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heritage or tradition to pass on.

We would want to help others to move for-
ward even if there were no such thing as Com-
munist imperialism. But the Communist threat
converts what we would want to do anyway
into a vital necessity, a matter of the survival
of freedom.

The economically advanced countries are too
strong and too healthy to be taken over either
by force or by subversion. Few would dispute
that this was one of the great achievements of
the Marshall Plan and our postwar diplomacy.

But the Sino-Soviet efforts have not ceased.
Their drive is now centered on the less developed
areas. If they can take these over, they could
hope eventually to strangle the economically
advanced part of the free world.

Aid is a vital tool in this struggle.

There are no easy answers; and it is wrong
to expect the foreign aid program to solve all
our problems. But without it the field would
be left to our adversaries — not only 20th-century
communism but the age-old enemies of man:
ignorance, disease, and poverty.

We are seeing results.

The quiet victory is being won.

This is not the time to quit.



Congressional Documents
Relating to Foreign Policy



88th Congress, 1st Session

Military Aspects and Implications of Nuclear Test Ban
Proposals and Related Matters. Hearings before the
Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee of the Sen-
ate Armed Services Committee. Part 1, May 7-
August 9, 196.3, 540 pp. ; part 2, with index, August
12-27, 19G3, 4.->5 pp.



APRIL. 13, 1964



601



88th Congress, 2d Session

Winning the Cold War : The U.S. Ideological Offensive.
Hearings before the Subcommittee on International
Organizations and Movements of the House Foreign
Affairs Committee. Part VI, U.S. Government Agen-
cies and Programs (Department of State, U.S. In-
formation Agency). January 13- February 20, 1964.
126 pp.

Recent Developments in the Soviet Bloc. Hearings
before the Subcommittee on Europe of the House
Foreign Affairs Committee. Part I, Recent Trends
in Soviet and East European Literature, Arts, Hu-
man Rights (Law and Religion), and the Younger
Generation. January 27-30, 1964. 173 pp.

Fishing in U.S. Territorial Waters. Hearings before
the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee
on S. 19S8, H.R. 79.54, H.R. 8296, H.R. 9957, H.R.
10028, and H.R. 10040. February 19-26. 1964. 208 pp.

Compliance With the Convention on the Chamizal.
Hearings before the Subcommittee on Inter-American
Affairs of the House Foreign Affairs Committee on
S. 2394. February 26-27, 1964. 61 pp.

Second Transisthmian Canal. Hearings before the
Senate Commerce Committee on S. 2428, a bill to
authorize a study of means of increasing the capacity
and security of the Panama Canal, and for other
purposes, and S. 2497, a bill to provide for an investi-
gation and study to determine a site for the construc-
tion of a sea-level interoceanic canal through the
American isthmus. March 3—4, 1964. 79 pp.

International Coffee Agreement Act of 1963. Report,
together with minority and individual views, to ac-
company H.R. 8864. S. Rept. 941. March 12, 1964.
56 pp.

The United States Balance of Payments. Report of
the Joint Economic Committee, with additional
views. S. Rept. 965. March 19, 1964. 30 pp.

Foreign Assistance. Message from the President trans-
mitting recommendations relative to foreign assist-
ance. H. Doe. 2.50. March 19, 1964. 44 pp.

Amendments to the Request for Appropriations for
Foreign Assistance — Economic and Military Assist-
ance. Communication from the President transmit-
ting amendments to the request for appropriations
transmitted in the budget for 1965 for foreign assist-
ance — economic and military assistance. H. Doc.
285. March 24, 1964. 2 pp.

Exportation of Aircraft Engines as Working Parts of
Aircraft. Report to accompany H.R. 1608. H. Rept.
1268. March 24, 1964. 4 pp.

Antiques Which May Be Imported Free of Duty. Re-
port to accompany H.R. 2330. H. Rept. 1269.
March 24. 1964. 3 pp.

Free Importation of Instant Coffee. Report to accom-
pany H.R. 4198. H. Rept. 1272. March 24, 1964.
4 pp.

Providing for the Free Entry of One Mass Spectrom-
eter for Oregon State University and One Mass
Spectrometer for Wayne State University. Report
to accompany H.R. 4364. H. Rept. 1273. March 24,
1904. 2 pp.

Suspension of Duty on Manganese Ore. Report to ac-
company H.R. 7480. H. Rept. 1274. March 24, 1964.
3 pp.

