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Preliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report online

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Canals in Ohio 239

Table 83. — Receipts and expenditures on Ohio State canals,

1890-1905 245

Canals in Illinois 247

Illinois and Michigan Canal 247

Table 84. — Expenditures and receipts, Illinois and Michigan

Canal 249

Table 85. — Movement of canal boats on the Illinois and Michi-
gan Canal, 1860-1902 250

Table 86.— Articles transported on Illinois and Michigan

Canal, 1892-1902 251

Table 87. — Rates of tolls and lockage on the Illinois and Michi-
gan Canal 252

Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal 253

Canals in New Jersey 254

Delaware and Raritan Canal 254

Table 88.— Traffic in Delaware and Raritan Canal, 1904, 1905. 256

Table 89. — Rates of steam towage, Delaware and Raritan canal 258

Pennsylvania Railroad control of Delaware and Raritan Canal. 259

Relation of Delaware and Raritan Canal to Raritan River 260

Morris Canal 261

Canals in Pennsylvania 267

Lehigh Canal 267

Delaware Division Canal 269

The Schuylkill Navigation 271

Canals in Delaware and Maryland 275

Chesapeake and Delaware Canal 275

Table 90.— Rates of towage 278

Table 91.— Traffic of Chesapeake and Delaware ( 'anal, 1904-5. 279

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 280

Canals in Virginia and North C'arolina 286

Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal 286

Table 92.— Number, class, and tonnage of vessels passing

through the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal . . 288

Table 93.— Freight traffic on Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal . 288

The Dismal Swamp Canal 291

Table 94.— Freight traffic on Dismal Swamp Canal, 1905 295

Minor canals 298

State and private canals in Louisiana 299

New Basin Canal 300

Old Basin Canal 301



CONTENTS 7

Appendix — Continued Page

7. State and private canals — Continued

State and private canals in Louisiana — Continued

Barataria and Lafourche Canal 304

Harvey Canal 305

Lake Borgne Canal 305

Canals in Oregon 308

Boat tolls and freight tolls on canals 310

Table 95.— Through freight tolls on canals 312

8. Relation of water transportation to railroad rates 314

Waterway competition 314

Table 96. — Railroad rates on high-class freight 315

Testimony before the Industrial Commission 319

River and rail rates 325

Table 97. — Freight rates for transportation of classihed traffic and
important commodities via rail and viariver from St.
Louis, Mo., to points on theupper Mississippi River. 334

Table 98. — Freight rates for transportation of classified traffic and
important commodities via rail and via river from St.
Paul, Minn., to pointson the upper MississippiRiver. 335

Table 99. — Freight rates for transportation of articles classified in
the Western Classification via rail and via river from
St. Louis, Mo. , to points on the ^Missouri River 337

Table 100. — Freight rates for transportation of classified traffic and
important commodities from Missouri River points
to St. Louis, Mo., via rail lines, 1877-1902 338

Table 101. — Freight rates for transportation of grain and meat
products from Kansas City, Mo., to St. Louis, Mo.,
1879-1902 339

Table 102. — Freight rates for transportation of articles in the Illi-
nois Classification via rail and via river from St.
Louis, Mo., to points on the Mississippi and Illinois
rivers 340

Table 103. — Freight rates for transportation of articles in the Illi-
nois, Western, and Southern Classification via rail
and via river from St. Louis, Mo., to points on the
lower Mississippi River 341

Table 104. — Highest and lowest freight rate and the rate continuing
for the longest period each year for transportation of
flour, pork, gram, meat, andhay from St. Louis, Mo.,
to Memphis, Tenn., Vicksburg, Miss., and New
Orleans, La., via Mississippi River steamers,
1866-1906 ....- 342

Table 105. — Average freight rates for transportation of grain in
sacks \'ia steamers, and wheat, corn, and rye, via
barges, from St. Louis, Mo., to New Orleans, La.,
1866-1903 344

Table 106. — Freight rates for transportation of flour, pork, grain,
and hav, by barge and steamer, from St. Louis, Mo.,
to New'Orleans, La., 1887-1904 344

Table 107. — Freight rates for transportation of wheat and other
grain by all rail from St. Louis, Mo., to New Orleans,
La., and Vicksburg, Miss., 1887-1907 345

