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Conference in September 1958 — the largest such
conference ever held. To this two-week conference
in Geneva came two thousand scientist-delegates
from 69 countries. The conference was generally
acclaimed even more valuable than its historic
predecessor, held in 1955, in making available the
most advanced scientific, and technical knowledge
of the atom's peaceful uses. This event, and the
activity of the recently created International
Atomic Energy Agency, are in great measure
fruits of the United States policy to support, in
the United Nations and elsewhere, the fullest
international cooperation to develop atomic energj'
for the peaceful service of man.

These United Nations achievements of 1958
give renewed proof that the American people are
right in regarding the principles of the United
Nations Charter as a cornerstone of their foreign
policy. Yet the successes of the world organiza-
tion, though real, are severely limited. The com-
munity of law-abiding nations still faces heavy
tasks and real dangers.

Although many of these dangers are inevitable
in a world of rapid social and political evolution,
the chief source of danger remains what it has
been since the founding of tlie United Nations:
the failure of the Soviet Union to cooperate in
achieving the objectives of the Organization.
Even as they profess their love of peace, the So-
viet leaders refuse to accept the idea of a many-
sided, cooperative effort for the maintenance of
peace and preach instead a dismal doctrine —
totally at variance with tlie Charter — of inexorable
conflict between two supposed "systems".

The United States continues to reject that
blackly fatalistic view of history. In address-
ing tlie United Nations General Assembly last
August 13, I sought to put tliese matters in


DeparfmenI of State Bulletin

proper perspective. I expressed tlie conviction
tliat this world of individual nations is not going
to be controlled by any one power or group of
powei-s. Tliis world is not going to be committed
to any one ideology. I also enn)hasizcd tliat the
nature of today's weapons, the nature of modern
communications, and the widening circle of new
nations make it plain that we must, in the end, be
a world community of open societies.

Such are our goals. However distant they ap-
pear, we must not become discouraged or lose
sight of them. In pursuing them through the
dangers and difficulties of the present the
United Nations is — both for our country and for
the community of nations — a proven asset of in-
calculable value. To remain so it requires, and
must continue to receive, the faithful support of
a strong United States.

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower
The White House,

July 20, 1959.

Independence of Somalia

Statement by Mason Sears

U.S. Representative on the Trusteeship Council ^

Sometimes it is hard to appreciate how fast
time is flying in the political evolution of Africa.
But in no part of the continent is time flying
faster than in Somalia, which becomes independ-
ent next year. The present examination of So-
mali affairs, for example, is probably the last
time the Trusteeship Council will have a chance
to contribute constructively toward the forthcom-
ing independence of the Somali people.

As Somali independence approaches the Coun-
cil very properly is becoming increasingly con-
cerned about the economic difficulties which con-
front the Somalis.

A basic problem arises because there is a lack
of water over most of the countryside. This has
forced a nomadic life on three-fourths of the
Somali population. Because of this the Somalis
must work harder than most people — even to sur-
vive — which is one reason why they are so sturdy
and so imiver sally respected.

However, speaking of wells, we were glad that
a recent and substantial increase in the number
of drillings which have tapped water has helped
to relieve some of the necessity for the nomad
tribes to wander from well to well in order to keep
their animals alive. It may not be too much to
hope that as new wells and new water supplies
are brought into being the nomadic life of the
Somali people will gradually disappear. If so,
it will revolutionize the life and the economy of
the Somali nation.

Pending these and other developments over the
coming years, the United States delegation recog-
nizes that the Somali people will be faced with
great economic difficulties. Because of this the
United States Government has made it clear that,
if requested, it would be glad to lend a helping
hand. This was expressed in a formal communi-
cation addressed to the Somali Government last
year by United States Consul General [Andrew
G.] Lynch in Mogadiscio, to which subsequent
reference was made by me at the 926th meeting
of the Trusteeship Council."

The text of Mr. Lynch's statement was reread to
the Council a few days ago. In effect, it stated

. . . the United States will be prepared, if the people
of Somalia so desire, to assist Somalia to maintain its
economic stability and to achieve an appropriate level of
development in the period of independence. ... It is
subject, as Is American assistance to other countries, to
the necessary United States legislation and appropri-
ations and it will be supplementary to the assistance to
Somalia provided by other nations.

This remains United States policy.

There has in the past been some controversy
over methods of assisting Somalia. Such con-
troversy at this time seems academic and super-
fluous. The economic needs of Somalia have ap-
parently been met for the coming year. After tliat
the Somali Government will be completely sover-
eign and independent and will make its own ar-
rangements in its own way for its economic
relations with other countries. At that time the
United States will be prepared to consider, along
with other potential sources of aid for the Somali
people, the necessaiy means for meeting Somali

'Made before the Council at Xew York, N.Y., on July
24 (U.S./U.N. press release 3209).

