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United States. Inland Waterways Commission.

Preliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report online

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for the improvement of rivers and harbors.

GRANTS TO THE STATES

The first appropriation by Congress for internal improvement was
made in the enabling act for the State of Ohio, April 30, 1802. It
provided that one-twentieth part of the proceeds from the sale by
Congress of public lands lying in said State should be apphed to the
la^'ing out and making public roads from the navigable w^aters
emptying into the Atlantic to the Ohio River, to the said State,
and through the same, such roads to be laid out under the authority
of Congress, with the consent of the several States through which
the roads should pass. In the act of March 3, 1803, 3 per cent of
the net proceeds of land sales was given to Ohio for roads within
the State, and for no other purpose whatever.

Similar provisions for a grant of 5 per cent of the net proceeds of
the sales of public lands within each State have been made in the
subsequent acts for the admission of the various public-land States
to the Union. In the different acts there is some variation in the
purposes for which the grants were made. The early acts usualh^
made the appropriation for roads and canals; later acts (after 1836)
made the proceeds available for roads and internal improvements ;
and the act for Nevada (1864) applied it to roads and irrigation
pitches. Beginning with the four States admitted in 1889, the
proceeds of tliis 5 per cent grant have been granted as a permanent
lund for the support of common schools.

Up to 1887 the amomits accruing to the various States for the
proceeds of the cash sales of public lands aggTCgated $7,123,549.83.
The States have insisted that they were entitled to 5 per cent not
only on the cash sales, but also on the value of public lands within
their limits set aside for permanent Indian reservations and dis-
posed of in satisfaction of bounty-land warrants and agricultural
college or other scrip issued by the United States in pa\anent of its
obligations. A bill now before Congress proposes to recognize this
claim, which it is estimated will amount to about $8,182,000.'*

o Congressional Record, vol. 42, p. 4380.

177



178



REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION



CANAL GRANTS

In 1824 a special canal act for Indiana was passed, but this was not
utilized. The first effective act making grants of land to States for
the specific purpose of securing construction of canals was passed
March 2, 1827. This act gives such grants of land to the States of Indi-
ana and Illinois. Two and a half sections of land on each side of the
canal were granted, the United States reserving alternate sections,
thus beginning a policy which has become the rule in land grants for
improvements. Part of the grant made to Indiana by this act of
1827 was afterwards transferred to Ohio.

Additional grants of land for canals were subsequently made to
all of the above-named States and also to Wisconsin and Michigan,
as is shown in the following table. The total area of all grants made
to the States for canals from 1827 to 1866 has been 4,424,073.06
acres.

Table 50 — Land grants for canals
(Forty-sixth Congress, third session, H. Ex. Doc. 47; pt. 4. "The Public Domain," 1881, p. 2581



State. I Date of law.



Indiana.



Ohio.



Illinois.



Wisconsin



Michigan .



Mar. 26,1824
Mar. 2, 1827
May 29,1830
Feb. 27,1841
Aug. 29,1842
Mar. 3,1845
May 9,1848

Mar. 2,1827

June 30,1834

May 24,1828

Apr. 3,1830

May 24,1828

Mar. 2,1827
Aug. 3,1854

June 18,1838
Apr. 10,1866
Mar. 1,1872
Mar. 7,1874

Aug. 26,1852

Mar. 3,1865

July 3, 1866

July 6,1866



Vol. 4, p. 47...
Vol. 4. p. 236. .
Vol. 4, p. 416..
Vol. 5, p. 414..
Vol. 5, p. 542..
Vol. 5, p. 731..
Vol. 9. p. 219..

Vol. 4, p. 236. .
Vol. 4, p. 716..
Vol. 4, p. 305. .
Vol. 4, p. 393..
Vol. 4, p. 306. .



Name of canal.



rotal acres
granted
and cer-
tified.



Wabash and Erie Canal.



Wabash and Erie Canal.



[Miami and Dayton

General canal purposes j 500,000.00



234,246.73
29,552.50

259,368.48
24,219.83

796,630.19

113,348.33

266,535.00
333,826.00



Vol lO^T) 344 li*"'^^^''' I^li°^°'^ River to Lake Michigan

Vol. 5, p. 245. . ] Milwaukee and Rock River Canal

Vol. 14, p. 30. . j Breakwater and Harbor Ship Canal

Vol. 17, p. 32.-1 Breakwater extending time to Apr. 10, 1874.
Vol. 18, p. 20. .i Breakwater extending time to Apr. 10, 1876.