Table 108. — Class and commodity rates from St. Louis, Mo., to New

Orleans, La., via rail and viariver, effective in 1903. 346

Table 109. — Freight rates for transportation of classified traffic
(Southern Classification) via all rail from Chicago,
111., to Mississippi River and southern interior
points, effective July 1 , 1907 347

Table 110. — Freight rates for transportation of classified traffic
(Southern Classification) via all rail from St. Louis,
Mo., to Mississippi River and southern interior
points, effective July 1, 1907 347

Table 111. — Freight rates for transportation of classified traffic
(Southern Classification) \'ia all rail from Louis\411e,
Ky., to Missi.ssippi River and southern interior
points, effective July 1, 1907 348



8 REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION

Appendix — Continued Page

8. Relation of water transportation to railroad rates — Continued
River and rail rates — Continued

Table 112. — Freight rates for transportation of classified traffic
(Southern Classification) via all rail from Cincinnati
to Mississippi River and southern interior points. . . 348

Table 113. — Freight rates for transportation of classified traffic
(Southern Classification) via all rail from Memphis
to Mississippi River and southern interior points. . . 349

Table 114. — Freight rates for transportation of articles (Southern
Classification) via rail and via river from St. Louis,
Mo., to points on the Tennessee River 350

Table 115. — Freight rates for transportation of classified traffic
and important commodities via rail and via river
from Pittsbm-g, Pa., to points on the Ohio and Mis-
sissippi rivers 351

Table 116. — Freight charges, distances, and rate per ton-mile for
transportation of bituminous coal via all rail from
the Kanawha district, located on the Chesapeake &
and Ohio Railway, to points on the Ohio River and
inland Kentucky points 352

Table 117. — Freight rates for transportation of articles (Southern
Classification) via all rail from New Orleans, La., to
Mississippi River and interior points 352

Table 118. — Freight rates for transportation of articles (Western
Classification) via rail and via river from New Or-
leans, La., to points on the Mississippi River 354

Table 119. — Freight rates for transportation of cla.'^sified traffic and
important commodities via rail and via river from
New Orleans, La., to points on the Red River 356

Table 120. — Freight rates for transportation of classified traffic and
important commodities via rail and \aa river from
Shreveport, La., to points on the Red and Missis-
sippi rivers 360

Table 121. — Freight rates for transportation of classified traffic and
important commodities via rail and via river from
New Orleans, La., to points on the Ouachita and
Black rivers 364

Table 122. — Freight rates for transportation of cotton \'ia rail and
via river from landings on the Red, Black, Ouachita,
and tributary rivers to New Orleans, La 366

Table 123. — Freight rates for transportation of articles (Western
Classification) via all rail from Seattle, Wash., to
Puget Sound, to Pacific coast, and to interior points. 369

Table 124. — Freight rates for transportation of articles (Western
Classification) via rail and via river from Portland,
Oreg., to points on the Columbia River 370

Table 125. — Freight rates for transportation of articles (Western
Classification) \'ia rail and \aa river from The Dalles,
Oreg., to points on the Columbia RiA^er 372

Table 126. — Freight rates for transportation of articles (Western
Classification) Ada rail and via river from Portland,
Oreg., to points on Willamette and Yamhill rivers. 373

Table 127. — Freight rates charged for the transportation of articles
(Western Classification) via rail and via water from
San Francisco to points on San Francisco Bay and
tributary rivers, and to interior California points. . 374