' U.N. doc. T/P.V./926.

August 24, 1959


On the political side of Somali developments,
■we were jrlad to hear from Minister [Mauro]
Baradi, chairman of the United Nations Advisory
Council in Somalia, that the mmiicipal elections
of 1958 brought out over 85 percent of the eligible
voters. Few countries witli older institutions of
free elections can do better than this. These elec-
tions showed not only the political maturity of
the voters but that a sense of discipline existed
within the various political parties.

We likewise note that these municipal elections
were conducted under the principle of universal
suffrage, and, as we heard from His Excellency
Minister Hagi Farah, the individual right to a
free, direct, and secret ballot was exercised for
the first time in the history of Somalia by men
and women alike.

While political preparations for Somali inde-
pendence are proceeding on the whole most suc-
cessfully, there is one cloud in the horizon wliich
has a most disturbing significance to all well-
wishere of Somalia and Ethiopia alike. This
is the failure to date to make satisfactory
headway in solving the border dispute between
the two countries. We all hope that the ability
and understanding of Mr. Trygve Lie, former
Secretary-General of the United Nations, who has
recently been appointed to assist in solving the
border issue, will produce a solution.

Meanwhile, time is running out. It will not be
to the credit of either Ethiopia or Somalia or to
the reputation of the United Nations, which is
sponsoring Somalia, if the new nation is per-
mitted to come into existence without clearly de-
fined boundaries. Even though an agreed-Tipon
border may not be to the satisfaction of all con-
cerned, it is suggested that if water is found to
be within reach of drills a joint or integrated
Ethiopian-Somali well-drilling program might
lessen the necessity for the nomad people to wan-
der back and forth across the border in search of

One further political point on which we would
like to comment concerns the present legislative
assembly, which was elected for a 5-year term.
This would continue the life of the assembly into
the first 4 years of Somali independence.

Since the still-to-be-drafted constitution of
Somalia must eventually be ratified by the present
assembly, it is conceivable that the assembly may
wish to provide for popular confirmation of the

Wliile the United States delegation appreciates
that after independence the elected Government
of Somalia will be master in its own house, we
are interested in this point. Accordingly, to bor-
row from recent remarks on this subject by the
Representative of India, we hope the present
Somali trusteeship government will take the
Council into its confidence and give us some indi-
cations of its intentions.

Mr. President, in our comments today we have
touched only on some of the most important
problems confronting the Somali people. But
there is one point which we have not mentioned,
and that is that we know of no part of non-self-
governing Africa where there is such a complete
absence of racial friction. In the political atmos-
phere of Somalia there is no question of racial
supremacy whatever. This is taken so much for
granted by both Italians and Somalis that it is
almost inappropriate for us to emphasize the
social harmony which exists.

Mr. President, before concluding, the United
States delegation would like to observe that the
Somali leaders — and there are many of them —
have done a remarkable job in conjunction with
the able and imaginative Italian administration
in preparing their country for its forthcoming
independence. If the border problem is to be
settled and if temporary outside assistance suc-
ceeds in easing their financial difficulties, Somalia
will be a going concern and will play a vital part
in the promotion of Africa.

Current U.N. Documents:
A Selected Bibliography ^

General Assembly

Progress Achieved in Non-Self-Governing Territories in
Application of the Provisions of Chapter XI of the
Charter : Transport and Communications in Nou-Self-
Governing Territories. Report prepared by the Secre-
tariat. A/4134. July 9, 1059. 45 pp.

Progress Achieved by the Non-Self-Governing Territories
in Pursuance of Chapter XI of the Charter: Mass Com-
munications in the Non-Self-Governing Territories. Re-
port prepared by the United Nations Educational, Sci-
entific and Cultural Organization. A/4152. July 22,
19.50. 45 pp.

' Printed materials may be secured in the United States
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni-
versity l*ress, 2000 Broadway, New York 27, N.Y. dther
nuiterials (mimeographed or processed documents) may
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United


Department of State Bulletin


Current Actions



Protocol of amendment to the convention on the Inter-
Amerlcau Institute of Agricultural Sciences of January
15, 1044 (58 Stat. 1169). Opened for signature at
Washington December 1, 1958.'

Senate advice and consent to ratification given: July
30, 1959.


Convention on the International recognition of rights in
aircraft. Done at Geneva June 19, 1948. Entered into
force September 17, 1953. TIAS 2847.
Adherence deposited: Federal Republic of Germany (in-
cluding Land Berlin), July 7, 1959.

