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Press release 357 dated June 27

Following is the text of Secretary Herter'' s
message to the Council of Ministers of SonMliland
on the occasion of the independence of that nation
on June 26, 1960.

June 26, 1960
Their Excellencies,

Council of Ministers of Somaliland,
Hargeisa.

Your Excellencies: I extend my best wishes
and congratulations on the achievement of your
independence. This is a noteworthy milestone in
your history, and it is with pleasure that I send
my warmest regards on this happy occasion.
Christlvn a. Herter
Secretary of State,
United States of America



Jo/y 78, J 960



87



Ten-Nation Conference on Disarmament Terminated by Soviet Walkout



Negotiations in the Conference of the Ten-
Nation Committee on Disarmament, which con-
vened at Geneva on March 15, 1960, ceased on June
28 after the Communis walkout of Jvme '2,7. Fol-
lowing are texts of {1) a U.S. note of July 2 to
the Soviet Union in reply to a letter of June 27 to
President Eisenhower from, Nikita S. Khrushchev,
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the
U.S.S.R.; {2) a Department statement of June 27 ;
{3) U.S. disarmament proposals of June 27 pre-
sented subsequent to the Soviet walkout; and (4)
Mr. Khrushchev''s letter of June 27.

U.S. NOTE OF JULY 2>

The Embassy of the United States of America
presents its compliments to the Ministry of For-
eign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics and, in I'esponse to the letter of June 27,
1960 from the Chairman of the (Council of Minis-
ters of the U.S.S.R. to the President of the Unit«d
States, has the honor to state the following.

The Government of the United States deeply
regrets the arbitrary action of the Soviet Govern-
ment and its Allies in precipitously breaking oif
negotiations in the Ten Nation Committee on Dis-
armament without prior consultation, contrary to
the accepted rules of procedure and for reasons
which remain unclear. The United States Gov-
ernment hopes that the Soviet Government will
reconsider its decision and resume these negotia-
tions on disarmament in the Ten Nation
Committee.

The Government of the United States rejects
as wholly inaccurate the Soviet version of events
within the Ten Nation Disarmament Committee.



Nor can it fail to reject the Soviet Government's
unfounded allegations referring to the aborted
Suimnit Conference.

The United States Government was profoundly
disappointed when the Soviet Government re-
fused to participate in the meeting of the Heads
of State and Heads of Government in Paris last
month. ^ The hopes of the world that the govern-
ment leaders assembled there would be able to take
constructive steps toward settlement of their dif-
ferences and toward the strengthening of the peace
were dashed by the arbitrary action of the Soviet
Government.

The Government of the United States, never-
theless, retained the hope that the Soviet Govern-
ment might be willing to continue the search for
meaningful agreements in the negotiations al-
ready in progress in the areas of disarmament and
nuclear testing. "Wlien the Soviet Delegation
tabled its disarmament proposals on June 7, the
United States Government undertook to give
them the most thoughtful and serious considera-
tion.^ In view of the complex character of arms
limitation and the long history of disarmament
negotiations, it was obvious that the process of
negotiating agi-eements would of necessity be long
and arduous and would require serious effort,
great patience and abundant forbearance. The
Soviet allegation that the disarmament negotia-
tions were proving fruitless and had reached a
state of deadlock, only three weeks after the re-
vised Soviet proposals had been tabled, cannot but



' Delivered to the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs by
the American Embassy at Moscow on July 2 (press re-
lease 379).



' For background, see Bulletin of June 6, 1960, pp. 899
and 904, and ihid., June 13, 1960. p. 947.

' For a U.S. note to the U.S.S.R. concerning the Soviet
proposals, see i6iV/., June 27, 1960. p. 1018. For details
of the proposals, which were contained in a Soviet note
of June 2 sent to all Heads of Goverrunents with repre-
sentatives in Moscow and to the United Nations, see U.N.
doc. A/4374/Rev. 1.



88



Department of Sfafe Bullefin



give rise to question as to the Soviet Government's
true motivation in torpedoing the Conference.

