UC SOUTHERN REGIOMAL
AA 000 730 918™"™
United States Food Administration
Washington, D. C.
GOV! i I'ICE
Readers of this book are reminded that con-
ditions and situations referred to may change
at any moment — may, indeed, have changed
while the book was in the press.
"Conservation of food must be adjusted to
meet necessities from time to time, for neither
production nor Allied demands are constant
factors, nor can any of these factors be antici-
pated for long periods in advance in the dis-
turbed conditions in which we at present live."
U. S. Food Administration.
FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED.
1. What 's tl i ' ' I States Food Administratis
A Government organization created as a war measure to
meel all food problems, nati i international.
Congress gave the President power to create it by Execu-
3. When was it created?
August 10, 1917.
4. What work was begun In fun this date?
On May 17. 1.917, the President requested Mr. Herbert
Hoover to take over the proposed task of food administra-
tion, and en June 12, 1917, he urged Mr. Hoover to begin
I the voluntary forces of the country to save food.
5. W'rai <'>• /,' ' i>t'rjicsi <,f ti • h'tim 1 .\ilu,ii;!^i 1 t'!'->n .'
Co secure sufficient food for our civilian population, for
our soldiers and sailors, for the soldiers and civilians of
our associates in the war.
(b) To maintain an even supply of essential foods.
(c) To stabilize prices by abolishing speculation, hoarding,
G. What does tl < Food Administration ask of the American people?
To save wheat; t r > save meat; to save sugar; to save fats;
to save transportation; to eliminate waste; to substitute
other foods for those we are asked to save: to eat onlj us
much a we need.
7. How cat the8( things fa accomplished?
By increased production, proper distribution, control of
d checking of speculation; but chiefly by the
luntary effort of every man, woman, and child in the
8. I- th( iniii-i work of tht Food Administration done from tfa cen-
tral • 'if, ■ /'// Washington?
No; the work is decentralized. Every State has its own
Federal Food Administrator recommended 1>\ Mr. Hoover
; appointed by the Pre ident.
4 FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED.
9. What is the meaning of the tern "decentralized"?
Removing some of the functions of an organization from
the central authority to local authorities.
10. Why can not all admini b* done in Washington?
Because State- laws and local conditions vary so greatly that
those who know local conditions can administer to better
advantage; but the central authority and the decision of all
policies remain there.
11. How is the work in each State decentrali
Through the appointment by its Federal Food Adminis-
trator of a county chairman or administrator for each county.
12. What assistants has the Federal Food Administrator in his work?
State and comity administrators are aided by home eco-
nomic directors; by merchant representatives, who look after
the stores; by hotel chairmen, who supervise hotels and res-
taurants; by library directors, who render service through the
public libraries; by educational directors; by enforcement
aids; by various staff members for commodities of local
13. Bo the Federal Food Administrators of the various States keep in
touch with the United States Food Administration in Wash-
By frequent conference and constant interchange of infor-
mation relating to national policies and local conditions.
15. What salaries are received by the United States Food Administrator
and the Federal Food Administrators of the different States ?
They receive no salaries; they give their services to the
16. Why does the Food Administration seem to change its policy in
many of its rulings?
Because, although the purpose remains the same, new
factors constantly arise in our present disturbed condition
which make necessary a readjustment of method and policy
to that purpose.
17. Why is beef one of the meats we are asked to save for the allies?
Because it is a concentrated food to which the inhabitants
of the allied nations are accustomed.
18. 7s there a shortage of beef in Fur ope?
Yes; particularly in France.
FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED. 5
19. Why is it difficult to raise cattlt tht
Because of lack of men to tend c.iltle, shortage and high
bhe diversion ol m pasture 1 to cultivated
l'm. 117;/ is cattle shortage particularly seri
Because when herds are depleted it take- years to build
21. Is '■ ortant to the American as to the Frenchman?
No; only 9^ per cent of the average American income spent
<>n food goes to bread and flour, and these articles form only
per cent of the average American diet.
22. How important is bread to tl
It is the basis of his nourishment; bread constitutes 52 per
cent of the total food consumption during normal times in
•_':!. Is European bread now modi of lour entirely?
Xo: it i< heavily admixtured.
24. 117/// is l>n(ul cheaper in England than in the United States?
