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by the administration, the Yap Island Council,
and the intermediate school students.

Our secondary school program continues to ex-
pand and improve. In addition to the Pacific
Islands Central School there are now three pi-ivate
high schools operating within the territory.

The visiting mission had the opportunity to in-
spect the new Pacific Islands Central School at
Ponape and will agree, I am certain, that it is the
equal of any in the Pacific. The new PICS will
be ready for occupancy this August. A com-
pletely new curriculum has been adopted which
gives adequate emphasis to vocational education
and agriculture as well as general education. Ad-
ditional staff member's, American and Microne-
sian, are being employed to institute this curricu-
lum with the opening of the school tliis fall. The
school population will also be increased from
roughly 120 to 150 students. We anticipate
further growth within the next few years. Within
5 years, our target plans call for the majority of
the teachers at PICS to be Micronesians.

Each year sees more Micronesians obtaining
education outside the territory. This past j^ear,
for example, some 136 students attended high
schools in Guam, 12 attended the territorial col-
lege in Guam, 52 were in institutions of higher
learning in Hawaii, 10 in tlie Phil)p])ines, and 25
in tlie United States and Fiji.

Again last year three new scholarships were
awarded in eacli district, except Rota, for a 2-year
period of advanced schooling in colleges in Hawaii
and Guam, and a similar number were granted



248



Department of State Bulletin



for this coining year. Fifty-two students cur-
rently hold trust territory scholarships and 40
more have foundation or outside scholarships.
One new factor in our scholarship program this
year has been the selection of 10 scholarship stu-
dents to attend the territorial college in Guam.

Starting next year we propose to give increased
empliasis to our special scholarship program,
which is designed to provide full university train-
ing in selected fields. We now have three special
degree scliolareiiips in the field of education, two
for the study of law, one for the study of agricul-
ture, one for public administration, and one for
fisheries and food technology studies. Starting
next year we propose to decrease slightly the num-
ber of the 2-year district scholarships and increase
instead the number of scholarships leading toward
a degree.

In other fields our educational staff continued
to play an important part. I have noted already
the very successful health-education training
course in Guam which was made possible through
the cooperation of the health and education de-
partments. Similarly, in the districts the educa-
tional staff works closely with the health depart-
ment in the field of health education. In several
districts, Truk and the Murshalls particularly, the
education department has taken an active part in
the political development program. All district
education departments have developed adult ed-
ucation programs, and increasing emphasis is be-
ing given to this important phase of community
education.

Construction

Our construction program progressed satisfac-
torily and will be continued this coming year with
the initiation of a number of special projects in
addition to the regular progi-am. As I have just
noted in my remarks on education, the new Pa-
cific Islands ■Central School plant will be com-
pleted and ready for occupancy by August 1, 1959.
Of the construction programs currently under way
or scheduled to begin this present year perhaps
the most noteworthy are the construction of addi-
tional permanent staff housing, new intermediate
schools in the Marshalls and Truk districts, com-
pletion of a new hospital in Palau, expansion of
the water systems in Truk and Palau, and the be-
ginning of the new dock and harbor rehabilitation
project in Truk. In addition, work will continue



on rehabilitation and construction of new units
to present hospitals, to warehouses, to refrigera-
tion plants, to administration buildings, and to
the improvement of roads.

With the inclusion of the new dock and harbor
project of Truk in our construction program, we
will expend some $900,000 this year for construc-
tion purposes. As in the past we have geared our
construction programs to the local economy, and,
other than American supervisory staff, all con-
struction work is carried out by Micronesians.
This type of approach results, without question,
in a somewhat slower rate of progress in our over-
all building program, but it has the tremendous
advantage of keeping the bulk of money spent for
construction within the territory, thus increasing
the purchasing power of the Micronesian worker
and strengthening in general the local economy.
A second important advantage is the providing of
skills to a large body of Micronesian workers
through the experience gained in working on all
aspects of a construction program.