Protocol relating to certain amendments to the conven-
tion on international civil aviation. Done at Montreal
June 14, 1954. Entered into force December 12, 1956.
TIAS 3756.

Ratifications deposited: Federal Republic of Germany,
April 27, 1959 ; Brazil, June 17, 1959.

Duties and Rights of States

Protocol to the convention on duties and rights of states
in event of civil strife of February 28, 1928 (46 Stat.
2749). Opened for signature at Washington May 1,
1957. Entered into force December 9, 1957."
Senate advice and consent to ratification given: July
30, 1959.


Agreement on German external debts. Signed at London
February 27, 19.53. Entered into force September 16,
1953. TIAS 2792.

Notification by Netherlands of extension to: Nether-
lands Antilles, effective June 24, 1959.


Agreement to supplement the agreement between the par-
ties to the North Atlantic Treaty regarding the status
of their forces, signed at London June 19, 19.51 (TIAS
2846), with respect to foreign forces stationed in the
Federal Republic of Germany, and protocol of signa-
ture. Signed at Bonn August 3, 1959. Enters into
force 30 days after the date on which Germany de-
posits its instrument of accession to the NATO status-
of-forces agreement.

Agreement to implement paragraph 5 of article 45 of
the agreement of August 3, 19.59, to supplement the
agreement between the parties to the North Atlantic
Treaty regarding the status of their forces with respect
to foreign forces stationed in the Federal Republic of
Germany. Signed at Bonn August 3, 1959. Enters
into force on the same date as the supplementary

Administrative agreement to article 60 of the agreement
of August 3, 1959, to supplement the agreement be-

' Not in force.

' Not in force for the United States.

tween the parties to the North Atlantic Treaty regard-
ing the status of their forces with respect to foreign
forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Signed at Bonn August 3, 1959. Enters into force on
the same date as the supplementary agreement.
Signatures: Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Neth-
erlands, United Kingdom, and United States.
Agreement on the abrogation of the convention on the
rights and obligations of foreign forces and their mem-
bers in the Federal Republic of Germany, the agree-
ment on the tax treatment of the forces and their
members, and the finance convention, all signed at Bonn
May 26, 1952, as amended by the protocol of October

23, 19.54, on the termination of the occupation regime
in the Federal Republic of Germany (TIAS 3425).
Signed at Bonn August 3, 1959. Enters into force on
the same date as the supplementary agreement of
August 3, 1959 (svpra).

Signatures: France, Germany, United Kingdom, and
United States.


Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 19.58) annexed
to the international telecommunication convention of
December 22, 1952 (TIAS 3266), with appendixes and
final protocol. Done at Geneva November 29, 1958.'
Notification of approval: Mexico, June 19, 1959.


International wheat agreement, 19.59, with annex.
Opened for signature at Washington April 6 through

24, 19.59. Entered into force July 16, 1959, for part
I and parts III to VIII, and August 1, 1959, for
part II.

Acceptances deposited: Cuba and Peru, August 3, 1959.



Convention supplementing the convention of October 28,
1948, for the avoidance of double taxation with respect
to taxes on income (TIAS 2833), as modified by the
supplementary convention of September 9, 19.52 (TIAS
2833). Signed at Washington August 22, 1957. En-
tered into force July 10, 1959.
Proclaimed iy the President: July 28, 1959.

Extension to the Territory of the Belgian Congo and the
Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi of the convention
for the avoidance of double taxation with respect to
taxes on income of 1948, as supplemented (TIAS 2833).
Exchange of notes at Washington April 2, 19.54, and
July 28, 1959. Entered into force July 28, 1959.


Agreement amending the agreement of April 24, 1957,
as extended (TIAS 3833 and 4164), for the establish-
ment and operation of a rawinsonde observation sta-
tion at Guayaquil. Effected by exchange of notes at
Quito June 9 and July 22, 1959. Entered into force
July 22, 1959.


Agreement supplementing the agreement of March 23,
19.56 (TIAS 3647), relating to the establishment and
operation of a rawinsonde observation station on the
island of Guadeloupe. Effected by exchange of notes
at Paris July 21 and September 3, 1958. Entered into
force September 3, 1958.

Agreement approving the procedures for reciprocal filing
of classified patent applications in United States and
France. Effected by exchange of notes at Paris May 28
and July 10, 1959. Entered into force July 10, 1959.


