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through your splendid exhibition in New York.

We know that any exhibition is limited ; it can-
not compare with seeing a country at first hand.
But we hope that ours will encourage more of
you to come to visit us as tourists, just as thou-
sands of Americans visit your country each year.
We agree with your saying: "Better to see once
than hear a hundred times."

For Mrs. Nixon and me this is a visit to which
we have been looking forward for many years.
We Americans have long admired the magnifi-
cent achievements of the people of the Soviet
Union in music, in art, in science, in literature,
and, as was again demonstrated in Philadelphia
last week, in athletics. And above all we shall
never forget the heroic courage and monumental
sacrifices of the soldiers of the Soviet Army who
were our allies in World War II.

Opportunity for Better Understanding

I appreciate the opportunity which will be af-
forded me to present to the leaders and people of
the U.S.S.R. a better understanding of the poli-



' Made at Vnukovo Airport at Moscow on July 23.

' For background on the arrangements for the Ameri-
can Exhibition, see Bulletin of Oct. 13, 1958, p. 577, and
Jan. 26, 1959, p. 132.



cies and attitudes of the Government and people
of the United States.

I am looking forward to my meetings with Mr.
Ivlirushchev and other leaders of the Soviet
Government.

And Mrs. Nixon and I and all the members of
our party appreciate the opportunity that will be
provided for us of seeing and meeting people of
the Soviet Union in all walks of life so we may get
to know you better and, in some small measure,
convey to you the sincere friendship which the
American people have for the people of the Soviet
Union.

Invites Questions

I iiave one request to make with regard to my
visit. I hope everyone I meet here will speak
freely with me and will ask me any question you
wish. As your saying puts it : "Keeping accounts
straight has never spoiled a friendship." Frank
and honest discussion on all levels, from the Chair-
man of the Council of Ministers to a worker in a
factory, will help us both to know and understand
one another better.

We would not be honest if we did not recognize
that, while only 40 miles of ocean separate our
new State of Alaska from the territory of the So-
viet Union and while the travel time between
Moscow and New York is now less than 10 hours,
there are grave and serious problems which di-
vide us — differences which, if not resolved, could
endanger the peace to which we all are dedicated.

In view of the destructive power of modern
weapons, we know that if there is another war
there will be no victors, only losers. For the first
time since the dawn of civilization we have
reached the point where we must either learn to
live together or we will die together.



August 17, 1959



227



I recosnize that this visit will not resolve these
differences, but of this I assure you: Every day
we spend in this country we shall work whole-
heartedly to help create a climate of better under-
standing in which the policy differences of gov-
ernments will not separate or bring into conflict
our two peoples, who want and ought to be friends.



OPENING OF EXHIBITION'

I am honored on behalf of President Eisenhower
to open this American Exhibition in Moscow.

Mrs. Nixon and I were among the many thou-
sands of Americans who were privileged to visit
the splendid Soviet Exhibition in New York, and
we want to take this opportunity to congratulate
the people of the U.S.S.K. for the great achieve-
ments and progress so magnificently portrayed by
your exhibition.

We, in turn, hope that many thousands of Soviet
citizens will take advantage of this opportunity
to learn about life in the United States by visiting
our exhibition.

Of course, we both realize that no exhibition
can portray a complete picture of all aspects of
life in great nations like the U.S.S.K. and the
United States.

Among the questions which some might raise
with regard to our exhibition are these: To what
extent does this exhibition accurately present life
in the United States as it really is? Can only the
wealthy people afford the things exhibited here?
Wliat about the inequality, the injustice, the other
weaknesses which are supposed to be inevitable in
a capitalist society?

As Mr. Khrushchev often says : "You can't leave
a word out of a song." Consequently, in the lim-
ited time I have, I would like to try to ans-ner
some of these questions so that you may get an
accurate picture of what America is really like.

Let us start with some of the things in this
exhibit. You will see a house, a car, a television
set — each the newest and most modern of its type
we can produce. But can only the rich in the
United States afford such things? If this were
the case we would have to include in our definition
of rich the millions of America's wage earners.