Progress in Political Development

In the field of political development progress
continued on both a municipal and district level.

Our target date of chartering an average of 10
municipalities was, I am glad to report, far ex-
ceeded with the chartering, since July 1, 1958, of
20 additional municipalities. We now have for-
mally chartered some 32 mimicipalities. Out-
standing has been the chartering program in Pa-
lau district, where 15 of the 16 municipalities have
been chartered. In that district a political char-
tering team from the local Island Affairs Staff de-
voted almost full time to the chartering program.
In other districts chartering teams composed of
members of Island Affairs and Education Depart-
ment staffs have been devoting considerable time
to the chartering program.

On a district level three major events of politi-
cal significance occurred. In Ponape district the
Ponape District Congress, a unicameral body with
all members elected, was established. The former
Ponape Island Congress, a two-house body with
an hereditai-y house of nobles, was dissolved upon
the convening of the new districtwide congress.
This new Ponape District Congress has held two
sessions since its formation.

In the Marshalls district the fonner bicameral
Congress met in early September 1958 and voted



August 17, 1959



249



for the adoption of a new constitution establishing
a unicameral legislative body. The makeup of
this new unicameral Congress is 80 percent elected
representation and 20 percent representation by
hereditary chieftains, the Iroiji. We believe,
however, that within the next several years the
Congress will move in the direction of a com-
pletely elected representative body, particularly
with respect to voting privileges.

Perhaps the most striking political event of
the year was the organization and chartering of
the Yap Island Congress. The visiting mission
will recall that the official charter was presented
to the Congress Organization Committee wliile
the mission was in Yap. The visiting mission
also participated in a ceremony honoring the for-
mation of the new Congress, and its distinguished
chairman planted a coconut tree to commemorate
this forward step in the political development of
the Yapese people. I am delighted to be able to
report to the Council that both the chairman's
tree and the new Congress are flourishing. The
new Congress held its organizational session in
May, and this month [June] met in its first reg-
ular session. "Wliile this new Yap Island legis-
lative body as yet does not include representatives
from the out-islands of the district, plans already
are under way to consider such representation.
The Yap out-islands are extremely conservative,
and the out-islanders cling to the traditional pat-
terns of leadership which are vested in the elders
of the group. It is interesting to note, though,
that in the fields of education and public health
the younger group is taking an active part; and
in Ulithi, for example, the young men have formed
an organization to promote public ser\'ice pro-
grams. A few years ago such an organization
would not have been possible. In Ulithi the tra-
ditional chiefs have given their sanction to this
public service organization and the younger men
and chiefs work together in sponsoring programs.

I mention this in some detail primarily to il-
lustrate that Yap is not the stronghold of un-
willingness to change as has often been publicized
in the past. It is fortunate that change and de-
velopment continue to be brought about by slow
processes of evaluation and selection rather than
for the sake of innovation. It is our sincere belief
that in the long run Yap and its out-islands will
keep pace in sound development with any society
in the Pacific.



The third interdistrict conference took place
last November. This group is now known as the
Inter-District Advisory Committee to the High
Commissioner, and its members are elected by the
district legislative bodies. The committee this
past year voted to institute a policy of having
members elected for holdover terms so that each
district delegation will have one member who was
in attendance at the previous year's meeting, thus
providing continuity to the Advisory Committee.
To me this is yet another preliminary step to-
ward the eventual development of the Inter- Dis-
trict Advisory Committee into an elected terri-
torial advisory council.

The interest of district leaders in common ter-
ritorial problems continues to grow. Each dis-
trict congress session this past year had observer
delegates from other districts in attendance. Ad-
ditionally contacts continued vrith other areas in
the Pacific. Four delegates participated in the
recent session of the Fourth South Pacific Con-
ference in New Guinea and, I am sure, foimd
the experience most rewarding.