Prevention of Double Taxation in Case of Certain To-
bacco Products. Report to accompany H.R. 8268.
H. Rept. 1275. March 24, 1964. 4 pp.

Tariff Classification of Certain Particleboard. Report
to accompany H.R. 8975. H. Rept. 1277. March 24,
1964. 2 pp.



TREATY INFORMATION



Current Actions



MULTILATERAL

Atomic Energy

Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as
amended. Done at New York October 26, 1956. En-
tered into force July 29, 1957. TIAS 3873, 5284.
Acceptance deposited: Nigeria, March 25, 1964.

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries

Protocol to the international convention of February 8,
1949 (TIAS 2089), for the Northwest Atlantic Fish-
eries relating to harp and hood seals. Done at
Washington July 15, 1963.'
Ratification deposited: Iceland, March 23, 1964.

Marriage

Convention on consent to marriage, minimum age for
marriage, and registration of marriages. Done at
United Nations Headquarters, New York, December
10, 1902. '

Signatures: Cuba, October 17, 1963; Czechoslovakia,
October 8, 1963; Denmark (with reservation), Oc-
tober 31, 1963 ; Italy, December 20, 1963 ; New Zea-
land, December 23, 19(53 ; Rumania, December 27,
1963.

Wheat

International wheat agreement, 1962. Open for signa-
ture at Washington April 19 through May 15, 1962.
Entered into force July 16, 1962, for part I and parts
III to VII, and August 1, 1962, for part II. TIAS
511.5.

Accession deposited: Belgium and Luxembourg,
March 10, 1964.



BILATERAL

Belgium

Agreement amending annex B of the mutual defense
as.sistance agreement of January 27, 1950 (TIAS
2010). Effected by exchange of notes at Brussels
February 6, and March 11, 1964. Entered into force
March 11, 1964.

Korea

Agricultural conmiodities agreement under title I of
the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance
Act of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. 454 ; 7 U.S.C. 1701-
1709), with exchanges of notes. Signed at Seoul
March 18, 1964. Entered into force March 18, 1964.



* Not in force.



602



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



INDEX ^U»''^ 13, J964 Vol Z, No. 12H



American Principles

Foreign rolii-j- nntl the ludiviilual : Identity in

Diversity (Louehlieim) 591

The IIoix? for Reasoned Agreement (Johnson) . r>76

Asia. Seorctiiry Rusk Heads Delegation to

SKATO Council Meeting 577

Cambodia. Secretary Rusk's News Conference

of March 27 570

China, Communist. Secretary Rusk's News Con-
ference of March 27 570

Communism. The United States and a Changing

Euroiie (Tyler) 587

Congress

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign

Policy COl

The Foreign Assistance Program (Rusk) . . . 595
Secretary Rusk's News Conference of March 27 . 570
Cuba. Secretary Rusk's News Conference of

March 27 570

Department and Foreign Service. Secretary

Rusk's News Conference of March 27 . . . 570

Economic Affairs

The Atlantic Agenda (Rostow) 578

Secretary of Interior Named to Export Expan-
sion Committee (text of Executive order) . . 590
Secretary Rusk's News Conference of March 27 . 570

Europe

The Atlantic Agenda (Rostow) 578

The United States and a Changing Europe

(Tyler) 587

Foreign Aid. The Foreign Assistance Program

(Rusk) 595

Jordan. King Hussein of Jordan Visits United

States 594

Military Affairs

The Atlantic Agenda (Rostow) 578

United States Policy in Viet-Nam (McNamara) . 562

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

The Atlantic Agenda (Rostow) 578

Secretary Rusk's News Conference of March 27 . 570

Presidential Documents

The Hope for Reasoned Agreement 576

Secretary of Interior Named to Export Expan-
sion Committee 590



Public Affairs. Foreign Policy and the Individual:
Identity in Diversity (Louchheim) .... 591

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

Secretary Rusk Heads Delegation to SEATO

Council Meeting 577

Secretary Rusk's News Conference of March 27 . 570
Treaty Information. Current Actions .... 602

Viet-Nam. United States Policy in Viet-Nani

(McNamara) 5G2

Name Index

Johnson, President 576, 590

Louchheim, Mrs. Katie 591

McNamara, Robert S , . 562

Rostow, W. W 578

Rusk, Secretary 570,595

Tyler, WiUiam R 587



Check List of Department of State
Press Releases: March 23-29

Press releases may be obtained from the Office
of .News, Department of State, Washington, D.C.,
20520.