9. Railroad control of river traffic and private canals 375

River lines 375

Private canals 375

10. Relationsbetweenwaterwaysandrailway trafficinEurope (J. C. Welliver) 377
Introductory 377

General conditions 377

Early canal era ended by railway development 378

Revival of interest in waterways 379

Tardy waterway revival in Great Britain 380

Situation in the United States compared 381



CONTENTS 9

Appendix — Continued Page

10. Relations between waterways and railway traffic in Europe — Cont'd.
Introductory — Continued

Error of the British iron makers 381

Why waterways must be protected from unbridled railway com-
petition 383

Cooperation of the two systems 387

If the Ohio had been a German river 388

The Belgian waterways system 389

. Belgium's important rivers 390

Eastern division of waterway system 391

The western division 391

Immense growth of water tonnage 393

Recent improvement of water highways 394

Bringing the sea to the cities 395

Digging out inland harbors 396

Comparison of water and rail rates 396

Waterways relation to foreign trade 398

Rails and water cooperate rather than compete 399

Tolls are insignificant 400

An official Belgian view 401

The German waterways system 402

The German river system 403

The waterways programme of 1905 404

Cooperation of state with local divisions 405

Growth of the waterways traffic 406

Berlin-Hamburg water route 408

Water and rail rates 410

Interference of cold and drought 410

The Tetlow cut-off canal 411

Getting freight to the canals 412

The Kaiser Wilhelm Canal 413

The French waterways system 413

Railway rates are higher 414

French waterways revival 415

Different methods of improving rivers 416

The Canal de I'Est 416

Present programme of improvements 417

Canal traffic grows, as does also rail traffic 418

Competitive methods of railways 418

The port of Nantes 419

The inland waterways of Austria- Hungary 420

The Danube and the Mississippi compared 421

Works at the ' ' Iron Gates' ' 422

Development of traffic 423

The waterways of Holland 423

Railroads renewed prosperity 423

Troubles of Dutch railways 424

Rail and water rates 425

The British waterways — a contrast 426

Early British canal era 426

Inferiority of English canals 427

Powers of the board of trade 427

Control of canals by railways ^ 428

Rail rates higher than water rates 429

Waterways must be emancipated and protected 430

Sample results of railway control 430

Water routes help railways 431

York's experience as an illustration 432

The waterway trust proposals 432

Railways and the Manchester Canal 433

High rates of English railways 434

Erie Canal as an argument in England 435

Waterway movement gains ground 435

11. Effects of the purity of industrial water supplies on their use (R. B.

Dole) 436

Boiler water 438

Water in paper making 442

31673— S. Doc. 325, 60-l 2



10 REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION

Appendix — Continued Page

11. Effects of the purity of industrial water supplies on their use — Con.

Other industries 442

Domestic water supplies 443

Effects of impurity on domestic supplies 443

12. Applications of water power ( W. E. Herring) 447

13. Relation of water conservation to flood prevention and navigation in

Ohio River (M. O. Leighton) 451

Introduction 451

Reservoir facilities in the Ohio basin 457

Allegheny basin 457

Monongahela basin 458

Kanawha River 460

Little Kanawha and Big Sandy rivers 462

Kentucky, Licking, Scioto, and Great Miami river basins 464

Cumberl^ind River 464

Tennessee River 464

Smaller tributaries of Ohio River 467

Floods on the Ohio 467

Conclusions concerning flood abatement 482

Effect of storage on navigation 482

Cost of the reservoir system 487

Water power 490

14. Fuels and structural materials in relation to inland water transporta-

tion (Joseph A. Holmes) 491

Letter of transmittal 491

The inquiry 491

Similar inquiries from other branches of the Government service 492

Structural materials for river and harbor work 493

Character and distribution of materials available for concrete con-
struction adjacent to waterways _. 495

The purpose and plan of pending investigations of these materials. . . 497

Use of concrete in waterway improvement 497

Fuels and cheap power as influencing inland water transportation 499

Steam engines versus internal-combustion engines and water

transportation 500

Availability of the internal-combustion engine 502

Coal supplies available for inland water transportation 503

15. General relations of forests and streams (Raphael Zon) 505

Influence on atmospheric precipitation 505

Influence on the evaporation of water from the soil 505

Influence on leaf transpiration 507

Influence on the behavior of the residue 509

Summary 512

16. Special relations of forests to rivers in the United States (W. W. Ashe) . . 514

Physical relations 514

River system of the northeastern States 515

River system of the middle Atlantic coast 518

River system of the southern Appalachians 520

Rivers of the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains 524

Streams of the Sacramento basin 528

Columbia River 530

Sanitary relation between forests and streams 532

Relation of forests to engineering means of river control 533

17. The Gallatin report 535

Roads and canals 536

Great canals along the Atlantic seacoast 538

I. Massachusetts Canal 539

II. New Jersey Canal 540

III. Delaware and Chesapeake Canal 541

IV. Chesapeake and Albemarle 542

Communications between the Atlantic and Western waters 544

I. Santee 548

II. The Lower or Great Falls of Roanoke 549

III. James River 549

IV. Potomac 550

V. Susquehannah 552

VI. Ohio 553



CONTENTS 11

Appendix — Continued Page

17. The Gallatin report — Continued
Roads and canals — Continued

Communications between the Atlantic rivers and the River St.