Vol. 10, p. 35. . ; St. Marys Ship Canal

Vol. 13, p. 519 11 Portage" Lake and Lake Superior Ship

Vol. 14, p. 81.. J Canal.

Vol. 14, p. 80.. Lac La Belle Ship Canal



290,915.00

125,431.00
200,000.00



750,000.00
200,000.00
200,000.00
100,000.00



RECAPITULATION



1 , 457, 366. 06

1 , 100,361. 00

290,915. 00

.325, 431. 00

1,250,000. 00

\

Total 4, 424, 073. 06



Indiana...
Ohio

Illinois

Wisconsin.
Michigan . .



STATE SELECTION ACT



By an act of September 4, 1841, Congress granted to the States
named in the act and "to each new' State that shall hereafter be
admitted into the Union" 500,000 acres of public lands for internal
improvements, including the land granted to such States for such
purposes before their admission.



GOVERNMENT AID TO INLAND NAVIGATION



179



Selections under this act amounted in 1880 to 7,806,554.67 acres,
as shown in the follo^^^no; table:

Table 51 — State selectionsO'
[Fifty-sixth Congress, third session, H. Ex. Doc. 47; pt. 4 (1881). "The Public Domain," p. 2.5.')]



State.



Illinois

Missouri

Alabama

Mississippi

Louisiana

Michigan

Arkansas

Florida

Iowa

Wisconsin

California

Kansas

Mimiesota

Oregon

Nevada

Nebraska

Colorado

Total

Not selected

Selected to June 30, 1880.



Acres.



Disposition.



209,085.50
500,000.00
97, 469. 17
500,000.00
500,000.00
500,000.00
500,000.00
500,000.00
500,000.00
500, 000. 00
500, 000. 00
500, 000. 00
500,000.00
500, 000. 00
500.000.00
500,000.00
500,000.00



Satisfied.
Do.
Do.

Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.

484,184 selected.
Satisfied.

Do.
487,709 selected.
Satisfied.

Do.

Do.
470,014 selected.
Satisfied.
302,541.20 selected.



7,806,554.67
255,551.74



7,551,002.83



o Ohio and Indiana had already received their quota for internal improvements, and Illinois and
Alabama had received part of the 500,000 acres under grants previous to the State Selection Acts.
See above table of Land Grants for Canals.

NAVIGATION GRANTS

By an act of August 8, 1846, a grant of land was made to the Terri-
tory of Iowa for the purpose of improving the navigation of the Des
Moines River from its mouth to the Raccoon Fork. This act was a
peculiar one and was the subject of much departmental and judicial
construction" and finally was partially merged into the grant in aid
of the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines and Minnesota Railroad. Another
act passed the same day as the Iowa grant (August 8, 1846), gave to
Wisconsin when admitted as a State land for the improvements of the
Fox and Wisconsin rivers, and to build a canal to connect them.



LATER STATE GRANTS

In the enabling acts for North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and
Washington (Februarv 27, 1889), Idaho (July 3, 1890), W^yoming
(July 10, 1890), and Utah (July 16, 1894), in lieu of the grant of land
for internal improvement, 500,000 acres were given«for specific edu-
cational or charitable institutions and public buildings, except in the
case of Utah, where 650,000 acres were given for these purposes and
500,000 acres in addition for irrigation works.^



«See Railroad Co. r. Litchfield, 23 Howard, 66.

b State grants of public lands, issued by the General Land Office, March. 1896, pp.
8 and 9.



180



REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION



SUBSCRIPTIONS



In addition to the land grants to States, Congress subscribed to
the stock of various canal companies, as shown in the following table :

Table 52 — Acts of Congress authorizing the Government to subscribe for or purchase
stock of private canal companies or loan money to the same



Date of act.



Mar. 3,
Mar. 2,
May 13,
Mar. 2,
May 18,
Mar. 2,
July 25,
Jan. 11,
May 24,
Mar. 3,
June 25,



1825
1829
1826
1829
1826
1829
1866
1868
1828
1837
1832



Canal company.



Number
|of shares.



Amount.



Chesapeake and Delaware .

do

Louisville and Portland. . .

do

Dismal Swamp

do

do



Chesapeake and Ohio .



2,250
2,250
1,000
1,350
600
200



10,000



$225,000
225,000
100,000
135,000
150,000
50, 000



1,000,000



300,000
100,000



Remarks.



Purchase or subscription.
Do.



Sale of shares.

Sale postponed to Feb. 8, 1868.