Releases issued prior to March 23 which ap-
pear in this issue of the BuLurriN are Nos. KX)
of March 11, 110 of March 13, and 124 of
Slarch 17.
No. Date Subject

129 3/23 Rusk : House Committee on Foreign
Affairs.

*130 3/23 U.S. participation in international
conferences.

*131 3/25 Wilkins to be designated Inspector
General of Foreign Service (bio-
graphic details).
132 3/26 Delegation to 9th SEATO Council
meeting (rewrite).

tl33 3/25 Ball : U.N. Conference on Trade and
Development.

134 3/26 Itinerary for visit of King of Jordan

(rewrite).

135 3/27 Rusk : news conference of March 27.
♦136 3/28 Cultural exchange (Central Amer-
ica).

* Not printed.

t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin.



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OFFICIAL BUSINESS



The Making of Foreign Policy



This 33-page pamplilet is a transcript of an interview of Secretary of State Dean Rusk by Professor
Eric Frederick Goldman of Primceton University, newly appointed consultant to President Jolinson. The
interview was first broadcast on January 12 on the television progi-am "The Open Mind."

Professor Goldman questions Secretary Rusk on a niunber of different aspects of the foreign policy
process, including the role of the Secretary of State, the relationship of politics to foreign policy, the
problems and procedures of administration, the role of the Foreign Service officer, and the influence of
public opinion on foreign policy.

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THE

DEPARTMENT

OF

STATE



BULLETIN



Yol. L, No, 1295




April 20, 1964.



NATO, A GROWING PARTNERSHIP

Remarks by President Johnson 606

SECRETARY RUSK'S NEWS CONFERENCE OF APRIL 3 608

THE ANATOMY OF WORLD LEADERSHIP

hy Ambassador Adlai E. Stevenson 615

THE THIRTEENTH ALARM

by Assistant Secretary Cleveland 622

COMMON PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIAL AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Statement by Under Secretary Ball 63Jf.



For index see inside back cover



NATO, a Growing Partnership



Remarks hy President Johnson ^



Fifteen years ago tomorrow, here in Wash-
ington, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed.^
Less than 5 months later, after due constitu-
tional process in all the signing coimtries, the
treaty entered into force. From that time to
this, the treaty has served the peace of the
world.

Tliis short treaty commits its parties to meet
an armed attack on any of them in Europe or
North America as "an attack against them all."
For 15 years it has prevented any such attack.
Created in response to Stalin's Iron Curtain
and the loss of Czechoslovakian freedom, tliis
treaty has lived through war in Korea, the
threat of war over Berlin, and a crisis without
precedent in Cuba. Each great event has

'Made at the White House on Apr. 3 (White House
press release) at a ceremony in observance of the 15th
anniversary of the signing of the North Atlantic
Treaty on Apr. 4, 1049.

' For text of treaty, see Btilletin of Mar. 20, 1949,
p. 339 ; for texts of remarks made at the signing cere-
mony and an address by President Truman, see ihid.,
Apr. 17, 1949, p. 471.



tested NATO, and from each test we have
gained increased strength.

We began as 12 countries; today we are 15.
Those we have gamed are among our most
determined partners: Greece, Turkey, and the
Federal Republic of Germany.

What began as a treaty soon became a com-
mand and then a great international organiza-
tion. The number of ready divisions, includ-
ing 6 ivom. the United States, has multiplied by
5. The number of modern aircraft has multi-
plied by 10 — all more effective by far than any
were in 1949. So the alliance is real. Its
forces operate. Its strength is knovm. Its
weapons cover tlie full range of power, from
small arms to nuclear missiles of the most
modern design.

From the beginning, this treaty has aimed
not simply at defense but has aimed at the co-
operative progress of all its members. On the
day of its signing back there 15 years ago.
President Truman described it as a "bulwark
which will permit us to get on with the real



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN VOL. L, NO. 1295 PUBLICATION 7677 APRIL 20, 19S4



The Department of State Bulletin, a
weekly publication Issued by the Office
of Media Services. Bureau of Public Af-
fairs, provides the public and Interested
agencies of the Government ■with Infor-
mation on developments in the field of
foreign relations and on the work of the
Department of State and the Foreign
Service. The Bulletin Includes selected
press releases on foreign policy. Issued
by the White House and the Department,
and statements and addresses made by
the President and by the Secretary of
State and other officers of the Depart-



ment, as well as special articles on vari-
ous phases of International affairs and
the functions of the Department. Infor-
mation Is Included concerning treaties
and International agreements to which
the United States Is or may become a
party and treaties of general Inter-
national Interest

Publications of the Department. United
Nations documents, and legislative mate-
rial In the field of International relations
are listed currently.

