United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

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J^arbarti College fLibrarg*

FROM THE

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Consular Reports



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC.



Vol. LX.

NOS. 224, 225, 226, AND 227.

MAY, JUNE, JULY, AND AUGUST, 1899.



WASHINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1899.



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CONXBNXS.



Page.

I. — Commerce and Industries of Brazii«„ irAt/e i

II. — Dairy Products of Canada.^ BitUnger 17

III. — Bicycles in Foreign Countries : 33

(France, 33 — Sweden, 35 — Switzerland, 37 — Aden, 39 — Mada-
gascar, 40 — Straits Settlements, 41.)

IV. — The Textile Industry of Japan Pratt 41

V. — Industrial Conditions in Japan I.yon 47

VI. — Japan's Tariff Conventions with Germany and Y^K\\Q}L..Buck 48

VII. — Clock Trade in Japan Gowcy 56

VIII. — Fertilizers in Japan Harris 57

IX. — Cotton Spinning in China and Japan Gowcy 58

X. — Report of the French Business Mission to China Mason 60

XI. — Currency in China Goodnow 61

XII. — Nuts in China Bandiml 64

XIII. — Floods in China: Appeal for Help ...Fowh-r 65

XIV. — Chinese Decree as to Railway Construction Conner 66

XV. — Opening for American Railway Materials in Formosa,

Davidson 67

XVI. — Tax on Petroleum and Matches in Java Everett 68

XVII. — Tariff Changes in New South Wales \ 68

XVIII. — United States Trade with Sydney f 71

XIX. — Commercial Travelers in Korea Allen 73

XX.— Commercial Travelers in Aden Cunningham 75

XXI. — Direct Steamship Service with Turkey Dickinson 76

XXII. — Jute Culture and Jute Industries in India Patterson 78

XXIII.— Dredge for Russian Canals IVinslow 7y

XXIV. — Harvest of Cereals in European Russia in iSyS IlolUnvay 80

^XV. — British National Grain Stores Phillips 83

XXVI. — Agriculture in Sweden VVinshnv 85

XXVIl.— The Uses of Peat Moss in Europe 86

(Netherlands, 86 — Germany, 87 — France. 87.)

XXVIII. — Prices of Provisions in Prussia Diederich 88

XXIX. — Scarcity of Meat in Strassburg Bachr 88

XXX.— Agricultural Exhibitions in Italy Johnson 89

XXXI. — International Exhibition at Liege IVinslow 91



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II CONTENTS.

Page.

XXXII. — Expositions of United States Goods Abroad 92

(France, 92 — Ireland, 94 — Guatemala, 95.)