Let us take, for example, our IC million factory

^ Remarks made at Sokolnikl Park, Moscow, on July 24.



workers. The average weekly wage of a factory
worker in ^Vinerica is $90.54. With this income
he can buy and afford to own a house, a television
set, and a car in the price range of those you will
see in this exhibit. AMuit is more, the great ma-
jority of American wage earners have done exactly
that.

Putting it another way, there are 44 million
families in the United States. Twenty-five mil-
lion of these families live in houses or apartments
that have as much or more floor space than the
one you see in this exliibit. Thirty-one million
families own their own homes and the land on
which they are built. iVmerica's 44 million fami-
lies own a total of 56 million cars, 50 million
television sets, and 143 million radio sets. xVnd
they buy an average of 9 dresses and suits and 14
l)airs of shoes per family per year.

What American Prosperity Demonstrates

IVliy do I cite these figures ? Not because they
indicate that the American people have more
automobiles, TV sets, or houses than the people of
the U.S.S.R.

In fairness we must recognize that our country
industrialized sooner than the Soviet Union. And
Americans are happy to note that Mr. Khru-
shchev has set a goal for the Soviet economy of
catching up in the production of consumer goods.

We welcome this kind of competition because,
when we engage in it, no one loses — everyone wins
as the living standards of people throughout the
world are raised to higher levels. It also should
be pointed out that, while we may be ahead of
you as far as these items are concerned, you are
ahead of us in other fields — for example, in the
size of the I'ockets you have developed for the
exploration of outer space.

But what these statistics do dramatically dem-
onstrate is this: that the United States, the
world's largest capitalist country, has from, the
standpoint of distribution of wealth come closest
to the ideal of prosperity for all in a classless
society. As our revered Abraham Lincoln said,
"We do not propose any war upon capital ; we do
wish to allow the humblest man an efjual chance
to get rich with everybody else."

The 67 million American wage earners are not
the downtrodden masses depicted by the critics of
capitalism in the latter part of the 19th and early



228



Department of State Bulletin



President Eisenhower Sends Greetings for Opening
of American National Exhibition



Message of President Eisenhower^



Because of my inability to be present at the opening
of the American Exhibition In the Soviet capital city,
I have requested the Vice President of the United
States to convey to you and to the Soviet people my
personal greetings. I consider this exhibition at Sokol-
niki a symbol of the United States itself, and in this
spirit I wish to welcome you to visit it as guests of the
people of the United States. In the same spirit I also
wish on all occasions to seek the friendship of the
people of the Soviet Union. Indeed, I would be most
happy if many of you could eventually come to our land
and see the reality behind the pictures and displays
of this exhibition.

I would like, moreover, to go beyond these words of
official greeting and add some personal sentiments.
The fact that the Soviet and American peoples were
comrades in arms during the great war concluded 14
years ago remains fresh in my memory. At that time,
as the Commander of the Western Allied Expeditionary
Force, I was afforded the opportunity to meet with your
valiant soldiers and to learn firsthand of their bravery.
At the end of that war, in August of 1945, I had the
privilege of visiting the Soviet Union itself. On that
visit I was struck by the devotion and dedication of the
people of the Soviet Union to the defense of Mother
Russia. The exploits and courage of the Soviet people
in that defense are matters of record for all to see.



' Delivered by Vice President Nixon at the opening of
the American National Exhibition at Moscow on
July 24.



Nothing that has happened during the interval has
dimmed my admiration for the great people of the So-
viet Union. Indeed, I have been further impressed by
the strides taken by you in science and industry. Last
month I greatly enjoyed my visit to the Soviet Exhibi-
tion in New York and was impressed by the vigor and
the progress which was evidenced everywhere. I re-
turned to Washington with a better understanding of
the achievements of the Soviet people and the proud
traditions of their land. Let me assure you that I
speak for all Americans when I say that we desire noth-
ing but friendship with this dynamic people.