Because the British Government has subsidized the bread.
25. How much does it cost the British Government?
_ 1,000,000 annually.
■_•»'.. Is not thi ; '/// imatt ly < by taxation .'
27. Is corn n ■ al ■••'■ in th Army?
V. 3. Sometimes it is mixed with wheat Hour and some-
time without wheat, to make corn bread. Corn bread
ed al different periods as a change from the bread
28. An other cereals just as nourishing as wh
■ hen estimate correctly the amount
of bread to have on hand, and thus eliminate waste.
30. Wl of th bread baked in th United States is baked
■ni i home baked.
31. Does th Food Administration requin commercial bakers to
' eat-flowi . and rolls.'
Ye ilation of May 3, L918, required 25 pei ceil
tit iite with 7) prr cent wheat.
6 FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED.
32. ~\Wm has the Food Administration standardized the size of the
bakery loaf of bread .'
To reduce the cost of baking and distributing, to give the
public a square deal, and to fix competition upon price*.
33. What are the standard weights of bread loaves?
Three-fourths of a pound, 1 pound, 1^ pounds, 2 pounds,
and other pound weights.
34. Why docs the Food Administration advocate the use of the i-pound
As a wheat conservation measure in the hope that the
f-pound loaf may be made to do the work the 1-pound loaf
35. How many 1 -pound loaves of bread can be made from a barrel of
Two hundred and sixty loaves.
36. Is graham bread a wheat bread?
Yes; but it also contains 26 per cent bran, shorts, and mid-
dlings, which are included in the list of wheat-flour sub-
stitutes for bakers.
37. What is whole-wheat bread?
Bread which contains varying quantities of bran, shorts,
38. May graham bread and whole-wheat bread be used on wheatless
As a general rule, no. Some public eating places can not
well do without these and Victory bread, but in the home, no
wheat should be eaten on wheatless days.
39. WJiat is Victory bread?
Bread baked with the percentage of admixture required by
the Food Administration.
40. What other cereals can be mixed with wheat to make Victory bread?
Bakers are allowed to use bran, shorts, and middlings, corn
flour, corn meal, edible corn starch, hominy, corn grits, barley
flour, rolled oats, oatmeal, rice, rice flour, buckwheat flour,
potato flour, sweet potato flour, milo, kaffir, and feterita flours
and meals, soya bean meal, peanut meal, tapioca or cassava
flour, taro flour, banana flour, and other products of a similar
nature which may be used in "baking. See answer to No. 183
for household list.
41. May bread made entirely of graham flour or whole-wheat flour be
called Victory bread?
Yes, if it contains 25 per cent of bran, shorts, and mid-
FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED. 7
-12. Was rye flour use* iking Victory bread?
Yes, until March 31, when it was withdrawn from the
substitute list because a shortage of rye flour for rye-bread
baking was threatened.
43. How els( may the namt "Victory" be used?
The name " Victory" may also be given by bakers to sweet
yeast-dough goods, crackers, biscuits, cake-.
and pastry, provided one-third of their flour or meal content
consists of wheat-flour substitutes.
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of
1 pound of water 4° Fahrenheit.
45. How cai wt think of a calorie?
As a unit of measurement, just like a foot or a quart or a
46. What does a caloric measun .'
47. What is a unit of energy?
Another name for calorie.
48. What food value does tht calorie measun .'
i i- fuel value to the body.
49. Is it possiblt to havt tht right number of calories in tht ' r ;t and
yet not havi thi proper di
Vr : the calorie amount may not be properly distributed
among the different classes of food necessary for the body.
50. What an thest classes of food?
See answers to questions I'.M and 210.
51. What art daily calorit needs?
For a workLngman 3,500 to 4,000
For hi 2,800to3,000
For a ae lentary man 2,200 to 2,800
For a sedentary woman 1,800 to 2,300
V/outh, M to 16 years L.500 to 3,200
52. How main/ calories thus a soldit r need daily?
53. How much money is spent annually in tht United States for candy?
About $400,000,000. This is almosl double the amount
needed to keep Belgium supplied with food for a year.
54. Ought children to givt wp candy ?
. well do so, if they get the ugar they need from
other OUI'O •
8 FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED.
oo. If we do eat candy, what kind ought we to confine ourselves to?