Lawrence and Great Lakes 555

I. Hudson and Champlain, or northern navigation 556

II. Mohawk and Ontario, or western navigation 557

III. Niagara 559

Interior canals 561

I. Merrimack 561

II. Schuylkill and Delaware 562

III. Schuylkill and Susquehannah 562

IV. Appomattox 563

V. Neuse and Beaufort 563

VI. Cape Fear River 563

VII. New Orleans 564

Turnpike or artificial roads 564

Recapitulation and resources 570

Fulton's reply 575

18. Report of Windom select committee 582

Summary of conclusions and recommendations 583

The Mississippi route 586

The northern route 586

The central route 587

The southern route 587

National character of the proposed improvements 588

Benefits anticipated from the northern route 589

Benefits anticipated from the central route 590

Benefits anticipated from the southern route 591

Benefits anticipated from the Mississippi route 591

19. Statutes relating to water power (Alexander MacKenzie, Brig. Gen.,

U. S. A., Chief of Engineers) 597

Additional legislation 694

Index 697



A. Map of navigable rivers in the United States (from Eleventh Census)... (Pocket)

B. Map of canals and other navigable inland waterways in the United States

(prepared in the Bureau of Corporations) (Pocket)

1. Freight rates from St. Louis via rail and via river to Mississippi and Mis-

souri river points and via all rail to interior points 337

2. Freight rates from Chicago, St. Louis, Louisville, Cincinnati, and

Memphis to Mississippi River points and southern interior points 347

3. Freight rates from St. Louis to points on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers

and interior points 348

4. Freight rates from Memphis to lower Mississippi points and interior

points 349

5. Freight rates from New Orleans to lower Mississippi points and interior

points 352

6. Freight rates on coal from Kanawha district to Ohio River points and

interior Kentuckj^ points 352

7. Freight rates from Seattle, Wash., and Portland, Oreg 370

8. Freight rates from San Francisco to California points 374

9. Freight rates from Portland via rail and river to points in Oregon and

Washington 374

C. Map showing the system of internal improvements recommended by the

Windom committee 582

DIAGRAMS

1. Commerce through the St. Marys Falls Canals, 1881 to 1906 169

2. Traffic on New York canals, 1837 to 1905 219

3. Total movement of flour, meal, and grain on all the New York canals from

1861 to 1905 234

4. Average freight rates on wheat from Chicago to New York, 1869 to 1905 238



CONSPECTUS



Page

Creation of the Commission 15

Proceedings 17

Results 18

Findings 18

1. Navigation (Recommendations A-I: Inquiries in progress I, II). . 18

2. Railway congestion " C, D 19

3. Waterway restoration ' ' A, H, I 19

4. Railway competition '" C, D 19

5. Railways: Waterways " C-E, I 19

6. Commercial data " E 20

7. Purification • " A, H, I 20

8. Regimentation " A, F-I 20

9. Erosion " A, F-I 21

10. Cultivation " A, G-I 21

11. -Fluctuation " A, F-I 21

12. Irrigation " A, F-I 21

13. Power " A, F-I 21

14. Reclamation " A, F-I 22

15. Coordination " A, F-I: Inquiries in progress 11.. 22

16. Cooperation " H, I " " III.. 23

17. Relief of congestion " H, I " '• I.. 23

18. Benefits " B, G " '• I, II.. 23

19. Adaptation " H, I 23

20. Physical data " F 24

21. Distribution " B, I: Inquiries in progress I, II.. 24

22. Administration " B, H, I " '• I, II.. 24

23. Conservation " Gr " " I.. 24

24. Regulation " G, I " " I.. 24
Recommendations 25

A. Coordination (Findings 1-24: Inquiries in progress I) 25

B. Distribution " 21 " '■ I, II.. 25

C. Correlation ' ' 1-5 25

D. Railways: Waterways " 5 26

E. Commercial data " 6 26

F. Physical data " 20 26

G. Conserv'ation and regulation " 23,24 Inquiries in progress I, II.. 26
H. Relief of congestion " 1-5,17,22 " " " III.. 26