But we must acknowledge that differences in govern-
mental ix)licies have created rifts in our wartime al-
liance. This fact has saddened me greatly, particu-
larly because it is so unnecessary. Our nations have
such a great common interest in world peace that every
effort must be made to bring us closer together. I
therefore hope that this exchange of exhibitions will be
a first step toward a restoration of the trust and unity
that we felt during the recent World War.

I wish that I could have been here to open this exhibi-
tion in person. It has long been my hope to return to
the Soviet Union to see, not only my wartime friends,
but also the great progress you have made in rebuilding
your ruined cities and factories. Perhaps the time may
come when this desire will be realized.

Until that time, my concluding greeting is this : It is
never too late to build a peace with honor and justice.
May this exchange of greetings contribute to success
in that effort.



part of the 20th centuries. They hold their heads
high as they proudly enjoy the highest standard
of living of any people in the world's history.
The caricature of capitalism as a predatory,
monopolist-dominated society is as hopelessly out
of date, as far as the United States is concerned,
as a wooden plow.

This does not mean that we have solved all of
our problems. Many of you have heard about
the problem of unemployment in the United
States. "VVliat is not so well known is that the
average period that these unemployed were out
of work even during our recent recession was
less than 3 months. And during that period the
unemployed had an average income from unem-



ployment insurance funds of $131.49 per month.
The day has passed in the United States when the
unemployed were left to shift for themselves.

The same can be said for the aged, the sick, the
others who are unable to earn enough to provide
an adequate standard of living. An expanded
program of social security combined with other
Government and private programs provides aid
and assistance for those who are unable to care
for themselves. For example, the average retired
couple on social security in the United States re-
ceives an income of $116 per month apart from
the additional amounts they receive from private
pensions and savings accounts.

What about the strikes which take place in our



Aogusf 17, 1959



229



economy, the latest example of which is the steel
strike which is going on ? The answer is that here
we have a firsthand example of how a free
economy works. The worker's right to join with
other workers in a imion and to bargain collec-
tively with management is recognized and pro-
tected by law. No man or wom^n in the United
States can be forced to work for wages he con-
siders to be inadequate or under conditions he
believes are unsatisfactory.

Another problem which causes us concern is
that of racial discrimination in our country. We
are making great progress in solving tliis problem,
but we shall never be satisfied until we make the
American ideal of equality of opportunity a real-
ity for every citizen regardless of his race, creed,
or color.

We have otlier problems in our society, but we
are confident that for us our system of govern-
ment provides the best means for solving them.
But the primary reason we believe this is not be-
cause we have an economy which builds more than
1 million houses, produces 6 million cars and 6
million television sets per year.

What Freedom Means to Us

Material progress is important, but the very
heart of the American ideal is that "man does not
live by bread alone." To us, progress without
freedom, to use a common expression, is like
"potatoes without fat."

Let me give you some examples of what free-
dom means to us.

President Eisenhower is one of the most popular
men ever to hold that high office in our country.
Yet never an hour or a day goes by in which criti-
cism of him and his policies cannot be read in our
newspapers, heard on our radio and television, or
in the Halls of Congress.

And he would not have it any other way. The
fact that our people can and do say anything they
want about a Government official, the fact that
in our elections, as this voting machine in our
exhibit illustrates, every voter has a free choice
between tliose who hold public office and those
who oppose them make ours a true people's
government.

We trust the people. We constantly submit big
decisions to the people. Our history convinces us
that over the years the people have been right
much more often than they have been wrong.



As an indication of the extent of this freedom
and of our faith in our own system, 40 hours of
radio broadcasts from the Soviet Union can be
heai'd without jamming in the United States each
day and over a million and a half copies of Soviet
publications are purchased in our coimtiy each
year.

Let us turn now to freedom of religion. Under
our Constitution no church or religion can be sup-
ported by the state. ^\-n American can either
worsliip in the church of his choice or choose to
go to no church at all if he wishes. Acting with
this complete freedom of choice, 103 million of
our citizens are members of 308,000 American
churches.