Conservation candies, such as chocolate-covered nuts and
fruits, ("indies with corn sirup, honey, maple sirup, or molasses.
The object is to save the cane and beet sugar.
56. Is tl ty of chot
Yes: there is plenty of unsweetened chocolate; it is a pure
and wholesome food.
59. What is the object of canning vegetables at home?
To use more perishables in place of staples and to save
58. May we use sugar for canning fruits?
Yes, a limited amount. But you are urged to can as much
as possible without sugar.
59. Must our sugar allowance be made to cover canning?
No. This is for normal household use. A limited additional
amount for canning will be available. Ask your local Food
60. Is canning fruits making a wise use of sugar?
Yes. It prevents waste of fruit, furnishes a concentrated
and palatable food for winter.
61. Can fruits be canned without sugar?
Yes. And sugar may be added later in the year when it is
62. Why are we not asked to save cheese?
Because we have a plentiful supply on hand in addition to
that needed for exports.
63. How much cheese did we import in 1914?
An average of over 5,000,000 pounds every month, almost
entirely fancy varieties.
64. How much did we import in August, 1917?
Half a million pounds.
65. What is the food value of 1 pound of cheese?
American cheese contains 130.6 grams protein, 162.8 grams
fat, 1.35 grams carbohydrates, and furnishes 2,055 calories
(according to Atwater and Bryant). It equals 1 pound of
fat meat in energy value.
66. Is cheese made of whole milk or skim milk?
Most of it is made of whole milk.
FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED. 9
67. Sina flu butter supply is somewhat limited, why not hail* cheese
of shim milk and use cream for butter production?
Because cheese is made when there are such quantities of
milk on hand that all of it could not lie put on the market
or consumed as milk or butter. It is really a by-product of
the dairy industry.
68. WJtat per ant of the milk produced is math into butter and what
j>i /■ cent goes into cha st .'
42 per cent to butter, 5 per cent to cheese.
69. What is cottage cheese made of?
Skim milk, buttermilk, or sour milk.
70. Is.cottagt cheese nourishing food?
\> s. It is rich in protein, and in price it is one of the
cheapest protein foods now available.
71. What dots a found of cottage cheese represent as />/W< o< value in
firms of other foods?
One pound cottage cheese is equivalent to —
1.27 pounds sirloin steak.
1.37 pounds chuck rib beef.
1.53 pounds fowl.
1.46 pounds fresh ham.
L.58 pounds loin pork chop.
72. What otht r products <</•< made of sour milk or buttermilk?
Skim-milk cheese, hard cheese, sour-milk drinks, all of
which are wholesome, casein and milk sugar.
73. What /'/"< i has cheese in the diet?
substitute for meat, and should be eaten as a dish
instead of a tidbit.
hould children obi s issued by thi Food Adminis-
hods arc based <>n sound principles
of health end take the special needs of the child into con-
sideration. The Food Administration constantly empha-
■ the fact that children should he properly nourished.
75, Should children ha/m butter?
hould r/i'dd/t a hurt mill,- .'
It is essentia] that children be given plenty of whole niilk.
77. Should fruit and r<g<t<d,hs hi included in th child's diet?
Children should have cither fruil or vegetabli . prefer-
ably both, exevy day. A health} child heiw.ru ;; and 6 may
have almost any vegetable that he will che\n thoroughly.
10 FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED.
78. 7>o children need sweets?
They need some form of sugar in their diet.
79. When else besides in candy can children get sngar?
In fruits, especially in the dried ones, and in fruit pastes,
jams, jellies, honey, corn sirups, and maple sugar; also from
cereals and other foods with which sugar is commonly used.
SO. Ought children to give up soda water and other sweet drinks?
Yes; or their use should he greatly cut down.
81. How much milk, sugar, fats, and meat should children have daily?
Child of 10— Milk,' 1 pint.
vSugar, 3 ounces.
Fats, 2 ounces.
Meat, 4 ounces.
82. What does conservation mean?
"The preservation of our natural resources for econom-
ical use, so as to secure the greatest good to the greatest
83. How can we conserve food?
By reducing consumption; by cutting out waste; by using
some other foods in place of the foods we are asked to save;
by using local products and thus saving transportation.
84. 7s it true that many people eat too much?