Loan to Alexandria Canal.
Loan to Alexandria Canal for
aqueduct.



APPROPRIATIONS

The following tables show the appropriations made by Congress
for river improvements (excluding harbors) and canals, from 1802 to
1900, with a statement of subsequent appropriations for river and
harbor improvements from 1900 to 1907:

Table 53 — Acts of Congress making appropriations for rivers and canals. 1802-1900
[Analytical and topical index, reports. Chief of Engineers, 1866-1900.]



Date of act.



Rivers.



Canals.



.\pril6, 1802

April 18, 1806

February 10, 1809 .

March 3, 1821

May 24, 1824

March 3, 1825

May 13, 1826

May 18, 1826

May 20, 1826

March 2, 1827

Do

March 3, 1827

May 19, 1828

May 23, 1828

May 24, 1828

March 2, 1829

Do

Do

March 3, 1829

April 23, 1830

March 2, 1831

Do

Julys, 1832

March 2, 1833

■ Do

June 28, 1834

June 30, 1834

Do

Do

February 24, 18.35 .

March 3, 1835

July 2, 1836

.July 4, 1836

March 3, 1837

April 20, 1838

Julv7, 18.38

March 3, 1839

July 20, 1840

March 3, 1841

August 23, 1842...



830,



000.00
448. 71



150.00
,000.00



30,

3,

150,



000.00
000. 00
383. 40
000.00
500.00
513.00



30, 000. 00



$25,000.00



300, 000. 00
100,000.00
150, 000. 00



1,000,000.00



50,

95,

46,

200,

;54,

15,

95,

155,



000.00
694. 72
880.00
000.00
970. 32
000.00
900.00'
527.00



17,
231,
395
160,
754,

70.
408.

15

i;

75
100



000.00
240. 63
000.00
000.00
600.05
000.00
963.00
000.00
573.00
000.00
075.39
,000.00
000.00



Date of act.



Canals.



200, 000. 00
133, 500. 00



28,337.55



15, 000. 00
300, 000. 00



10,000.00



March 1, 1843

Do

June 11, 1844

June 15, 1844

Do

February 26, 1845
March 3, 1845

Do

March 2, 1847.....

March 3, 1847

March 3, 1849

August 30, 1852...

July 22, 1854.

Julys, 1856.

Do

Do

August 16, 1856. . .

June 9, 1860

June 12, 1860

Julvl, 1864.

June 23, 1866

March 2, 1867

Do

July 25, 18(58

April 10, 1869

December 23, 1869

July 11, 1870

Julv 15, 1870

January 18, 1871
Februarj- 2, 1871
March 3, 1871. . . .
June 10, 1872....

• Do

March 3, 1873. . . .

Do

Do

Aprils, 1874

May 11, 1874.....
June 23, 1874

Do




GOVERNMENT AID TO INLAND NAVIGATION



181



Table 53 — Acts of Congress making appropriations for rivers and canals, 1802-1900-

Contiuued



Date of act.



March 3, 187.5

July 31, 1876

August 14, 1876....
February 7, 1878...

April 30," 1878

.Tune 18, 1878

Do

Juno 20, 1878

January 13, 1X79. . .

March 3, 1879

June 28, 1879

June 14, 1880

June 16, 1880

Do

March 3, 1881

Do

March 21, 1882

May 4, 1882

August 2, 1882

August 7, 1882

Do

March 3, 1883

Do

January 19, 1884 . .

March 12, 1884

Julyo, 1884

July 7, 1884

Ma,v26, 1886

August 4, 1886

Augusts, 1886

February 1,1888...

March 30, 1888

April 2, 1888

August 11, 1888....

Do

October 2, 1888....
October 19, 1888...



Riyers.



Canals.



$3,



000.00
000. 00

:m. 00

000.00



900. 00
000.00
.513.00
.")3fl. 72
600. 00
000.00
500.00
010.00
000.00
000.00
000.00
000. 00
000.00
900.00
000.00
970. 18
460.00
000.00
000.00
100.00
.500.00
479. 32
492. 00
404. 57
025. 00
380. 32
800. 00
572. 48
633. 77
733. 13
000.00
525. 06



$780, 000. 00
"456,666.06



7, 500. 00
425, 000. 00



368, 000. 00
'432,' 755.' 36



317, 000. 00
'325,'666.'66



530, 000. 00
'"68i,'256.'66

"i,'.576,"m66



Date of act.



March 2, 1889

February 22, 1890...

