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vice chairman, Mrs. Zolia Dembinska of Poland;
second vice chairman, Mrs. Setsu Tanino of
Japan; and rapporteur, Mrs. Tamar Shoham-
Sharon of Israel.

The Commission gave major attention at this
session to matters in the economic field. In line
with its usual practice, it also considered prog-
ress in relation to political rights of women, educa-
tional opportunities, private law, nationality, and
related matters.



• Mrs. Hahn is the United States Repre-
sentative on the United Nations Commission
on the Status of Women.



Economic Opportunities for Women

The Commission had before it this year a series
of reports on the access of women to architecture,
engineering, and the legal professions. These re-
ports marked the first step in a study of oppor-
tunities for women in all major professional and
technical fields. In response to a U.N. question-
naire, information had been received from ap-
proximately 40 countries in all areas of the world,
including Africa, and from 6 nongovernmental
organizations, several with specialized knowledge
of the field. The reports showed that, wliile wom-
en in most countries play a relatively minor role
in these professions, this is due not to legal dis-
criminations against them but ratlicr to social atti-
tudes and practical difficulties, such as lack of
adequate vocational guidance for girl students.

A U.S. suggestion that future questionnaires
include an inquiry on methods the various coun-
tries are using to stimulate wider interest among
young women in entering the professions met with
general approval. This question will provide a
basis for exchange of experience on the many
constructive measures being taken in the United
States and elsewhere to interest girls in new de-
velopments in scientific and technical fields and
acquaint them with the almost limitless oppor-
tunities in many areas for education and oiuploy-
ment open to girls and boys alike. The Ignited



62



Department of State Bulletin



States called attention to measures being taken in
this comitry, such as the increasing use of televi-
sion and mass communication media for this pur-
pose, programs for secondary school students
conducted under the leadership of the National
Science Foundation, expanded vocational guid-
ance and counseling services in high schools, and
numerous projects carried on by organized labor,
trade associations, voluntary organizations, and
other private groups.

Commission membei-s expressed enthusiastic in-
terest in continuing this study. The United
States cosponsored a resolution, which vras unani-
mously adopted, requesting a further report, to
be presented to the Commission in 1961, on op-
portunities for women as technicians in science,
engineering, and related fields.

Under this item the Commission also considered
whether the age of retirement and right to pension
should be the same for men and women. At its
1958 session ^ the Commission had divided sharply
on this question. The Economic and Social Coun-
cil took no action on the Commission's recommen-
dation for identical treatment but instead
requested the Commission to give the matter
further consideration. However, a similar divi-
sion of opinion was reflected this year, with a
somewhat larger majority favoring identical re-
tirement provisions for both sexes and the mi-
nority, including the United States, believing that
a lower age for women was justified. The United
States emphasized the essential difference between
compulsoi-}' retirement systems and the vohmtary
system in effect in this country, under which the
worker decides for himself when he will leave
full employment, pointing out that, although
women workers may receive adjusted pension
benefits at a somewhat earlier age than men, only
a small proportion of women actually retire at
an earlier age.

Equal Pay

In the equal-pay field the Commission consid-
ered a draft pamphlet which had been revised
after discussion last year. The Commission
agreed that this would be an important contribu-
tion to information available on equal pay and
recommended unanimously that it be completed



' For a report by Jlrs. Hiihn on the 12th session of the
Commission, see Botxetin of June 2, 1958, p. 930.



and published by the United Nations as a sales
document. During the discussion the United
States called attention to recent equal-pay legisla-
tion enacted in several States and to equal-pay bills
pending in Congress with achninistration support.

Taxation

A study on taxation affecting women, based on
information requested from governments and or-
ganizations in consultative status, showed little
discrimination against women, although proce-
dures vary widely among member states. United
States women proved to be in an unusually fa-
vorable position in the income tax field ; according
to the study the United States is the only country
where a woman can choose between being taxed
separately on her individual income or jointly
with her husband, in which case the aggregate
mcome is split in two equal parts for tax purposes.

