846

227.716
334- 736
495.447



Year.



1893....
1894....

X895

1896



La^h.

Kilometers.
468.246
458.971
I 716

«3o.«5



Total 3,485.666



Census of the Hawaiian Islands. — Consul-General Mills, of Honolulu,
sends, under date of February 8, 1897, the official figures showing the result
of the census of the Hawaiian Islands, which has just been completed. The
statement is as follows:

The Hawaiians head the list with a total of 31,019. The Japanese colonization comes
next, with the Chinese a close third. The official table, as prepared at the census office, is :



Nationalities.



Hawaiians

Part Hawaiians

Americans

British

Germans

French..

Norwegian

Portuguese

Japanese

Chincse„

South Sea Islanders,
Other nationalities...

Total



Males.

16,399
4.949
x,975
1,406
866
56

3l6
8,909

X9,2ia
19,167

_448
7».5»7



I



Females.

i4,6so

4,236

1,111

844

566

45

x6a

6,989

5,195

9,449

X34

152

36,503



Total.



31,019
8,485
3.0S6
2,250

i,43«

xoi

378

»5,»9«

94,407

31,616

455
600

109,020



Plan to Exhibit American Goods in Paraguay. — On October 10, 1896,
Consul Thom6 writes from Asuncion :

I have the honor to report that I am now in possession of some samples
of imported articles, such as prints, cottons, and shirtings, which, although
not really representative of the importations of these goods, will serve to



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NOTES. 585

give an idea of same. I have written to various commercial houses in the
•United States asking their cooperation in the establishment of American
show rooms in this city, subject to the approbation of my Government,
as the easiest means of presenting the products and manufactures of our
country to the importers and dealers in Paraguay. I shall have the favora-
ble help of this Government and chiefs of departments in the work of estab-
lishing a project of this kind in this country. I shall await letters from
merchants at home and communicate with the Department as to what their
dispositions may be. The difficulty of remittances to the United States,
caused by the high premium on gold, could be overcome by forwarding
timber and **tanino,'* that is, the bark of certain trees that grow exten-
sively in this country, which is excellent for tanning purposes. In my
opinion, this would be a profitable business in itself, as I am told its impor-
tation into Europe gives excellent results.



Window Glass in Turkey. — The following is from Consul Stephan, of
Annaberg, dated January 7, 1897:

The French chamber of commerce in Constantinople reports that that city
consumes annually about 40,000 cases of window glass, which comes chiefly
from Belgium. The glass is cheap, and for this reason finds a ready market,
though it is of a most inferior quality, of a greenish color, and defective
throughout. The price varies between 15 and 25 francs ($2.89 and $4.83)
per case, according to size. The total imports into Turkey of window glass
during the year 1892-93 amounted to 93,269 cases, valued at 1,392,401 francs
($268,733). The home production covers only a very small part of the
demand, as only a few small factories exist in the Empire. The factory at
Pascha-Bagtsch^ produces chiefly lamps and lamp cylinders.



Manganese Mines in Brazil. — Consul McDaniel, of Bahia, writes, Febru-
ary I, 1897:

In my report to the Department of State on "Minerals and mining in-
dustries of the State of Bahia,** dated December 14, 1895, I mentioned
manganese ore existing near this city, which had not been worked or pros-
pected. These lands have been purchased by a company, which engaged an
engineer with practical experience in manganese mining to survey and pros-
pect the mines. This engineer has just returned from his work and informs
me that these mines have proven to be the richest in quantity and quality
known and convenient of access, being situated about 16 miles from the
port of Nazareth, on the railroad between Nazareth and Amargosa. Naza-
reth is about 50 miles from this city. Mr. Grason, the engineer, estimates
that over 1,000,000 tons of first-class ore are in this mine.



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586



NOTES.



New Post-Office at Ghent — Under date of February 22, 1897, Consul
Morris, of Ghent, writes to call attention to the new post-office about to be
built. He thinks it might afford an opportunity to American firms to supply
some post-office specialties in the way of fixtures — post-office boxes, etc. All
correspondence relative thereto should be addressed to the Honorable Min-
istre de Postes et Telegraphes, at Brussels.



Consular Reports Transmitted to Other Departments. — The following
reports from consular officers (originals or copies) were transmitted during
the month of March to other Departments for publication or for other
action thereon:



Consular officer reporting.



Robert J. Kirk, Copenhagen..

H. W. Bowen, Barcelona

N. W. Mclvor, Kanagawa

Newton B. Ashby, Dublin

Van Leer Polk, Calcutta



Date.

Feb. 19,1897
Feb. 19,1897
Dec, 30,1896
Mar. 13,1897



Subject.



Treatment of plants with ether,

Coining of Spanish silver„

Buckwheat ,

Health of Dublin in 1896

Indian Government crop re-
ports.



Department to which referred.

Department of Agriculture.
Director of the Mint.
Department of Agriculture.
Marine Hospital Service.
Department of Agriculture.



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FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBI^ICAXIONS.



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 196-199 → online text (page 79 of 82)