Probably 30 per cent of American people either eat or take
into their kitchens much more food than is necessary.
85. Does the Food' Administration object to teas and refreshments at
Not if conservation rules are observed; but as a general
principle of thrift it does not encourage the habit of eating
86. How can those people who neither waste nor eat too much help the
B} r substituting foods that are plentiful for the wheat, meat,
fats, and sugar that are needed for shipping overseas.
87. How can I find out about these problems?
By writing to the Federal Food Administrator in your State
for the free publications of the United States Food Admin-
88. What are these publications?
Brief statements of Food Administration policies and their
application to current phases of the conservation movement.
89. Is food conservation really necessary?
So necessary that we may lose the war unless we conserve.
FOOD QUESTION- EKED. 11
90. Why I* food conservation necessar*
Because men have been withdrawn from farm and field
to fight; because great food supplies have been sunk by sub-
marines or destroyed in battle; because there 1 is vastly in-
creased demand for food for soldiers and war workers; because
through good and had seasons reserves must be built up
against the lean years.
91. How i ■■'nut crop In Frana been ■
It has fallen off more than half.
92. What is tin oread ration in Franct .'
10} ounces daily per person, with constant possibility of
93. What is tin si/ nation in Fiance in regard to other supplies?
France is producing 1 gallon of milk where she formerly
produced ~' : . Oils, fats, eggs, and meat are scarce.
94. What is the present situation in Italy?
There is extreme need of cereals, meat, and fats.
95. How dependent is England on foreign countries for cereals?
She has to import three-fifths of the cereals needed.
96. What art tin present needs in England?
Meats, fats, dairy products, sugar, and cereals are urgently
97. ir//?/ v'.s- American help vitally necessary?
Because America is nearest and besl able to supply food
with the least exposure to submarines.
98. Is not the seriousness of tin food situation exaggerated?
It is not; food is essential to winning the war. A 1-ounce
slice of bread wasted is a bullet thrown away; to waste food
is treason to cause and count ry.
99. Havi ih> other warring nations been forced to practice food conser-
1 many had nol done so she would have been
defeated long ago.
100. Why is thi housekeeper aslced to help shoulder thi burden of co
i ation .'
Because 30 much of the food raised in this country pa
through her hands.
101. How eon thi littlt that one person can do help?
The little that one person can do, multiplied by the mil-
lion- of helpers, mounts up to vast sums.
L02. Whatan sonn figures shouting tht resultsfrom small daily savings?
On ■ 1 oun of bread saved cadi day in the 22,000,000
home-, of the country would total 9,625,000 pound lo
cd a week approximately 35,648 bit rels of flour •■ •
< )n" 0:1:: ;e red a daj ■.. ' ! , ital about 26,7
I .-; eek.
12 FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED.
L03. Will th small individual savings actually get to the Allies and
help win the -war.'
Unquestionably, yes. Every time you cat a wheat substi-
tute li is exactly as if you stretched out your hand and gave
the wheat you have saved to some fighter or worker in trench
or field or factory "over there."
104. Why does the Food Administration ask a person with plenty of
money to refrain from buying more food than is absolutely
n ecessa ry for health ?
Because it is a patriotic duty to eat only what is needed
for health so that food may be saved to help win the war.
105. Why is it insufficient to say ' ' I've always saved all the food I can ?"
Because to-day it is not only saving but substitution which
106. But will not foodstuffs spoil at the grocer's if people do not buy
A grocer orders supplies according to the demand. If you
constantly decrease your demand for certain things he will
reduce his supplies by that much.
107. What are the foods which we must especially save?
Wheat — Meat — Sugar — Fats.
108. Why must we send these particular foods?
Because they contain the most concentrated nourishment
in the most easily shippable form.
109. What American crop is the most valuable, measured by its food
value and production per acre?
Corn. One acre of corn gives nearly 150 pounds of digestible
protein and more than 3,000,000 units of energy
110. Why did we not send much corn to the Allies at first?
Partly because they lacked the facilities to handle it, and
partly because they were unfamiliar with it and unready to
take a strange foodstuff.
111. Are we shipping much corn now?
As much as possible.
112. Is it true that corn meal does not ~keep well?
It does not keep as well as wheat.
113. Why do the Allies take corn now?
Because they have been educated to the use of corn.