Political Rights and Advisory Services

The amiual progress report on political rights
showed that women in Malaj-a had achieved equal
suffrage some years before that comitry entered
the United Nations in 1957 and that Timisia had
granted limited suffrage to women in 1956. Hon-
duras had revised its legislation, which already
provided for universal suffrage, to make voting
equally compulsory for men and women. The an-
nouncement that a regional seminar for Africa
would be held in Ethiopia in 1960 on the partici-
pation of women in public life was enthusiasti-
cally received by the Commission. The United
States stressed the usefulness of regional seminars
in helping women fulfill the obligations of citi-
zenship and suggested that the report on the
seminar to be held at Bogota in May 1959 for
countries in the Western Hemisphere be made
available for discussion in the Commission next
year. A resolution to this effect, cosponsored by
France, Israel, and the United States, was adopted
unanimously. A second resolution calling for
the exchange of persons as a means of improving
the status of women also received unanimous
support.

Access of Women to Education

A study presented by the United Nations Edu-
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) on the access of women to the teach-



Ju/y 73, 7959



63



Publications on Status of Women

The following U.N. publications relating to the
status of women may be of interest. They can be
purchased from the International Documents Serv-
ice, Columbia University Press, 2960 Broadway,
New York 17, N.Y.

• Women and Technical Assistance (195S.I-21)

35 cents

• Political Education of Women (1951.1V.8)

25 cents

• Nationality of Married Women ( 1955.1 V.l)

50 cents

• Legal Status of Married Women (1957.IV.8)

75 cents

• 1957 Seminar on Civic Responsibility and In-

creased Participation of Asian Women in
Public Life ( 1957.1 V.IO) ; 50 cents

• Commission on the Status of Women : Report

of Session (by years) ; about 30 cents



ing profession provoked an unusually spirited dis-
cussion, with members united in expressing dis-
satisfaction with the sources and the coverage of
the study and a desire for further information.
UNESCO agreed to provide a further report.
The United States called attention to the high edu-
cational standards for both teacliers and pupils
in this country. Pointing out that the rapid
growth of population had led to a shortage of
teachers, the U.S. Representative described pro-
grams to expand the supply of qualified teachers
for our schools by such measures as encouraging
mature women with college degrees to become
teachers when their children no longer need full-
time supervision at home. The United States also
continued to emphasize the importance of full edu-
cational opportunities for every girl and the need
for community support in encouraging girls to
complete their education.

Private Law

Discussion was directed principally to the ac-
tion taken by the Economic and Social Council in
July 1958 whereby the Commission's request for
the preparation of a draft convention regarding
the minimum age of marriage, assurance of free
consent of the spouses, and registration of mar-
riage was modified to call instead for the prep-
aration of a draft recommendation. The United
States had favored this modification by the Coun-
cil in the belief that the Commission could decide



more wisely on the need for a convention after it
received the additional information on these mat-
ters due from govenmients in 1960. The United
States accordingly urged the Commission to post-
pone efforts to have the Council reverse its de-
cision. However, other members felt strongly
that a draft convention should be prepared at this
time, and a resolution was adopted requesting re-
consideration of this issue by the Economic and
Social Coimcil. The United States abstained on
this resolution.

Nationality

There was general support for a new sales pub-
lication on the nationality of married women
which would describe the United Nations Conven-
tion on the Nationality of Married Women, to-
gether with the history and background of work
for equality in this field. The last sales publica-
tion on nationality was issued in 1955, prior to the
adoption of this convention in 1957. After being
assured that a request for a nationality sales pam-
phlet would in no way interfere with the proposed
pamphlet on equal pay, the United States joined
in supporting a resolution requesting preparation
of such a pamphlet.

Participation of Specialized Agencies and Nongov-
ernmental Organizations

Throughout the session the Commission had the
active cooperation of representatives of the spe-
cialized agencies, who contributed valuable back-
ground information and clarified many of the
questions under discussion. As in previous ses-
sions the Commission benefited by the participa-
tion of some 30 nongovernmental organizations in
consultative status with the Economic and Social
Council. These organizations represented a large
proportion of women throughout the world affili-
ated with international organizations.