Claim Settlement

As I have indicated previously to this body
the only remaining area of land claim settlement
of appreciable significance is in the Marshall Is-
lands district. Money has been set aside for
settlement of the greater proportion of these
claims, but agreement has not yet been reached
on acceptable terms to the owners and to the trust
territory government. Negotiations continue,
and I trust that final settlement of most of the
land claims in the Marshall Islands district soon
will be forthcoming.

Status of Displaced Marshallese

The 1959 United Nations visiting mission had
the unique opportunity of visiting two of the areas
where resettlement of displaced Marshallese has
taken place. The first was a visit to Ujelang, the
home of the former Eniwetok people, and the sec-
ond was an inspection trip to Eongelap Atoll,
where the Eongelapese now have been settled in
their home atoll for 2 yeare.

The inadequacies of the Ujelang field-trip serv-
ice, long unsatisfactory to the administration as
well as to the people of Ujelang, have now been
satisfactorily worked out. During the past year



250



Department of State Bulletin



a field-trip ship service to Ujelang once every 2
to 214 montlis was maintained through a combi-
nation of shipping from the Marshall Islands dis-
trict and supplementary service from Ponapo
district.

The people of Ujelang collected over $4,500 in
interest this year from their trust fund and with
better shij)piug were able to increase tlieir copra
income. An out-island radio station was put into
operation tliis montli at Ujelang. Its operation
should increase copra production, for the people
now will be able to have better information on
ship arrival dates. Plans for this coming year
call for an American agriculturist to spend con-
siderable time on Ujelang aiding in agricultural
development and in training local workers in agri-
cultural techniques.

In Rongelap major attention has been given to
rehabilitation problems. An American agricul-
turist is stationed on Rongelap to aid the people
in rehabilitation of their food crops as well as to
aid them in bringing their coconut groves back
into full production. Under his direction the
people of Rongelap have completed bushing of the
main island of Rongelap and preparation is under
way for planting of coconut seedlings to replace
the many senile trees in the coconut groves. A
food subsidy program is in existence and will con-
tinue on a graduated and reduced scale until the
end of fiscal year 1961, when it is anticipated that
the people of Rongelap will have made their
island again self-sufficient.

The visiting mission had an opportunity to in-
spect the new village built for the Rongelapese
and will agree, I am confident, that the physical
living conditions of the Rongelapese are far su-
perior to those of the rest of the Marshall
Islanders.

It is our belief that the Rongelapese can make
a satisfactory adjustment back to life in their
home atoll. That this adjustment is slow is evi-
dent and was expected by our staff in view of the
experiences these people went through prior to
their return. There are problems of adjustment
still to be made, but these, we feel, are mainly
psychological in nature and, in time and with
sympathetic underetanding on our part, will be
resolved. I assure the members of this Council
that our administration will continue to work
closely with the Rongelapese to help them make a
successful readjustment to life in their home atoll.



The progi-am of assistance to the people of Kili
continued also. The Kilians, with over $10,000
of annual interest payments, copra proceeds, and
income from handicraft sales, have a more stable
source of income than most Marshallese. The ty-
phoons, however, did affect their main subsistence
crop, breadfruit, and the administration instituted
a partial food subsidy program. This partial
food subsidy program will continue this coming
year.

During the year a chartered schooner called
regularly at Kili delivering supplies and loading
copra. The permanent station vessel for Kili,
which we had built to order in Hong Kong, now
is m Majui-o and is slated to begin regular opera-
tions the end of this month. As the visiting
mission members witnessed for themselves, it has
not been possible to reactivate the former Kili
settlement in Jabor in the Jaluit Atoll. This por-
tion of Jabor was so demolished by the typhoon
that it will be years before even minimum vegeta-
tion can again gain a foothold here. Plowever,
with the forthcoming operation of the new Kili
boat, we hope it will be possible for the Kilians
to begin work again on the islands of Jebet, Jar,
and Boklaplap in the Jaluit Atoll as well as doing
more fishing in the Jaluit lagoon. The Kilians
also have the opportunity to expand appreciably
their handicraft income if they so desire. Kili
produces the well-known Kili handbag, which is
one of the most sought after items of handicraft
produced in all of Micronesia. In fact it is one
item of handicraft where the demand far exceeds
the supply, a reverse of the ordinaiy situation
concerning Micronesian handicraft.