The witlidrawal of the Soviet delegation stands
in sharp contrast to the repeated Soviet official
declarations of intent to settle by peaceful means
through negotiation all outstanding international
issues, among which, it would have been expected,
would be the question of disarmament, acknowl-
edged by the Soviet Government to be the most
important question facing the world today.

The decision of the Soviet Government to break
otr the disarmament negotiations was particularly
surprising and regrettable because it occurred at
the very time the Western delegations were pre-
paring to submit new disannament proposals.
The Soviet Government was aware that the United
States had undertalven a review of its position on
disarmament in the hope of finding helpful and
practical revisions which would further the work
of the Ten Nation Committee. This review was
announced by the United States Secretary of
State on June 24 ^ and, indeed, was acknowledged
in Pravda the following day. Moreover, the Head
of the United States Disarmament Delegation
informed his Soviet counterpart prior to the meet-
ing at Geneva on June 27, at which the Soviet
delegation broke oil negotiations, that new pro-
posals were being worked out for early submis-
sion. Tliese proposals were designed to take into
accomit all views advanced during the course of
the discussions and would have provided an
adequate basis for substantive negotiations.

The abrupt termination of these negotiations is
additionally disturbing in the light of the adoption
by the Security Council of the UN on May 27
of the resolution submitted by Ceylon, Tunisia,
Argentina and Ecuador,' which specifically "re-
quests the Governments concerned to continue
their efforts to achieve a constructive solution of
the question of general and complete disarmament
under effective international control in accord-
ance with Eesolution 1378 (XIV) of the General
Assembly and the discontinuance of all nuclear
weapons tests under an appropriate international
control system as well as their negotiations on
measures to prevent surprise attack, including
technical measures, as recommended by the
General Assembly."



The urgent need to begin a program of dis-
armament demands that no opportunities for
negotiations be lost. In this spirit, the delegation
of the United States and those of its Allies have
remained at Geneva in the hope that the Govern-
ment of the Soviet Union and its Allies will see fit
to return to the task of serious negotiation.

The goal of disarmament is an aspiration com-
mon to all mankind and an objective w'hich all
Governments must relentlessly strive to achieve.
For its jiart, the United States Government re-
mains determined to spare no effort to arrive at
mutually acceptable agreements on concrete meas-
ures, the implementation of which would repre-
sent a solid advance toward the goal of complete
and general disarmament under reliable and
effective international control.



DEPARTMENT STATEMENT OF JUNE 27°

The Soviet bloc's walkout today indicates their
desire to avoid any further discussion on the prob-
lem of controlled disarmament within the Ten-
Nation Disarmament Conference. This action by
the Communist delegations is both deplorable and
disappointing. It is deplorable because it shatters
the hopes of all peoples who earnestly seek prog-
ress on the road to peace. It is disappointing be-
cause it casts serious doubt on the sincerity of the
Communist desires for a solution to tlie disarma-
ment problem.

As the Soviet bloc well knew, the Western allies
were preparing to present, within the 10-nation
negotiating formn, modifications to the Western
plan of March \%.'' This initiative by the West,
based on an effort to accommodate certain aspects
of the Soviet bloc's June 2 proposal was under-
taken to find common areas through which the
negotiations could be advanced. The walkout in
the face of the Western Governments' willingness
to move ahead makes fully transparent the desire
of the Soviet bloc to see the negotiations end in
total failure.

The five Allied nations intend for the time being
to remain at the negotiating table. If the Com-
munist side is prepared to seek a solution to the
disarmament problem, the way is still open. It is



' Bulletin of July 11, 1960, p. 39.

^ For text, see ihid., June 13, 1960, p. 961.

Ju/y 78, J960



° Read to news correspondents on June 27 by Lincoln
White, Director, Office of News, Department of State.
' For text, see Bulletin of Apr. 4, 1960, p. 511.



our earnest hope that the Soviet bloc will recon-
sider its irresponsible action and join with the
Allied nations in a determined and continued
search for a just and durable peace. This would
be but a fulfillment of each side's responsibility
to all mankind.