XXXIII. — Prices of American Lumber at Rotterdam Listoe 96

XXXIV. — American Locomotives in England Smyth 97

XXXV. — American Mules at Malta \ 99

XXXVI. — American Wheat at Malta \ Grout 100

XXXVII.— Steamship Communication with Malta ) 104

XXXVIIL— American FlouR in Brussels \ 105

XXXIX. — Belgian Restriction on United States Fruits v Roosevelt

AND Plants ) ^TtCf

XL.— Austrian View ok United States Trade Com petition.. j^^^rAr 107

XLI. — United States Trade with Roumania Rockhill 108

XLIL— The World's Wool Market and the United STAVES.^twell 109

XLIIL— Cotton-Seed Oil in Marseilles Skinner in

XLI v.— Consumption of Beer in Spain Mertens 112

XLV. — Nizhni Novgorod as a Market.- Covert 113

XLVI. — Russian Petroleum in Portugal Thieriot 114

XLVIL— Report of Hamburg Chamber of Commerce, Piicaim 115

XLVIIL— Shoe Lasts in Germany Mason 117

XLIX. — Coloring of Toys and Candy in Germany Diederich 118

L.— Government Aid to the Export Trade ok Germany.. W^w/^-r 119

LI. — Cloth Pressing by Electricity Atwell 120

LIL— Markets in Paris ) 121

>■ Gowdy

LIIL — The Pavements' of Paris ) 123

LIV.— Antwerp Ivory Market Lincoln 125

LV.— New Weaving Machine in Great Britain McFarlatid 126

LVI. — Service ok Commissionnaires in Great Britain Grinnell 127

LVIL— Interdiction ok Cattle Fairs in Belgium Roosevelt 128

LVIII. — Varnish, Rope, and Canvas in Paraguay 1 129

LVIX. — Proposed Paraguayan-United States Bank f 130

LX.— Caitlk in Uruguay Swalm 135

LXI. — Cotton Goods in Ecuador /> Leon 136

LXII. — Imports of Explosives in Peru ,.. Dickey 140

LXIIL— Ocean Frekhit Rates and Argentine Trade Buchanan 141

LXIV. — Monazite Concession in Brazii , Furniss 143

LXV.— Jewelry in Guatemala , \ 145

LXVI, — Rubber in Guatemala [ ^ ^147

LXVII. — Cultivation ok the Vanilla Bean in Mexico Jones 151

LXVIIL— Shoe Trade in Mexico Kindrick 155

LXIX.— Bottles in Mexico Pollard 156

LXX. — Carriage and Wagon Factory in Mexico Kindrick 158

LXXL— Collection of Debts in England Halstead 159

L?CXn,— Collection of Debts in Ireland.. Wilbour 163



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CONTENTS. Ill

Page.
LXXIII. — Collection of Debts in Germany Harris 165

LXXIV. — Collection OF Debts in Belgium Lituoln 167

LXXV. — Collection OF Debts IN Cape Colony Stowe 169

LXXVI. — Collection of Debts in British Guiana Moulton 171

LXXVII. — Collection of Debts in Guatemala Beaupr/ 174

LXXVIII. — Trade and Industries in Sout^ Africa Stowe 176

LXXIX. — Trade Conditions in the Transvaal Macrum 178

' Mason 179

LXXX. — Foreign Appreciation of the United States Monaghan 182

Consular Service McFarland 182

. Halstead 183

LXXXI. — Notes (Trade of Spain in 1898 — Certificates of Identification in
Spain — Motor- Vehicle Competition at Liverpool — British Rail-
road Charges for Travelers* Samples — Canadian Freight
Charges for Petroleum — Copra in Samoa: Freight Rates
from America — Commerce of Hiogo — Communication wiih
the Philippines — Orange Boxes in Syria — Passenger TraflBc
Across the Russian Frontier — Expositions of United States
Goods in Russia — Manufacture of Marmalade in Scotland —
Berlin Congress for Suppression of Tuberculosis — Belgian
Congress of Life-Insurance Doctors — Adulteration of Coffee
and Chicory in Belgium — Telegraph Lines to Dawson: Tem-
perature in the Yukon — Indigent Sick in the Yukon — Warning
to Investors in the Yukon — Machetes in Paraguay — Coal
Trade in New South Wales — Shoe Trade of Hawaii — Circula-
tion of Currency in Japan — Preservation of Rubber Trees in
Kongo Free State — Debts of German Cities — Germany's For-
eign Trade — Demand for Tobacco in Spain — Exports from St.
Gall to the United States — Sulphate of Copper in France —
American Coal in Marseilles (Correction) — Wireless Teleg-
raphy in France — Sicilian Sumac Trust — Horticultural Ex-
hibition in Russia — Poultry Exhibition in Russia — German
Hop Trade — High Price of American Meat in Germany —
American Bicycles Wanted in France — United States Rivets
Wanted in England — Steel ButtHingesand Hardware Wanted
in England — United States Milling Machinery in Canada —
Postal Money-Order Service with Mexico — Rope Factory ip
Mexico — United States Books in Honduras — Tariff Increase
in Haiti — Tariff Changes in Antigua — Brazilian Tariff
Changes — Canadian Tariff Changes — Survey for Hankau-
Canton Railway — Emigration from Switzerland — Canals iq
Milan — Contracts for Board in Germany — Belgian Tax on
Ql)icose — Phylloxera in Alsace-Lorraine — Potato Cultivation



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IV • CONTENTS.



Page.



in Jersey — Plowing in Scotland — Milking Machine in Scot-
land — Congress in France Against Abuse of Alcoholic Li-
quors — Consular Reports Transmitted to Other Departments).. 182
LXXXII. — Foreign Reports and Publications (Trade in Macedonia and
Italian Competition — Commerce of Spain in 1898 — ^A New In-
dustrial Star— Trade in Textiles at Rio de Janeiro— Railway
in French Guinea — Swiss Manufactures in the World's Mar-
kets) 203



P^ull dlrectione for tsizxdlxia the Consular Reporici are siv-en in No.

131, paee 663.



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REPORTS BY COUNTRIES.

Aden: Page.