Conclusion

Since the Coimcil has before it a detailed ac-
count of the operation of our administration pre-
pared by the visiting mission, I have attempted
in this statement mainly to enumerate what we
hold to be our chief accomplishments of the past
year.

I wish in conclusion to assure the Council that
we have attempted to follow the principles laid
down before this body in previous years. It is
my opinion that these principles can be attained
only by working closely at all times with the
Micronesians in order to insure that their social,
economic, and political growth will be responsive



August 17, J 959



251



to their true needs and will result from their full
participation.

I am deeply grateful to have the opportunity
to present this report of our program.

STATEMENT BY MR. HENRY, JUNE 29

D.S./D.N. press release 3200

I feel lionored to have this opportunity to ap-
pear before the Trusteeship Council to convey the
■warm greetings of the people of the Trust Terri-
tory of the Pacific Islands to this body. I am
also pleased to have this opportunity to express
my gratitude and appi'eciation to the Adminis-
tering Authority and to the Trusteeship Council
for the progress that has occurred in our territorj-.

It is a great privilege for me to participate in
this meeting and to observe the Trusteeship Coun-
cil in its deliberations. I know this firsthand ex-
perience will benefit me greatly in my work in
Micronesia.

I am from Mokil Atoll in Ponape district,
Eastern Carolines. I had the pleasure of meeting
the members of the 1959 visiting mission last
February when they stopped in Honolulu to visit
the Micronesian students. Later the visiting mis-
sion visited my home atoll of ]\Iokil, and I am
pleased that the people of this small atoll, with a
land area of only one- fourth of a square mile, had
the opportunity to meet with the distinguished
representatives of this important body of the
United Nations. In Honolulu I received a few
letters from Mokilese expressing how grateful
tliey were to have the mission members visit their
tiny atoll.

My main interest has been in political develop-
ment and education. I had spent some time in
Ponape district working in both fields. I have
just completed 4 years' study at the University of
Hawaii majoring in government, and I expect to
use the knowledge acquired at tlie university to
gain a better understanding of tlie needs at home
when working with my fellow Micronesians.

Political Development in Territory

The Trusteeship Council in the past as well as
the most recent visiting mission has commented
on political development in our territory. I
would like to cite a few of my own experiences
in this field to give the Council an idea of what I



252



would call modernizing our political system. In
the summer of 1957 I was a member of a political
development team in Ponape district working in
the communities on election procedures and regu-
lations. It was gratifying to see the enthusiasm j
shown by the people in their desire to choose their
own public officials while retaining the traditional
patterns they valued. I mention this because in
my district hereditary patterns of leadership and
a system of titles have been very strong and im-
portant in the life of the people. Later I had
the oppoilunity of participating in the discussion
of Sokehs Council on the chartering of Sokehs
municipality. Tliis was one of the first munici-
palities in Ponape district to receive a charter.
Tlie team of which I was a member held many
meetings with community leaders and the people
of the communities. We had to explain simply
and carefully the meaning of election procedures.
To issue a charter is easy, but such a charter
would not mean anything unless the people want
and understand it. They must understand and
accept the duties and responsibilities as well as
the privileges involved in representative govern-
ment.