114. In what form is corn shipped?
In the grain, as flour, and as meal
115. Why is corn so important?
Because it is valuable food, with food by-products such as
corn oil, sugar, and starch; it is a good substitute for wheat,
and a splendid feed for live stock.
FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED. 13
116. Is com as nutritious as wheat?
117. ~\Y~hat art flu furious comfoods?
Corn, corn meal, corn flour, cornstarch, corn sirup, corn oil,
hominy, grits, samp.
US. What are the dairy product*.'
Milk, cream, butter, cheese, etc.
119. What are the distinctive qualities of milk, nutter, and chei s< 9
Milk is called a ''perfect food'' because it contains all the
food elements in nearly the right proportion for proper nutri-
tion and in the most digestible form; butter is probably the
most attractive fat and is 100 per cent digestible; cheese has
high protein value and is a good substitute for meat.
120. Why is the number of dairy cattle in Europi diminishing?
Because Europe has had to eat many dairy animals;
because shortage of labor has reduced fodder and help nec-
essary for the herds; and shortage of shipping has limited
the amount of imported fodder.
121. Wloj do the Allies turn to us for dairy products?
Because supplies reaching them from Scandinavia, Hol-
land, and Switzerland arc now hugely cut oh*, and shipping
can not be provided to bring food from Australia and New
122. Why should we encou \ dairy industry?
Because children need plenty of milk and butter: because
the world faces a shortage of milk and butter; and because
dairying is fundamental in much of our agriculture.
123. How can we use dairy products most wisely '.
By using butter only on the tabic; by using more skim
and sour milk and more whole milk; by wasting no milk
i r butter.
124. May w\ u • ia cream freely?
[ce cream althful food and offers an excellent way
of using milk products. Bui ii contains sugar, which is
one of the mods we wish to save. Patronize dealers who use
corn sirup and honey in place of nigar, and when making
125. //■ ■ ' much butter and chees* did "•< < iport to England, Franc, , and
Ital ing of th u
An :c I 724,522 pounds of butter and 1,670,777
pounds of chee »e per 3 ear.
14 FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED.
126. Have our exports of these commodities increased?
Yes. We soul to these countries (luring our first year in the
war, April 1, L917, to April 1, 1918:
Butter, 9,506,506 pounds.
Cheese, 28,721,385 pounds.
127. What about our <.> ports of condensed milk?
The average yearly exports to England, France, and Italy
before the war was 400,890 pounds. During our first year in
the war, April, 1917, to April, 1918, we exported 299,576,626
pounds of condensed milk to these countries.
128. Does the Food Administration ask the cooperation of dealers and
handlers of foodstuffs ?
Yes; everyone from producer and dealer to consumer is
asked to cooperate.
129. What have food merchants done?
Representatives of all branches of food merchandising in
the country have conferred with the administration and
pledged their loyal support.
130. How is the yroblem of distribution dealt with?
By conference and by licensing, and by certificates.
131. What is accomplished by conference ?
The members of a trade agree on fair priees and practices;
they agree to make short stocks go as far as possible,, and
to keep supply stead}^ and prices even.
132. How have commercial enterprises helped in food conservation?
1. Grocers have limited sales and urged use of substitutes.
2. Butchers have limited sales and have meatless days when
3. Bakers have had profits kept down to prewar basis.
They have been cut in fancy breads, pastries, etc., and they
are making Victory products. The prices of the ingredients
of bread have risen 150 per cent, but price of bread less than
50 per cent.
4. Hotel men have helped to observe wheatless, meatless,
and porkless days when required, and have conserved in
5. Confectioners have been cut down to 50 per cent of their
normal amount of sugar.
6. Flour millers have done away with all gradings and
done away with u fancy" flours. They all mill on the same
FOOD QUESTIONS ANSWERED. 15
133. What methods of economy h utty practi
The "cash-and-carry" plan; standardizi and
profits; eliminating waste: eliminating duplication of serv-
ice; shortening store hours.
134. How can tl
By patronizing which display the merchants' pled
by reporting unreasonable charges to her county
Food Administrator, who will take action under the
135. W, mercha
"We pled Ives to give our custom i benefil of
fair and moderate prices, selling at no more I asonable
cost to us.*'
13G. What has hem Hie ef)