We also cherish the freedom to travel, both
within our country and outside the United States.
Within our counti-y we live and travel where we
please without travel permits, internal passports,
or police registration. We also travel freely
abi-oad. For example, 11 million Americans will
travel to other countries during this year, in-
cluding 10,000 to the Soviet Union. We look
forward to the day when millions of Soviet citi-
zens will travel to ours and other countries in this
way.

Time will not permit me to tell you of all of the
features of American life, but in summary I think
these conclusions can objectively be stated.

The great majority of Americans like our sys-
tem of government. Much as we like it, how-
ever, we would not impose it on anyone else. We
believe that people evei"y where should have a right
to choose the form of government they want.

American People Want Peace

There is another characteristic of the Ameri-
can people which I Iniow impresses itself on any
visitor to our country. As Mr. Mikoyan and Mr.
Kozlov both pointed out after their visits to the
United States, the American people are a peace-
loving people.

There are a number of reasons for this attitude :
As this exhibition so eloquently demonstrates, we
Americans enjoy an extraordinarily high stand-
ard of living. There is nothing we want from
any other people except the right to live in peace
and friendship with them. After fighting two
World AVars we did not ask for or receive an acre
of land from any other people. We liave no
desire to impose our rule on other lands today.



230



Department of State Bulletin



Our hearts go out to Mr. Klirushchev, who lost
a son, to Mr. Kozlov, who lost two brothers, and
to the millions of other Soviet mothei-s and
fathei-s, brotliers and sisters, sons and daughters
who mourn for their loved ones lost in defending
their homeland.

But while it is generally recognized that the
American people want peace, I realize that it has
sometimes been charged that our Government
does not share the attitude of our people. Noth-
ing could be further from the trutli.

For 7 years I have sat in tlie high councils of
our Government, and I can tell you that the pri-
mary aim of our discussions has been to find ways
that we could use our strength in behalf of peace
throughout the world.

Let me tell you of the backgi-ound of some of
those who participate in our policy discussions.
The Secretary of State lost his brotlier in World
War I. I saw boys as close to me as brothers die
on barren islands 4,000 miles from home in World
War II. No man in the world today has more
knowledge of war and is more dedicated to peace
than Pi-esident Eisenhower.

Those who claim that the policies of the Ameri-
can Government do not represent and are not sup-
ported by the American people are engaging in
a completely inaccurate and dangerous form of
self-deception. Any acbninistration which fol-
lows policies which do not reflect the views of our
people on major issues rmis the risk of defeat at
the next election. "Wlaen our elected officials cease
to represent the people, the people have the power
to replace them with othere who do. The reason
the leaders of both our major political parties
are united in supporting President Eisenhower's
foreign policy is that they are reflecting the views
of a people who are united behind these policies.

The Government and people of the United
States are as one in their devotion to the cause of
peace.

Peace by Negotiation, Not by Ultimatum

But dedication to peace, good will, and human
brotherhood should never be mistaken for weak-
ness, softness, and fear. Much as we want peace
we will fight to defend our country and our way
of life just as you have fouglit so courageously to
defend your homeland throughout your history.

The peace we want and the peace the world
needs is not the peace of surrender but the peace



of justice, not peace by ultimatum but peace by
negotiation.

The leaders of our two great nations have such
tremendous responsibilities if peace is to be main-
tained in our time.

AVe cannot and should not gloss over the fact
that we have some great and basic differences
between us. "\Aniat we must constantly strive to
do is to see that those differences are discussed
and settled at the conference table and not on the
battlefield.

And, until such settlements are agreed to, our
leaders must exercise the greatest restraint, pa-
tience, and imderstanding in their actions and
their statements. They must do notliing which
might provoke a war no one wants.

The fact that one of us may have a bigger
bomb, a faster plane, or a more powerful rocket
than the other at any particular time no longer
adds up to an advantage. Because we have
reached the point in world history where the
Biblical injunction "they that take the sword shall
perish with the sword" is literally true today.