Bicycles in 39

Commercial travelers in , 75

Antigua:

Tariflf changes in 199

Argentine Republic:

Ocean freight rates and trade of.^ 141

Austria:

View of United States trade competition in 107

Belgium:

Adulteration of coffee and chicory in 189

American flour in 105

Antwerp ivory market • 125

Collection of debts in 167

Congress of life-insurance doctors 189

Interdiction of cattle fairs in 128

International exposition at Liege 91

Restriction on United States fruits and plants in 106

Tax on glucose 201

Brazil:

Commerce and industries of. i

Monazite concession in 143

Tariff changes in 199

Canada:

Dairy products of 17

Freight charges for petroleum in 184

Indigent sick in the Yukon 190

Tariff changes in 199

Telegraph line to Dawson 190

Temperature in the Yukon 190

United States milling machinery in 198

Warning to investors in the Yukon 191

Cape Colony:

Collection of debts in 169

China:

Cotton spinning in 58

Currency in 61

Decree as to railway construction in 66

Floods in: Appeal for help 65

Nuts in 64

Report of the French business mission to 60

Survey for Hankau-Canton Railway 200

Ecuador:

Cotton goods in 136

England:

American locomotives in 97»98

Collection of debts in ^59



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VI REPORTS BY COUNTRIES.

England — Continued. pAge.

Motor-vehicle competition at Liverpool 183

Potato cultivation in Jersey 201

Steel butt hinges and hardware wanted in 197

United States rivets wanted in 197

Europe:

The uses of peat moss in 86

Formosa:

Opening for American railway materials in 67

France:

American bicycles wanted in 197

American coal in Marseilles (correction) 195

Bicycles in La Rochelle '. 34

Bicycles in Rheims 33

Expositions of United States goods in 92,93

Cloth pressing by electricity in.„ 120

Congress in, against abuse of alcoholic liquors 202

Cotton-seed oil in Marseilles iii

Markets in Paris 121

Sulphate of copper in , 195

Tariff conventions with Japan 48

The pavements of Paris 123

The uses of peat moss in 87

Wireless telegraphy in 195

Germany:

Berlin congress for suppression of tuberculosis 188

Collection of debts in 165

Coloring of toys and candy in 118

Contracts for board in 200

Debts of cities of. 193

Foreign appreciation of the United States consular service 179

Foreign trade of 194

Government aid to export trade of 1x9

High price of American meat in 197

Hop trade of 196

Report of Hamburg Chamber of Commerce 115

Phylloxera in Alsace-Lorraine 201

Prices of provisions in Prussia 88

Scarcity of meat in Strassburg 88

Shoe lasts in 117

Tariff conventions with Japan 48

The uses of peat moss in 87

Great Britain:

British railroad charges for travelers' samples 183

National grain stores in 83

New weaving machine in 126

Service of commissionnaires in 127

Guatemala:

Collection of debts in 174

Exposition of United States goods in 95

Jewelry in 145

Rubber in 147

Guiana, British:

Collection of debts in 171



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REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. VII

Haiti: Page.

Tariflf increase in 199

Hawaii:

Shoe trade of * 192

Honduras:

United States books in 199

India:

Jute culture and jute industries in 78

Ireland:

Collection of debts in 163

Exposition of United States goods in 94

Italy:

Agricultural exhibitions in 89

Canals in Milan 200

Sicilian sumac trust 196

Japan:

Circulation of currency in 192

Clock trade in 56

Commerce of Hiogo 185

Cotton spinning in 58

Fertilizers in 57

Industrial conditions in.^ 47

Tariff conventions with Germany and France 48

Textile industries of 41

Java:

Tax on petroleum and matches in 68

Kongo Free State:

Preservation of rubber trees in 193

Korea:

Commercial travelers in 73

Madagascar:

Bicycles in 40

Malta:

American mules at 99

American wheat at io<:)

Steamship communication with 104

Mexico:

Bottles in 156

Carriage and wagon factory in 15S

Cultivation of the vanilla bean in 151

Postal money-order service with 198

Rope factory in 198

Shoe trade in 155

Netherlands:

Prices of American lumber at Rotterdam 96

The uses of peat moss in 86

New South Wales:

Coal trade in 192

Tariflf changes in 68

United States trade with Sydney 71

Paraguay:

Machetes In 191

Proposed Paraguayan-United States bank in 130

Varnish, rope, and canvas in 129



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VIII REPORTS BY COUNTRIES.