The Bulletin Is for sale by the Super-
intendent of Documents. U.S. Govern-



ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C..
20402. Price : 52 Issues, domestic $8.50.
foreign $12.25 ; single cop.v, 25 cents.

Use of funds for printing of this pub-
lication approved by the Director of the
Bureau of the Budget (January 19,
1961).

NOTE : Contents of this publication are
not copyrighted and Items contained
herein may be reprinted. Citation of the
Department of State Bulletin as the
source wUl be appreciated. The Bulletin
Is Indexed In the Readers' Guide to
Periodical Literature.



606



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



business of government and society, the busi-
ness of acliieving a fuller and happier life for
our citizens." This treaty, in fact, C4vnie 2 years
after we and other friends had begun our
historic enterprise of economic recovery under
the Marshall Plan. Our "real business" was
already pretty well advanced.

The IT) years since 1940 have seen the longest
upward surge of economic growth that our At-
lantic world has ever known. Our jiroduction
and trade have more than doubled; our popu-
lation has grown by more than a hundred mil-
lion; the income of the average man has grown
by more than 50 percent. Our inward peace
and our outward confidence have gi'own steadily
more secure. The internal threat of communism
has shriveled in repeated failure. A new gen-
eration, strong and free and healthy, walks our
streets and rides in our care. Yes, we have
done well.

Danger has receded, but it has not disap-
peared. The tsxsk of building our defenses is
never really done. The temptation to relax
must always be resisted. Our own Atlantic
agenda has changed, but it is not short.

Our first common task, therefore, is to move
onward to that closer partnership which is so
plainly in our common interest. The United
States, for one, has learned much from 15 years
of danger and achievement. In 1949 the sol-
emn commitment of this treaty was for us an
historic departure from isolation, and we have
many great men, some among us and some away
today, to thank for their leadership.

Now it is a tested and recognized foundation
stone of America's foreign policy. Wliat Rob-
ert Schuman said for France in 1949 I repeat
for my country today :

Nations are more and more convinced that their
fates are closely bound together ; their salvation and
their welfare can no longer be based upon an egotistical
and aggressive nationalism, but must rest upon the
progressive application of human solidarity-

The ways of our growing partnership are not
eas}' . Though the union of Europe is her man-
ifest destiny, the building of that unity is a long,
hard job. But we, for our part, will never
turn back to separatetl insecurity. We welcome
the new strength of our transatlantic allies.
We find no contradiction between national self-



respect and interdepeiulent nmtual reliance.
We are eager to share with the new Europe at
every level of power and responsibility. We
aim to share the lead in the search for new and
stronger patterns of cooperation.

We believe in the alliance because in our own
interest we must, because in the common interest
it works, and because in the world's interest it
is right.

We have other duties and opportunities.
Our trade with one another and the world is
not yet free and not yet broad enough to serve
both us and others as it should. Our monetary
systems have grown stronger, but they still too
often limit us, when they should be, instead, a
source of energy and growth.

In ever-growing measure we have set our-
selves and others free from the burden of colo-
nialism. We have also set new precedents of
generous concern for those that are less pros-
perous than we. But our connection to the less
developed nations is not yet what it should be
and must be. This is not a one-way street, but
we must work to do our full pai't to make it
straight and make it broad.

We remain vigilant in defending our liberties,
but we must be alert to any hope of stable
settlement with those who have made vigilance
necessary and essential. In particular, we must
be alive to the new spirit of diversity that is
now abroad in Eastern Europe. We did not
make the Iron Curtain. We did not build
the wall. Gaps in the Curtain are welcome,
and so are holes in the wall, whenever they are
not hedged by traps. We continue to believe
that the peace of all Europe requires the reuni-
fication of the German people in freedom. We
will be firm, but we will always be fair. Our
guard is up, but our hand is out.