August 30, 1890

September, 19,1890.
September 30, 1890. .
January 19, 1891....
March 3, 1891

Do

Do

July 13, 1892

July 28, 1892

Augusts, 1892

March 3, 1893

Do

August 18, 1894

Do

August 23, 1894

Do

March 2, 1895

Do

February 26, 1896...

May 1, 1896

June 3, 1896

June 11, 1896

Do

February 26, 1897...

March 31, 1897

June 4, 1897

July 19, 1897

July 1, 1898

January 5, 1899

March 3, 1899

June 6, 1900

September 19, 1900..

Total



Rivers.



862,

1,50,

3,

14, 428,

162,

2,

1,

300,

1,000,

12, 8.56,

109,

115,

7, 349,

95,

6, 701,

5,335,

6,

1,

■ 15,

6, 770,

17,

11,340,

980,



060.00
000. 00
735. 0(3
050. 00
178. 04
128. 87
9,50. 00
000.00
000.00
529. 00
W;7. 41
000. 00
500.00
986. 65
180. 00
000.00
325. 28
916.97
000. 00
700. 00
500. 00
811.96
625. 46
000. 00



Canals.



250, 000. 00

250, 000. 00
9, 789, 333. 00
1,156,015.65
7, 575, 989. 56

100, 000. 00
14,626,409.25
8, 725, 017. 00

167, 000. 00



82, 367, 000. 00



206, 899, 183. 81



600, 000. 00

'i,'6i8,'683.'66



2, 444, 653. 00



425, 000. 00
300, 000. 00



483, 865. 00



335, 000. 00

179, 597. 00

8, 265. 19



1,575,000.00
'i,'877,'746.'66



748, 000. 00
1,110,000.00



30,245,387.24



Table 54 — Appropriations for river and harbor improvements, 1900-1907



1900.


1901.


1902.


1903.


Regular appropriations ! $16, 195, 623. 75

Permanent annual appropriations 291, 000. 00

Indefinite appropriations (opening
and cleaning of canals and remov-
ing sunken vessels) 1,013,975.33


$7,046,623.22
291,000.00

1,009,268.22


$32,565,199.94
297,600.00

1,100,120.59


$20,228,157.00
297, 600. 00

1,196,361 30






Total , 17, 500, 599. 08


8,346,891.44


33,962,920.53


21,722,118.30









1904.


1905.


1906.


1907.


Regular appropriations

Permanent annual appropriations

Indefinite appropriations


$10, 872, 200. 00

297,600.00

1,135,792.81


$26,561,281.75

297, 600. 00

1, 116, 829. 48


$17,664,0.50.04

297, 600. 00

1,273,819.32


$43, 315, 813. 00

297, 600. 00

1,512,176.76






Total


12,305,592.81


27,975,711.23


19,235,469.36


45,125,589 76







RECAPITULATION



1900

1901

1902

1903

1904

1905

1906

1908



$17,
8,
33,
21,
12,
27,
19,
45,



500,599.08
346,891.44
962,920.53
722,118.30
305, 592. 81
975,711.23
235, 469. 36
125,589.76



Total .



186.174,892.51



5. GOVERNMENT SLACK-WATER RR^RS



Facts relating to the Government slack-water rivers are set forth
in the accompanying table, which shows the location of each stream,
the navigable length of the river and the slack-water portion, the
nmnber and dimensions of locks, traffic statistics, and the total Gov-
ernment expenditures so far as ascertained, with such "remarks" as
are needed to call attention to special facts concerning each river.
The rivers included in this table are only those where navigatiim has
been improved by means of locks and dams. It does not include
many rivers where the Government has carried on improvements of
other kinds; nor does it include rivers for which slack- watering
projects have been urged or authorized, but on which no important
work has yet been completed.

Where two dates appear in the column headed "Year" under
"Traffic" the statistics are for the fiscal year ending June 30.
182



GOVERNMENT SLACK-WATER RIVERS



183




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Pools formed b

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GOVERNMENT SLACK- WATER RIVERS



185



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186



KEPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION



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GOVERNMENT SLACK-WATER RIVERS



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2S^^°S2;:|.gi^^rr|2 35



6. CANALS IN THE UNITED STATES



LOCATION OF CANALS



Canals in the United States include: (a) Government canals, (6)
State canals, (c) private canals.

Geographically they are distributed as shown on the accompanying
map prepared in the oflBce of the Bureau of Corporations.