Plans for Next Year

Toward the close of the session the representa-
tive of Argentina, Mrs. Blanca Stabile, announced
an invitation from her Government for the Com-
mission to hold its 1960 meeting at Buenos Aires.
Members expressed their appreciation and desire
to accept this invitation, which will be considered
further at the next sessions of the Economic and
Social Comicil and the General Assembly.



64



Department of State Bulletin



United States Delegations to
International Conferences

ECE Meeting on Organization and Techniques of
Foreign Trade

The Department of State announced on June 26
(press release 4G3) that George A. Tesoro of the
U.S. resident delegation at Geneva will head the
U.S. delegation to the Special Meeting on Organi-
zation and Techniques of Foreign Trade (Includ-
ing Payments) of the Economic Commission for



Europe (ECE), which will convene at Geneva on
June 29. Mr. Tesoro will be assisted by two other
members from Government and a repi-esentative
from private industry, Edwin Allen Locke, Jr.,
president. Union Tank Car Co., Chicago, 111.

The purpose of the meeting is to convene experts
to expand knowledge of the organization and
techniques of foreign trade existing in European
countries and the United States as a contribution
to tlie knowledge and mutual underetanding re-
garding trade.



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE



Annual Honor Awards Ceremonies



DEPARTMENT OF STATE

On June 23 the Department of State held its
eighth annual honor awards ceremony at the De-
partment of the Interior^ Washington, D.C} Fol-
lowing are the remarks made hy Under Secretary
Dillon hefore introducing Roger W. Jones, Chair-
man of the U.S. Civil Service Corrmiission, the
guest speaker at the ceremony.

Press release 453 dated June 23

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen of the De-
partment and the Foreign Service, and guests:
I am happy to be here today to join with you in
honoring a number of our colleagues who have
distinguished themselves by outstanding service
to our country.

Many of those receiving awards today are being
honored because they have displayed outstanding
ability or heroism in critical situations. Some of
these men and women faced physical danger.
Others faced problems of extraordinary difficulty
and complexity in which the highest interests of
their country were at stake. One of those honored
by a Distinguished Service Award, Ambassador



' For a list of individuals and units honored for out-
standing performance, see press release 452 dated June 23.



Edward T. Wailes, rendered outstanding service
as Chief of Mission of the American Legation in
Budapest during the tragic and dangerous days of
the Hungarian uprising. Ambassador Robert
McClintock, who is to be presented with a Su-
perior Service Award, served as America's Am-
bassador to Lebanon during a most crucial period.
The decisions which he made so ably during those
weeks were of utmost importance to the welfare
of our comitry. Another of the Superior Service
Awards, together with a cash award, will be pre-
sented to Mr. Kyusaka Homma, a Foreign Sei-vice
local employee at the American consulate at Sap-
poro, Japan. Mr. Homma, who is regularly em-
ployed at the consulate as a chauffeur, bravely
volunteered to guard the gate to the consulate com-
pound to prevent unauthorized entry by crowds of
hostile demonstrators. On three occasions he
stood his ground in the face of such crowds and
conducted himself calmly and effectively without
regard for his own safety.

In dramatic situations such as these, heroism
and outstanding competence become conspicuous.
The moment demands such qualities — and any-
thing less might well mean failure or disaster.
But let us remember that we honor here today as
well a great many men and women whose out-
standing service took place under far less dramatic
conditions. We honor many who demonstrate
their dedication and devotion to duty and their
superior competence in the performance of their



Ju/y 7 3, 1959



65



day-to-day duties. Among these is Ambassador
Herbert S. Bursley, who is being presented with
a Distinguished Service Award for his contribu-
tion to tlie condiict of our foreign rehxtions as head
of the Career Development and Counseling Pro-
gram for Foreign Service officers. This assign-
ment for Ambassador Bursley capped a career of
more than 40 years of devoted, inspiring, and suc-
cessful service as a member of the Foreign Service.
Mr. Herbert Reiner, Jr., is to receive a Superior
Service Award for his excellent service as adminis-
trative officer of the American Embassy in
Liberia. Mr. Eeiner's proficiency in the perform-
ance of his duties made an outstanding contribu-
tion to the efficient operation of his post and to
the maintenance of high morale among the other
employees, despite hardship conditions.