Agreement terminating the military assistance agreement
of April 21, 1954 (TIAS 3108), the agreement of

August 24, 7959


July 25, 1955, relating to the disposition of military
equipment and materials (TIAS 3289), and the eco-
nomic assistance agreement of May 18 and 22, 1957
(TIAS 383-")). lOffected by exchange of notes at Bagh-
dad May 30 and July 7, 1959. Entered into force
July 21, 1959.

Military assistance agreement. Effected by exchange of
notes at Baghdad April 21, 1954. TIAS 3108.
Terminated: July 21, 1959.

Agreement relating to the disposition of military equip-
ment and materials furnished pursuant to the agree-
ment of April 21, 19.54 (TIAS 3108). Effected by ex-
change of notes at Baghdad July 25, 1955. TIAS 3289.
Terminated: July 21, 1959.

Agreement providing for economic assistance to Iraq.
Effected by exchange of notes at Baghdad May 18 and
22, 19.57. TIAS 3835.
Terminated: July 21, 1959.


Agreement relating to the improvement of the child feed-
ing program carried out by the Amministrazione per le
Attiviti\ Assistenziali Italiane ed Internazionali. Ef-
fected by exchange of notes at Rome July 30, 1959.
Entered into force July 30, 1959.


Agreement relating to the establishment and operation
of a communications center at Peshawar. Effected by
exchange of notes at Karachi July 18, 1959. Entered
into force July 18, 1959.


Agreement further amending the agricultural commodi-
ties agreement of October 23, 19.56, as amended (TIAS
3685, 3770, 3801, and 4169). Effected by exchange of
notes at Madrid June 25 and July 15, 1959. Entered
into force July 15, 1959.


Provisional air transport agreement. Effected by ex-
change of notes at Belgrade December 24, 1949. En-
tered into force December 24, 1949. TIAS 2055.
Terminated: August 3, 1959 (notice of termination
given by Yugoslavia June 3, 1959).


John E. Murphy Takes Newly Created Post
as Inspector General and Comptroller

The Department of State announced on August 5 (press
release 569) the designation of John E. Murphy as In-
spector General and Comptroller for the mutual security
program, elTective August 3. The newly created office,
responsible directly to the Under Secretary of State,
was created by Congress in enacting this year's mutual
security continuing legislation. Congress directed that
the new Inspector General and Comptroller supervise the
efficiency and effectiveness of mutual security operations,
detect shortcomings in the program, and make recom-
mendations for their correction.

The office is made responsible for establishing a system

of financial controls as well as supervising and auditing
its operation. In addition to the.se responsibilities Con-
gress also gave the new office authority for evaluating
the effectiveness of mutual security operations in attain-
ing their objectives.

The legislation transfers the duties of ICA's Office of
Evaluation and the program investigative activities of
the agency's Office of Personnel Security and Integrity
to the Office of Inspector General and Comptroller.


Marcus J. Gordon as ICA Regional Director for Africa

and Europe, effective August 7. (For biograpliic details,
see Department of State press release 582 dated August 7.)

Check List of Department of State

Press Releases: August 3-9

Press releases may be obtained from the News

Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C.


issued prior to August 3 which appear

in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 555 of July 31

and 564 of August 1.






DLF Loan in Turliey (rewrite).



DLF loan to Paraguay (rewrite).



Dillon : remarks at Governors' Confer-



Herter : message to Governors' Confer-



Cultural exchange (Japan).



Situation in Laos.



U.S. delegation to Meeting of Consul-
tation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs
of American States (rewrite).



Reply to Philippines "omnibus" claims.



Opening of embassy at Katmandu (re-



Hanes : statement on passport legisla-



John E. Murphy designated inspector
general for mutual security program



Australian dollar import quotas.



DLF loan in Ethiopia (rewrite).



Foreign Ministers communique, Au-
gust 5.



DLF loan in Philippines (rewrite).



Foreign nationals' property in Yugo-



Aviation negotiations with France.



Dillon-Nixon : remarks and arrival



Murphy : "The Power To Choose."



Herter : Foreign Ministers Meeting.



Herter: arrival statement.



Dillon : message to Tubman on Confer-
ence of Iiideiiendent African States.



U.S. delegation to ITU Administrative
Radio Conference.



Gordon designated ICA regional direc-
tor for Africa and Europe (biographic

•Not printed.

t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin.


Department of State Bulletin

August 24, 1959



Vol. XLI, No. 1052


Acting Secretary Dillon Sends Best Wishes to

African Conference 264

Gordon (iesiguated ICA regional director for Africa
and Europe 294

Independence of Somalia (Sears) 291

American Principlies. The Hardest Struggle

(Lodge) 280

Australia. Australia Relaxes Restrictions on Dollar

Imports 284

China, Communist. Unite

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