U.S. DISARMAMENT PROPOSALS OF JUNE 27

Press release 358 dated June 27

Pboobam for General and Complete Disarmament
Under Effective International Control

June 27, 1960

Introduction

The ultimate goal is a secure and peaceful world of free
and open societies in which there shall be general and
complete disarmament under effective international con-
trol and agreed procedures for the settlement of disputes
in accordance with the principles of the United Nations
Charter.

General and complete disarmament in a secure, free
and peaceful world requires :

1. The disbanding, through progressive stages, of all
armed forces of all States and the prohibition of their
re-establishment in any form whatsoever, except for those
contingents of agreed size required for the purpose of
maintaining internal order and ensuring the personal
security of citizens and for agreed contingents for the
international peace force.

2. The cessation of the production of all kinds of
armaments, including all means for delivering weapons
of mass destruction, and their complete elimination from
national arsenals, through progressive stages, except for
those armaments agreed upon for use by an international
peace force and agreed remaining national contingents.

3. Strict and effective international control, from be-
ginning to end, of the carrying out of all disarmament
measures, to ensure that there are no violations.

4. The establishment of effective means for enforcement
of international agreements and for the maintenance of
peace.

Controlling Principles

1. Disarmament under effective international control
shall be carried out in such a manner that at no time
shall any State, whether or not a party to a Treaty, ob-
tain military advantage over other States as a result of
the progress of disarmament.

2. General and complete disarmament shall proceed
through three stages containing balanced, phased and
safeguarded measures with each measure being carried
out in an agreed and strictly defined period of time,
under the supervision of an International Disarmament
Control Organization, within the framework of the
United Nations.



3. Each measure within each stage shall be initiated
simultaneously by all participating States upon com-
pletion of the necessary preparatory studies and upon
establishment of the arrangements and procedures
necessary for the International Disarmament Control
Organization to verify the measure on an initial and
continuing ba.sis.

4. Transition from one stage to the next shall be
initiated when the Security Council of the United Nations
agrees that all measures in the preceding stage have been
fully implemented and effective verification is continu-
ing, and that any additional verification arrangements
and procedures required for measures in the next stage
have been established and are ready to operate effectively.

5. The Treaties shall remain in force indefinitely
subject to the inherent right of a Party to withdraw
and be relieved of obligations thereunder if the pro-
visions of the Treaty, including those providing for the
timely installation and effective operation of the con-
trol system, are not being fulfilled and observed.

6. The International Disarmament Control Organiza-
tion .shall comprise all participating States whose
representatives shall meet as a conference periodically as
required. There shall in addition be a control commis-
sion and a Director General. The specific responsibility
and authority of the conference, control commission and
the Director General, the staffing arrangements and
criteria, the responsibilities of participating States to
the Organization, and provisions for any necessary pre-
paratory or interim group to aid in the establishment of
the Organization shall be specified in the Treaty.

7. The specific arrangements, procedures and means
required for effective initial and continuing verification
of satisfactory performance of each measure by the
International Disarmament Control Organization shall
be specified In the Treaties. These shall provide for
all necessary means required for effective verification
of compliance with each step of each measiire. Verifi-
cation of each agreed disarmament measure shall be
accomplished in such a manner as to be capable of dis-
closing, to the satisfaction of all participating States,
any evasion of the agreement. Specifically, from the
initiation of implementation of each agreed disarmament
measure, there shall be effective verification by the Inter-
national Disarmament Control Organization ; verification
shall be in no way dependent upon declarations by States
for its effectiveness; verification shall include the capa-
bility to ascertain that not only do reductions of armed
forces and armaments in agreed amounts take place, but
also that retained armed forces and armaments do not
exceed agreed levels at any stage.

Task of the Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament

The task of the Ten Nation Committee on Disarma-
ment is to work out a Treaty for general and complete
disarmament under effective international control gov-
erned by the foregoing controlling principles as follows:

1. Negotiate and agree upon a Treaty, to be acceded to
in the first instance by the States represented on the Ten



90



Department of Stale Bulletin



Nation Disarmament Committee, embodying the first
stage of the program. This stage shall consist of those
Initial and controllable measures which can and shall be
undertaken without delay by the States participating in
the Committee to preclude the expansion of their armed
forces ; to bring to a halt the growth of their weapons
stockpiles ; to reduce the levels of their armed forces and
armaments to the extent possible without jeopardy to
their security ; and to provide measures for protection
against surprise attack.