We must build on our tradition of determined
support for the United Nations. We are
pledged to this purpose by the very articles of
our treaty, and we have kept our pledge. The
members of NATO provide most of the re-
sources of the United Nations and most of its
ability to help in keeping peace. Wlien we
began, we promised that our treaty was con-
sistent with the charter. Today we know that
the charter and the treatj' are indispensable to
one another. Neither can keep the peace alone.



APRIL 20, 1G64



607



We need them both, in full effectiveness, for as
many years ahead as any of us can see.

The Atlantic peoples have a magnificent his-
tory, but they have known too much war. It
is the splendor of this great alliance that, in
keeping peace with its opponents, it has kept



the road clear for a worldwide upward march
toward the good life for free people. Proven
in danger, strengthened in freedom, and resolute
in purpose, we will go on, with God's help, to
serve not only our own people but to serve the
bright future of all mankind.



Secretary Rusk's News Conference of April 3



Press release 143 dated April 3

Secretary Rush: This — what is for me an
early morning press conference — was not a con-
spiracy against those of you who attended the
Wliite House photographers' dinner last night,
but I was asked to vary as between morning
and afternoon for the benefit of the afternoon
papers and some of our European friends. So
I will have some in the morning and some in the
afternoon.

I am ready for your questions.

Change of Government in Brazil

Q. Mr. Secretary., do you see any improve-
ment in relatione and any expansion of United
States aid to Brazil as a result of the change in
government there?

A. Well, I think that we are ready, as we have
been before, to work very closely with Brazil to
enable them to get on with their great problems
of economic and social development. We, as a
matter of fact, thought we had an agreement
about a year and a half — 2 years — ago by which
we under the Alliance for Progress program
would provide very important assistance for
Brazil in relation to steps which we hoped that
they would be taking in their own behalf. Un-
fortunately that plan did not work out because
the agreements we had worked out with Fi-
nance Minister [San Tiago] Dantes did not
prove acceptable in Brazil. They did not pro-
ceed with them.

But, of course, we are deeply interested in the
economic vitality of that great country. It is a



great sister Republic in this hemisphere, as large
as the United States, with 75 or 80 million peo-
ple, and we should be in closest touch with them
about how we might be able to assist them in
their necessities in this situation.

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you anticipate that
the establishment of a new government or the
succession of a new leader would improve Bra-
ziVs cooperation with the other nations of the
hemisphere on prohlems such as Castro Cuba?

A. Well, I am sure you understand my reti-
cence in commenting m detail about what has
happened internally in Brazil — again, that
great sister Republic. We have had the im-
pression that in the past several weeks consid-
erable concern developed within the Congress
and among the Governors of the principal
States, in the Armed Forces, and among large
segments of the people, that the basic constitu-
tional structure of Brazil was under threat and
that Congress, the Governors, the Armed
Forces, moved to insure the continuity of con-
stitutional government in that country.

Now, part of the concern is expressed by lead-
ing Brazilians, and a conceni, which we shared,
was that extremist elements were having more
and more influence in the administration of
President [Joao] Goulart. One does not have
to say that independently. One can quote the
concern about that expressed by many moderate
and forwai'd-looking Brazilians.

I would suppose that the new administration
would, I think, mark time for the moment until
the election of a new President by the Congress



608



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN



within this SO-diiy period provided under their
constitution. Butl would also suppose that the
deep conunitment of all those who have been
workiufi on this problem in Brazil to constitu-
tional government and to representative democ-
racy would mean that Brazil would take a lead-
ing pai't in the hemisphere and in the OAS on
this issue of totalitarian regimes and particu-
larly this threat from the extreme left.

Q. Mr. Secretary, since Brazil is so large a
country and so important a cou7ifry in the Latin
American scene, do you feel that the method of
this change of government, since it was forced
largely hy the military, could conceivably have
an adverse effect on the democratic movements
in the hemisphere?

A. I would not think so. I think that in the
first place it has been demonstrated over the last
several years tliat the Armed Forces of Brazil
basically are committed to constitutional gov-
ernment in thal^/country and that this action did
not occur until there were many signs that Presi-
dent Goulart seemed to be moving to change the
constitutional arrangements and to move to-
ward some sort of authoritarian regime.

This is a matter of controversy in Brazil and
outside, but this was the fear that the basic, the
moderate, democratic elements in that country
had in their mind. I think this is also a matter
on whicli millions of the people have testified
in the streets in the last day or two in their dem-
onstrations in support of what has been done
there.

But I want to emphasize that what has hap-
pened has not resolved all of the problems by



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