I have sinsled out these two awards because I
believe they illustrate the importance the Depart-
ment attaches to superior performance in the or-
dinary tasks which face us each day as well as in
times of grave emergency.

Tliere can be no question but that the work in
which we are together engaged is the most im-
portant work in the world. It is our privilege
and our responsibility to be in the forefront of
our country's efforts to preserve and promote the
peace of the world. Such a noble goal dignifies
every task which we perform. And because of
this, every task we perform in the course of our
careers, no matter how liumble, is deserving of
our very finest efforts.

We need not wait for a single hour of crisis in
which to put forth every talent and skill which we
possess. We live in an age of continuing crisis —
an entire era in which our highest ideals are be-
ing challenged and our peace and safety threat-
ened. Such an age gives us the continuous oppor-
tunity for great and important service.

During the years that I have worked with you
T have come to know first-hand the long, fine tradi-
tion of dedication and service of the Department
and the Foreign Service. This knowledge of your
devotion to duty and your high standards of per-
formance is most gratifying and reassuring to me
in moments when tlie responsibilities of our com-
mon task weigh most heavily.

I wish to extend my personal congratulations
and my tribute to all tiiose wlio are being honored



today. Your exemplary conduct reflects great
credit upon the Department and tlie Foreign Serv-
ice and is, I know, a source of inspiration to all
your colleagues.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ADMINISTRA-
TION

The Department of State announced on June 24
( press release 459 ) that the International Coopera-
tion Administration had held its annual honor
awards ceremony that day at the Mayflower Hotel,
Washmgton, D.C. The occasion also marked the
first appearance of the newly appointed ICA Di-
rector, James W. Eiddleberger, before an all-
employee meeting.

Mr. Riddleberger, fonner Ambassador to
Greece, was presented by Under Secretary of State
Douglas Dillon, who said :

Let me state unequivocally that Mr. Riddleberger has
the complete trust and coniidenee of Secretary of State
Herter nnd myself. He is well suited to his new position
by reason of experience, temperament, and ability. He
shares with the Secretary and myself a deep and abiding
faith in the importance of ICA's mission and in the dedi-
cated men and women who are carrying it out, both here
and abroad.

The new ICA Director told the ICA employees
he had "no doubts about the desirability and
necessity of our endeavor." Mr. Riddleberger also
said,

I believe that the work in which we are engaged is per-
haps the most vital and constructive instrument today in
the struggle for growth, freedom, and independence
throughout the world.

In point of time we are at the end of the first decade of
an experiment in international relations that marked a
turning point in the history of nations and their concept of
dealing with each other, their mutual concerns and re-
sponsibilities, and their obligation to assist the less fortu-
nate and newly emerging nations of the world to assume
their rightful place with dignity and freedom. When we
compare the situation in Euroije today with that of 10
years ago, I believe the Americans and their allies can
take legitimate pride in the accomplishments of this
decade.

Five meritorious service awards,- 14 letters of
commendation, and 14 length-of-service awards
were presented during the ceremony.



" For (ho names of the recipients of the meritorious serv-
ice awards, see press release l.'iO dateil June 24.



66



Department of State Bulletin



Department To Continue Cooperation
in Industry Program for Executives

Press release 454 dated June 23

Under Secretary Dillon, together with Deputy
Under Secretary Loy W. Henderson, other high
Department of State officials, and George V. Allen,
Director of the U.S. Information Agency, met
with the Advisory Committee of the Business
Council for International Understanding on June
23 to discuss the development of a training pro-
gram for business executives going abroad and an
industry orientation plan for senior Foreign Serv-
ice officers.

The Business Council for International Under-
standing grew out of a "VVliite House meeting in
November 1955, at which leaders of business and
Government discussed activities that "encourage
United States business in its efforts to improve the
underetanding abroad of the people and economy
of the United States."

Since that time BCIU has interested over 80
international business firms in participating in
conferences and other private activities in the field
of international relations. It now operates apart
from the Government with its own staff, program,
and financing. However, the Council maintains
liaison with various Government agencies.