2. In the course of negotiating such a Treaty, arrange
for and conduct the necessary technical studies to work
out effective control arrangements for measures to be
carried out in the program. These studies shall provide
an agreed basis for proceeding with implementation of
the measure studied in the appropriate stage. Among
the early studies shall be a technical examination of the
measures necessary to verify control over, reduction and
elimination of agreed categories of nuclear delivery sys-
tems, including missiles, aircraft, surface ships, subma-
rines and artillery.

3. After reaching agreement on a Treaty on the first
stage of the program, prepare for submission to a world
disarmament conference an agreed draft Treaty on the
second and third stages of the program as set forth be-
low, in accordance with the foregoing controlling
principles.

4. Thereupon, arrange for a world-wide conference of
all States, to be held at the earliest possible time, for
the following purposes :

a. Accession to the Treaty covering stage one by States
which have not already done so ;

b. Accession to the Treaty covering stages two and
three by all States.

Stage One

1. An International Disarmament Control Organiza-
tion shall be established within the framework of the
United Nations, and expanded as required by the progres-
sive implementation of general and complete disarmament.

2. The placing into orbit or stationing in outer space of
vehicles carrying weapons capable of mass destruction
shall be prohibited.

3. To give greater protection against surprise attack,
(a) prior notification to the International Disarmament
Control Organization of all proposed launchings of space
vehicles and missiles and their planned tracks; (b) the
establishment of a zone of aerial and ground inspection
in agreed areas including the U.S. and D.S.S.R. ; (c)
exchange of observers on a reciprocal basis at agreed
military bases, domestic and foreign.

4. Declaration of and institution of on-site inspection
at mutually agreed operational air bases, missile launch-
ing pads, submarine and naval bases in order to establish
a basis for controls over nuclear delivery systems in
subsequent stages.

5. Initial force level ceilings shall be established as
follows: 2.5 million for the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. and
agreed appropriate force levels for certain other States.
After the accession to the Treaty of other militarily sig-
nificant States and after these Initial force levels have
been verified, force levels of 2.1 million shall be established



for the U.S. and U.S.S.R. and agreed appropriate force
levels shall be established for other militarily significant
States.

6. Agreed types and quantities of armaments in agreed
relation to the established force levels shall be placed in
storage depots by participating States within their own
territories, under supervision by the International Dis-
armament Control Organization pending their final de-
struction or conversion to peaceful uses.

7. The production of fissionable materials for use in
weapons shall be stopped upon installation and effective
operation of the control system found necessary to verify
this step by prior technical study and agreed quantities
of fissionable materials from past production shall be
transferred to non-weapons uses, including stockpiling
for peaceful purposes, conditioned upon satisfactory
progress in the field of conventional disarmament.

8. The submission by the various States to the Inter-
national Disarmament Control Organization of data re-
lating to: the operation of their financial system as it
affects military expenditures, the amount of their mili-
tary expenditures, and the percentage of their gross na-
tional product earmarked for military expenditures. The
data to be submitted will be drawn up in accordance with
predetermined and mutually agreed criteria.

Stage Two

1. Force levels shall be further reduced to 1.7 million
for the U.S. and U.S.S.R. and to agreed appropriate levels
for other States.

2. Quantities of all kinds of armaments of each State,
including nuclear, chemical, biological and other weapons
of mass destruction in existence and all means for their
delivery, shall be reduced to agreed levels and the re-
sulting excesses shall be destroyed or converted to peace-
ful uses. Agreed categories of missiles, aircraft, surface
ships, submarines and artillery designed to deliver nuclear
and other weapons of mass destruction shall be included
in this measure.

3. Expenditures for military purposes shall be reduced
in amounts bearing a relation to the agreed reductions
in armed forces and armaments.