In my district also we have seen the gradual
development over the past 10 years of a represent-
ative legislative body for the entire district. At
first we had only a Ponape Island Congress, in
wliich the nine municipalities on the outer islands,
of which my home Mokil is one, did not have any
voting representation. The Ponape Island Con-
gress in its initial stages had to adapt itself closely
to the Ponape Island patterns; therefore a heredi-
tary House of Nobles as well as an elected House
of the People was established. One of the reasons
for the absence of the outer islands' representa-
tion in this bicameral legislative body was due to
the fact that most of the outer islands lack a noble
class. As this two-house Island Congress met
throughout the years and the people learned more
and more about modern government, there was an
increasing desire for wider and tiiier representa-
tion. I am happy to report that the leaders of
the Nobles' House were as active as members of
the Peoples' Hou.se in expressing desire for com-
plete representation. Along with this growing
desire for elected representation came increased
demands from the jieoplo of the outer islands,
from Kusaie, Piiigehip, Mokil, Kapingamarangi,
and others, for representation in a districtwide

Department of State Bulletin



congress. Last year, Mr. President, a congres-
sional convention was held and a charter for an
all-district, luiicameral congress, with all mem-
bers elected by popular vote, was drafted and
adopted. Tliis new Ponape District Congress is
now in operation and has had several productive
sessions. The first president of the District Con-
gress was a congressman from my home island of
Mokil. I say this not only because I am very
proud for my home atoll to have this honor but
also because it seems to be very indicative of the
progress made in the gro^vth of representative
government in my home district.

I am giving only examples from my home dis-
trict of Ponape, but the same pattern of gradual
development toward the objective of self-govern-
ment and self-improvement can be shown for all
the other districts as well.

Many Obstacles To Overcome

Despite these positive improvements we still
have many obstacles yet to overcome. Micronesia
today is no longer an isolated world but is part of
the world community. Most Micronesians, how-
ever, still think only in terms of local or district
interest. "We must educate ourselves to begin to
think along broader terms — in territorj-wide terms
as well as in district terms. Through the pro-
grams initiated by the Administering Authority,
people are beginning to see their problems in a
wider and more realistic perspective. People are
realizing more and more that they have common
interests and common goals. This fall elected
delegates from each district will again meet with
the High Commissioner and his staff to discuss
common problems. I am to be a delegate to this
Inter-District Advisory Committee meeting, and
I am looking forward to acquiring more firsthand
information on the activities of the other districts.

I am returning home to Ponape after this meet-
ing and am definitely planning to work in educa-
tion. In my opinion further education is the most
pressing need in Microne-sia today. I feel that
educating the Micronesians so they will become
more productive citizens and be able to assume
fully the duties and responsibilities of our eco-
nomic, political, social, and educational advance-
ment is an important goal of our educational sys-
tem. This is exactly what we are trying to ac-
complish.

I have great admiration for and agreement with



a policy which does not disrupt the Micronesian
culture. You all know, however, that there are
numerous aspects of our culture which were in-
troduced from the other cultures. Today we are
exposed to the rest of the world. We must, there-
foi-e, educate ourselves to meet the obligations im-
posed by this new status so that eventually we
will be able to take care of ourselves as we are
related to the rest of the peoples of the world.

There are other aspects in our territory that
need attention. I will briefly mention a few that
appear to be important. Though we are turning
out more and more competent persons for special-
ized fields, we still need many more qualified per-
sons to take over the various specialized profes-
sions. I realize it will take time to achieve such
training.

There are the problems of transportation and
communication. The reports of the past visiting
missions covered this to a great extent. Many
Micronesians are still in need of being informed
on the new mechanics of democratic government
and democratic living. This is where our school
system and the community development program
play an especially important role. There is the
problem of overcoming the reluctance of the older
Micronesians to accept modern agricultural
methods.

We need to continue our support for the proj-
ects which have been started and have been in-
creasingly successful in enabling us to better
utilize our own economic resources. As you know,
our resources are so limited that our economy
will continue to need outside financial assistance
and technical aid in order to build a well-balanced
economy which will meet our increasing demands.

During the past 2 years many areas were dam-
aged by typhoons. If it were not for the needed
emergency aid and the long-range rehabilitation
program granted us by our Administering Au-
thority, many people would not have survived the
destruction.

On the other hand, even tliough we lack the



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 41, Jul- Sep1959) → online text (page 52 of 88)