Mr. Dillon and Mr. Henderson heard BCIU
Advisoi-y Committee Chairman Charles M. Wliite
and his fellow businessmen outline a program that
would operate imder the administration of the
American University. It would enroll senior busi-
ness executives scheduled for assignment abroad in
a 6-week course that would entail study of lan-
guages, American institutions, and foi'eign cul-
tures. The last 3 weeks of the program would
specialize on the area of assignment.

The Business Council is also developing in con-
junction with the Foreign Service a week-long
orientation course for certain senior Foreign Serv-
ice officers prior to their overseas assignments.
The orientation would be with an industiy wliich
plays an important role in the area of the officer's
new assignment.

The Department will continue to cooperate
closely with this effort on the part of private in-
dustry to better prepare its representatives for
activities in the field of foreign affairs.



Revision of Consular Districts in Australia

Department mailing notice dated June 22

Effective July 1 the eousular districts of Brisbane and
Sydney are defined as follows :

Brisbane, Queensland (consulate) — the State of
Queensland and all of the area of the Northern Territory
north of the 20th parallel.

Sydney, New South Wales (supervisory consulate gen-
eral) — the State of New South Wales, the Australian
Capital Territory, Norfolk Island, the Territory of Papua,
the Trust Territory of New Guinea, and the Trust Terri-
tory of Nauru.

The purpose of this revision was to transfer the Terri-
tory of Papua, the Trust Territory of New Guinea, and the
Trust Territory of Nauru from the Brisbane consular dis-
trict to the consular district of the consulate general at
Sydney.

Designations

Edward B. Haniill as director of the U.S. Operations
Mission, Nicaragua, effective June 24. (For biographic
details, see Department of State press release 460 dated
June 24. )

John M. Steeves as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Far
Eastern Affairs, effective July 1. (For biographic details,
isee Department of State press release 466 dated June 27. )



TREATY INFORMATION



Current Actions



MULTILATERAL



Cultural Relations

Agreement on the importation of educational, scientific,
and cultural materials, and protocol. Done at Lake
Success November 22, 1950. Entered into force May 21,
1952.1
Signiiature: United States, June 24, 1959.

Postal Services

Convention of the Postal Union of the Americas and Spain,

final protocol, and regulations of execution ;
Agreement relative to parcel post, final protocol, and



' Not in force for the United States. States which are
parties are Afghanistan, Austria, Belgium, Cambodia,
Ceylon, Cuba, El Salvador, Finland, France, Federal Re-
public of Germany, Ghana, Greece, Haiti, Israel, Jordan,
Laos, Luxembourg, Jlonaco, Netherlands, Norway, Paki-
stan, Philippines, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand,
United Arab Republic, United Kingdom, Viet-Nam, and
Yugoslavia.



July 13, 1959



67



regulations of execution of the Postal Union of the

Americas and Spain ;
Agreement relative to money orders and final protocol of

the Postal Union of the Americas and Spain.

Signed at Bogotd November 9, 1955. Entered into force
March 1, 1956. TIAS 3653, 3654, and 3655, respec-
tively.

Ratification deposited: El Salvador,' January 19, 1959.

Telecommunication

Telegi-aph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958) annexed to
the international telecommunication convention of De-
cember 22, 1952 (TIAS 3266), veith appendixes and final
protocol. Done at Geneva November 29, 1958.'
Notification of approval: Morocco, March 20, 1959.

Trade and Commerce

Declaration extending standstill provisions of article

XVI :4 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

Done at Geneva November 30, 1957.°

Signature: Canada, April 21, 1959.
Proc&s-verbal extending the validity of the declaration'

extending the standstill provisions of article XVI : 4 of

the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at

Geneva November 22, 1958.'

Signatures: United Kingdom, April 20, 1959; Canada,
April 21, 1959.
Protocol relating to negotiations for the establishment of

new schedule III — Brazil — to the General Agreement on

Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva December 31, 1958.'

Signature: Canada, April 21, 1959.

Women-Political Rights

Inter-American convention on the granting of political
rights to women. Signed at Bogota, May 2, 1948. En-



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