4. An international peace force, within the United Na-
tions, shall be progressively established and maintained
with agreed personnel strength and armaments sufficient
to preserve world peace when general and complete dis-
armament is achieved.

Stage Three

1. Forces and military establishments of all States shall
be finally reduced to those levels required for the purpose
of maintaining internal order and ensuring the personal
security of citizens and of providing agreed contingents
of forces to the international peace force.

2. The international peace force and remaining agreed
contingents of national armed forces shall be armed only
with agreed types and quantities of armaments. All other
remaining armaments, including weapons of mass destruc-
tion and vehicles for their delivery and conventional arma-
ments shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.

3. Expenditures for military purposes by all States shall
be further reduced in amounts bearing a relation to the
agreed reductions in armed forces and armaments.



Jv\Y ?8, 7960



91



4. There shall be no manufacture of any armaments
except for agreed types and quantities for use by the in-
ternational peace force and agreed remaining national
contingents.

Following completion of Stage Three, the program for
general and complete disarmament shall continue to be
adhered to and verified.



MR. KHRUSHCHEV'S LETTER OF JUNE 27'

June 27, 1960

Mr. President, In supplement to my letter dated June
2, 1960 enclosing the Soviet Government's proposals con-
cerning the basic provisions of an agreement on general
and full disarmament, I consider it necessary to com-
municate the following.

The situation created in the Ten-Nation Committee on
Disarmament causes the Soviet Government grave
concern.

During our negotiations last fall we stated that the
question of general disarmament is the most important
one facing the world at the present time, and we agreed
that both our governments should make every effort to
arrive at a constructive solution of this problem. It is
well known that in questions of disarmament the Soviet
Government has acted and acts precisely in this manner.

On September 18, 1959 the Soviet Government intro-
duced a program of general and full disarmament for
the consideration of the United Nations." Desiring to
make a new contribution to the cause of ensuring peace
and creating the most favorable conditions for the
achievement of an agreement on general and full dis-
armament, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a
law on January 15, 1960 concerning a further considera-
ble reduction of the Soviet armed forces by 1,200,000
men."

Seeking to achieve as soou as possible a practical
agreement on the urgent problems of disarmament, the
Soviet Government, in developing the program of dis-
armament put foruard by it on September IS, 19.59,
worked out and prepared comprehensive proposals for
the implementation of a general and full disarmament
for discussion at the conference of the leaders of the
four powers. In these proposals we took into considera-
tion the views expressed by the Western powers on a
number of important questions, particularly with regard
to prohibiting and liquidating all means of delivery of
atomic weapons first of all (including the elimination of
military bases), working out disarmament control in
detail, taking measures for preserving peace and security



' Delivered to Foy D. Kohler, Assistant Secretary for
European Affairs, by Mikhail N. Smirnovsky, Minister-
Counselor of the Soviet Embassy at Washington, on
June 27.

• For text, see U.N. doc. A/4219.

" For a statement by Mr. White on the Soviet proposal
to reduce armed forces, see Bulletin of Feb. 1, 1960,
p. 147.



under conditions of general and full disarmament, et
cetera.

Since the Summit Conference failed as a result of the
inadmissible acts undertaken by the United States with
relation to the Soviet Union the Soviet Government, tak-
ing into consideration that a discussion of the problem
of disammmeut could not be delayed, sent proposals pre-
pared by it to the governments of all countries and intro-
duced them for discussion by the Ten-Nation Committee.
These proposals were supported by the governments of
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Rumania, and Bulgaria, mem-
bers of the Committee, as well as by governments of a
number of other countries.

However, it must be stated that the delegations of the
Western powers, and first of all the delegation of the
USA, took a position in that Committee calculated to
accomplish anything but success in the cau.se of dis-
armament. They not only are failing to do anything on
their part to facilitate the immediate achievement of an
agreement on disarmament but on the contrary they
apparently are seeking to do everything to prevent such
an agreement, to keep the Committee from .settling prac-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 43, Jul- Sep1960) → online text (page 25 of 100)