Peru: Page.

Imports of explosives 140

Philippines:

Communication with the 186

Portugal:

Russian petroleum in 114

ROUMANIA:

United States trade with 108

Russia:

Dredge for canals in 79

Expositions of United States goods in 1S7

Horticultural exhibition in 196

Nizhni Novgorod as a market 113

Passenger traffic 'across the frontier of .^. 187

Poultry exhibition in 196

Russia, European:

Harvest of cereals in 1898 in 80

Samoa:

Copra in 184

Freight rates from America 184

Scotland.

Manufacture of marmalade in 188

Milking machine in 202

Plowing in 201

South Africa:

Trade and industries in 176

Spain:

Consumption of beer in 112

Certificates of identification in 182

Demand for tobacco in 194

Trade of, in 1898 182

Straits Settlements:

Bicycles in 41

Sweden:

Agriculture in 85

Bicycles in *. 35

Switzerland:

Bicycles in 37

Emigration from 200

Exports from St. Gall to the United States.^ 194

Syria:

Orange boxes in 186

Transvaal:

Trade conditions in 178

Turkey:

Direct steamship service with 76

United States:

Imports from St. Gall 194

Uruguay:

Cattle in 135

World's wool market and the United States 109



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VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES.

The following statements show the valuation of foreign coins, as given by the
Director of the United States Mint and published by the Secretary of the Treasury,
in compliance with the first section of the act of March 3, 1873, viz: *' That the value
of foreign coins, as expressed in the money of account of the United States, shall
be that of the pure metal of such coin of standard value," and that **the value of
the standard coins in circulation of the various nations of the world shall be esti-
mated annually by the Director of the Mint, and be proclaimed on the ist day of
January by the Secretary of the Treasury."

In compliance with the foregoing provisions of law, annual statements were
issued by the Treasury Department, beginning with that issued on January i, 1874,
and ending with that issued on January i, 1890. Since that date, in compliance
with the act of October i, i8go, these valuation statements have been issued quar-
terly, beginning with the statement issued on January i, 1891.

The fact that the market exchange value of foreign coins differs in many in-
stances from that given by the United States Treasury has been repeatedly called
to the attention of the Bureau of Foreign Commerce. An explanation of the basis
of the quarterly valuations was asked from the United States Director of the Mint,
and under date of February 7, 1898, Mr. R. E. Preston makes the following state-
ment:

'* When a country has the single gold standard, the value of its standard coins
is estimated to be that of the number of grains fine of gold in them, 480 grains
being reckoned equivalent to $20.67 in United States gold, and a smaller number
of grains in proportion. When a country has the double standard, but keeps its
full legal-tender silver coins at par with gold, the coins of both gold and silver are
calculated on the basis of the gold value.

'•The value of the standard coins of countries with the single silver standard is
calculated to be that of the average market value of the pure metal they contained
during the three months preceding the date of the proclamation of their value in
United States gold by the Secretary of the Treasury. The value of the gold coins of
silver-standard countries is calculated at that of the pure gold they contain, just as
if they had the single gold standard.

'* These valuations are used in estimating the values of all foreign merchandise
exported to the United States. The value of the Indian rupee, although calculated
according to law at the value of the pure metal contained therein, has a commercial
value above the value of the silver bullion; consequently the value for customs pur-
poses is determined in each case by the consular certificates attached to the invoice
of exports from that country to the United States."

The following statements, running from January I, 1874, to April i, 1899, have
been prepared to assist in computing the values in American money of the trade,
prices, values, wages, etc., of and in foreign countries, as given in consular and other
reports. The series of years are given so that computations may be made for each
year in the proper money values of such year. In hurried computations, the reduc-
tions of foreign currencies into American currency, no matter for how many years,
are too often made on the bases of latest valuations. When it is taken into account
that the ruble of Russia, for instance, fluctuated from 77.17 cents in 1874 to 37.4
cents in April, 1897, such computations are wholly misleading. All computations
of values, trade, wages, prices, etc., of and in the **fluctuating-currency countries"
should be made in the values of their currencies in each year up to and including
1890, and in the quarterly valuations thereafter.

To meet typographical requirements, the quotations for the years 1876, 1877, 1879,
18S1, 1882, and 1891-95 are omitted, these years being selected as showing the least
fluctuations when compared with years immediately preceding and following.