LOCATION OF GOVERNMENT CANALS

Grouped with reference to their situation, Government canals are
as follows :

Lake Group

1. Canals on the through route between Buffalo and Duluth,
including the St. Clair Flats Canal and the St. Marys Falls Canal.

2. Branch canals of the lake group, represented by the Sturgeon
Bay and Lake Michigan Canal; the Portage Lake and Lake Superior
canals, and the Portage Canal connecting the Fox and Wisconsin
rivers.

3. Lake harbor canals, or those of a rather local nature, including
the Duluth Ship Canal and the Benton Harbor Canal.

Jklississippi Valley

4. The Illinois and Mississippi Canal (Hennepin), which has just
been completed, uniting the waters of Lake ]\lichigan with those of
the Mississippi River.

5. The Des Moines Rapids Canal near Keokuk on the tlirough
Mississippi river route between St. Paul and St. Louis.

6. The Louisville and Portland Canal on the through route between
Pittsburg and Cairo.

7. Tennessee River canals, establishing through communication
between Chattanooga, Tenn., and Paducah, Ky., including the Big
Muscle Shoals Canal, Elk River Shoals Canal, and Colbert and Bee
Tree Shoals Canal.

Atlantic and Gulf Coast

8. The Estherville-Minim Creek Canal, a successor in a way to the
old Santee River Canal in South Carolina. The purpose of the
Estherville-Minim Creek Canal is to furnish an outlet for the Santee
River into Winyah Bay.

9. Gulf canals, embracing Port Arthur Canal, at Port Arthur,
Texas; the Morgan Ship Canal, a link in the waterway connecting
Houston with Galveston Bay; and the Galveston and Brazos Canal,
extending from Galveston Bay to the Brazos River.

Pacific Coast

10. (^anals of the Pacific coast include the Cascades Canal, an
improvement of. the Columbia River, Oregon, where it passes

188



CANALS IN THE UNITED STATES 189

through the Cascade Mountain range; and the Lake Washino;ton
Canal, Washington, a waterway in course of construction, which is to
connect the waters of Lake Union and Lake Washington with those
of Puget Sound.

LOCATION OF STATE CANALS

State canals in operation exist only in New York, Ohio, Illinois,
and Louisiana. Their relative importance is in the order named.

New York Canals

The several canals of this State, which are of more than local impor-
tance, are as follows:

1. Erie Canal.— The main line of this canal extends from Albany to
Buffalo, 352 miles, and forms part of the through route between New
York City, via the Hudson River, and Chicago, Duluth, and other lake
ports.

2. Ghamplain Canal. — This canal unites the Erie Canal, Lake
Champlain, and the St. Lawrence River, with which Lake Cham-
plain connects by means of the Richelieu River and the Canadian
Chambly Canal. The Champlain Canal extends from Whitehall to
West Troy, 66 miles.

3. Black River Canal. — This canal with its feeder and reservoir, and
the Black River Improvement, a State enterj)rise, collectively em-
brace more than 90 miles of waterways. This waterway does not
open through communication between Lake Erie and the Hudson
River on the one hand and Lake Ontario on the other, the Black River
not being navigable between Carthage and Lake Ontario.

4. Os'wego Canal, running from Oswego on Lake Ontario to Syra-
cuse on the Erie Canal, a distance of 38 miles. This canal is fed by the
Oswego River, which forms part of the waterway, the bed of the river
bemg canalized for about half the total distance. Ramifications of
this canal include the Baldwinsville Side Cut, the Oneida River Im-
provement, and the Seneca River Towing Path.

5. Cayuga and Seneca Canal. — This canal is 23 miles long and ex-
tends from Montezuma on the Erie Canal to Geneva on Lake Geneva.
The Cayuga branch of the canal is 2 miles long. Formerly this canal
was of much importance, because of its relation to the continuous
line of inland waterways between the Erie Canal and Chesapeake Bay
via the Chemung Canal and the canals of Pennsylvania. This line,
however, is now abandoned through the greater part of its length.

Ohio Canals

The two State canals of Ohio cross the State from two different
points of Lake Erie. The Ohio and Erie Canal, generally called the
"Ohio Canal," runs from Cleveland to the Ohio at Portsmouth, a
distance of about 309 miles. It is joined at Lockbourne by the
Columbus navigable feeder, 11 miles m length. At Roscoe the old
Walhonding Canal, which connects with the Ohio Canal, is still used
for a distance of 6 miles. The other Ohio State canal is the Miami



Online LibraryUnited States. Inland Waterways CommissionPreliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report → online text (page 18 of 83)
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