The nation which starts a war today will de-
stroy itself. Completely apart from any retali-
atory action which might be taken by a nation
whicli is attacked, the deadly dust from radioactive
bombs used in an attack will be carried by the
winds back to the homeland of tlie aggressor.

With both of our great nations holding this
terrible power in our hands neither must ever put
the other in a position where he has no choice
but to fight or surrender. No nation in the world
today is strong enough to issue an ultimatum to
another without running the risk of self-
destruction.

Tlie Soviet Exhibition in New York and the
American Exhibition which we open tonight are
dramatic examples of what a great future lies in
store for all of us if we can devote the tremendous
energies of our peoples and the resources of our
countries to the ways of peace rather than the ways
of war.

The last half of the 20th century can be the
darkest or the brightest page in the history of
civilization. The decision is in our hands to make.
The genius of the men who produced the mag-
nificent achievements represented by these two ex-
hibitions can be directed either to the destruction
of civilization or to the creation of the best life
that men have ever enjoyed on this earth.

As I have said on previous occasions, let us



August 17, 1959



231



expand the idea of peaceful competition which Mr.
Khrushchev has often enunciated. Let us extend
this competition to include the spiritual as well
as the material asjDects of our civilization. Let us
compete not in how to take lives but in how to
save them. Let us work for victory not in war
but for the victory of plenty over poverty, of
health over disease, of understanding over ig-
norance wherever they exist in the world.

Above all, let us find more and more areas
where we can substitute cooperation for compe-
tition in achieving our goal of a fuller, freer,
richer life for every man, woman, and child on
this earth.

RADIO AND TELEVISION ADDRESS'

I first want to express my appreciation to the
Government of the U.S.S.R. for giving me an op-
portimity to speak to the people of this country
by radio and television just as Mr. Kozlov and Mr.
Mikoyan spoke to the American people on their
visits to my country.

I realize that 9 days is much too brief a time
for a visitor to spend in this great country. But
in that period I have had the opportunity of
having extended and frank discussions with Mr.
Khrushchev and other leaders of your Govern-
ment. I have visited Leningrad, Siberia, and the
Urals, and I have had the privilege of meeting
thousands of people in all walks of life.

What I would like to do tonight is to answer
for the millions of people who are listening to
this program some of the questions which were
asked me over and over again on this trip so that
you may get a true picture of the policies of the
American Government and people.

Impressions of Soviet Union and People

I should like to begin by answering a question
which I often heard: What are my impressions
of this counti-y and its people ?

While my visit was brief, I did have a chance,
in addition to visiting this great capital city of
Moscow, to see the beauty and culture of Lenin-
grad, whose brave people won the admiration of
the world for their heroic defense of their city
during the war; to savor the inspiring pioneer
spirit of Novosibirsk; to witness firsthand the
thriving productivity of the factory complex of



* Delivered at Moscow on Aug. 1 to a Soviet radio
and television audience.



the Urals. I was greatly impressed by the effi-
cient modern equipment of your factories; your
magnificent ballets in Leningrad and Novosibirsk;
by the competitive drive for progress which is evi-
dent on every side.

But most of all I was impressed by your people;
after all, the greatest asset of a country is not
its forests, its factories, or its farms, but its people.

These are some of the characteristics of the
Soviet people which I particularly noted on this
trip :

First, their capacity for hard work, their vi-
tality ; their intense desire to improve their lot, to
get ahead, is evident everywhere.

There was another feature about the Soviet
people which I noted that may surprise you and
that is in how many respects you are like us
Americans. We are similar in our love of humor —
we laugh at the same jokes. The people of your
frontier East have much the same spirit of what
was our frontier West.

We have a common love of sports; the name
of Vasily Kuznetsov, your great decathlon cham-
pion, is known in the United States as well as it is
in the Soviet Union. We are both a hospitable,
friendly people. Wlien we meet each other we
tend to like each other personally, as so many of
our soldiers who met during the last great war can



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 41, Jul- Sep1959) → online text (page 48 of 88)