. To save unnecessary repetition, the estimates of valuations are divided into three
classes, viz: (A) countries with fixed currencies, (B) countries with fluctuating cur-
rencies, and (C) quarterly valuations of fluctuating currencies.

IX



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X VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES.

A. — Countries with fix fd currencies.

The following official (United States Treasury) valuations of foreign coins do not include '^ rates of
exchange."



Countries.


Standard.


Monetary unit.


Value in
U.S.gold.


Coins.


Argentine Republic*.

Austria-Hungaryt

Belgium..

Brazil...


Gold and silver..
Gold


Peso


$0.96,5

.20,3
.19,3
.54.6
1.00

1. 00
.36,5

.46,5

.92,6

.26,8
4-94.3

.19,3

.19.3

.23.8
4.86,6>,

.19.3

.96.5
•'9.3

.49,8
1.00
.40,2

x.oi,4
1.08
.51,5

.19.3

.26,8
.19.3

.o4»4

1.03,4

.J9.3


Gold— Argentine ($4.82,4) and
% Argentine; silver-peso and

Gold— 20 crowns ($4.05,2) and
10 crowns.

Gold— 10 and 20 franc pieces;
silver— 5 francs.

Gold— 5, 10, and 20 milreis; sil-
ver— )4, I, and 2 milreis.


Crown


Gold and silver..
Gold


Franc


Milrcis


British North Amer-


.do


Dollar


ca (except New-
foundland).
British Honduras


Ao


do




Chile


^o


Peso


Gold— escudo ($1.25), doubloon
($3.65), and condor ($7.30);
silver— peso and divisions.

Gold— 2, 5, 10, and 20 colons; sil-
ver— 5, io,25,and socentisimos.

Gold —doubloon ($5.01,7); sil-
ver—peso (60 cents).


Costa Rica


^o


Colon


Cuba


Gold and silver..


.do


Denmark


Gold


Crown


Egypt


^o


Pound (loo pias-
ters).

Mark


Gold— 10, 20, 50, and 100 pias-
ters; silver— I, 2, 10, and 20
piasters.

Gold— 10 and 20 marks ($1.93
and $3.85,9).

Gold— 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100
francs; silver— 5 francs.

Gold— 5, 10, and 20 marks.

Gold— sovereign (pound ster-
ling) and half sovereign.

Gold— 5, 10, 20, 50, and loodrach-
mas; silver— 5 drachmas.

Silver— gourde.

Gold— 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 lire
silver— 5 lire.

Gold— 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 yen.


Finland


do


France


Gold and silver-
Gold


Franc


Germany


Mark


Great Britain


do


Pound sterling...
Drachma


Greece


Gold and silver..
.. .do


Haiti


Gourde


Italy


^o


Lira


Japan ^


Gold


Yen


Liberia


do


Dollar


Netherlands^


Gold and silver-
Gold


Flonn


Gold 10 florins; silver— J4, i,
and 2% florins.

Gold ~$2 ($2.02,7).

Gold— I, 2, 5, and 10 milreis.

Gold— imperial (I7.718) and J^
imperial ($3.80); silver— 5<, J^,
and I ruble.

Gold- 25 pesetas; silver— 5 pese-
tas.

Gold — 10 and 30 crowns.


Newfoundland


Dollar


Portugal


^o


Milreis


Russia 1


.do


Ruble


Spain


Gold and silver-
Gold


Peseta


Sweden and Norway.
Switzerland


Crown


Gold and silver..
Gold


Franc


Gold— 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100
francs; silver— 5 francs.

Gold— 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500
piasters.

Gold— peso: silver— peso and
divisions.

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 boli-
vars; silver— 5 bolivars.


Turkey


Piaster


Uruguay


Gold


Peso


Venezuela.


Gold and silver-


Bolivar.







* In 1874 and 1875, the gold standard prevailed.

t The gold standard was adopted October i, 1892. (See Consular Reports No. 147, p. 623.) Values
are still, however, frequently expressed in the florin or gulden, which is worth a crowns or 40.6 cents.

X Gold standard adopted October t, 1897. (See Consular Reports No. zor, p. 259.)

{See note to table of fluctuating currencies.

I For an account of the adoption of the gold standard, see Review of the World's Commerce,
1896-97, p. 254.



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VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES.



XI



B. — Countries with fluctuating currencies ^ i8y4-i8QO.



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 224-227 → online text (page 1 of 92)