I. Legislation " 1-24: Recommendation A-H 26

Inquiries in progress 27

I. Conservation (Findings 23 Recommendation G) 27

II. Coordination " 15,21,22 " A, I.. 28

III. Cooperation " 16,21 " I.. 29

IV. Continuation 30

V. Qualification 30

Supplementary Report of Commissioner General Alexander Mackenzie 30

Supplementary Report of Commissioner Senator Francis G. Newlands 31

Appendix 33

13



>



PRELIMINARY REPORT



Washington, D. C, February 3, 1908.
The President.

Sir: Your attention is respectfully invited to the fol-
lowing Preliminary Report of the Inland Waterways
Commission :

CREATION or THE COMMISSION

The Inland Waterways Commission was created by the
President of the United States through the following
instrument :

The White House,
Washington, March 14, 1907.
My Dear Sir: Numerous commercial organizations of the Mississippi
Valley have presented petitions asking that I appoint a commission
to prepare and report a comprehensive plan for the improvement and
control of the river systems of the United States. I have decided to Demand of
comply with these requests by appointing an Inland Waterways Com- people,
mission, and I have asked the following gentlemen to act upon it. I
shall be much gratified if you will consent to serve:

Hon. Theo. E. Burton, chairman.

Senator Francis G. Newlauds.

Senator William Warner.

Hon. John H. Bankhead.

General Alexander Mackenzie.

Mr. W.J.McGee.

Mr. F. H. Newell.

Mr. Gifford Pinchot.

Hon. Herbert Knox Smith,
In creating this Commission I am influenced by broad considerations Policy,
of national policy. The control of our navigable waterways lies with
the Federal Government, and carries with it corresponding responsi-
bilities and obligations. The energy of our people has hitherto been
largely directed toward industrial development connected with field
and forest and with coal and iron, and some of these sources of material
and power are already largely depleted, while our inland waterways
as a whole have thus far received scant attention. It is becoming clear
that our streams should be considered and conserved as great natural
resources. Works designed to control our waterways have thus far streams as re-
usually been undertaken for a single purpose, such as the improvement sources.o
of navigation, the development oi power, the irrigation of arid lands, the ^' ^^' ^^" °' ^'
protection of lowlands from floods, or to supply water for domestic and
manufacturing purposes. WTiile the rights of the people to these and Rights of peo-
similar uses of water must be respected, the time has come for merging pie.
local projects and uses of the inland waters in a comprehensive plan 21:b:I, ll.
designed for the benefit of the entire country. Such a plan should con-
sider and include all the uses to which streams maybe put, and should
bring together and coordinate the points of view of all users of water, coordination.
The task involved in the full and orderly development and control of 15:a,c,d:II.
the river systems of theUnited States is a great one, yet it is certainly 2^"^. n.

a Marginal figures and letters refer to paragraphs as follows: Arabic
numerals to Findings, black letters to Recommendations, and Roman
numerals to Inquiries in Progress.

15



16



REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION



Railway Coa
gestion.
2-5, 17: C, D, H



Navigation.
1: A: I.



Evils to be met



Erosion.
9: A, I.



Floods.
8, 10-12: A, I.

Power.
13, 24: A, 1.

Artifleializa
tion.

15,22:1: H

Conservation.
23 : G : I.



Cooperation.
21 : I : III.



Extension.
1 : A : II.



Recomnienda
tions.

A-I,



not too great for us to approach. The results which it seems to promise
are even greater.

It IS common knowledge that the railroads of the United States are no
longer able to move crops and manufactures rapidly enough to secure
the prompt transaction of the business of the Nation, and there is small
prospect of immediate relief. Representative railroad men point out
that the products of the northern interior States have doubled in ten
years, while the railroad facilities have increased but one-eighth, and
there is reason to doubt whether any development of the railroads pos-
sible in the near future will suffice to keep transportation abreast of pro-
duction. There appears to be but one complete remedy — the develop-
ment of a complementary system of transportation by water. The
present congestion affects chiefly the people of the Mississippi Valley,
and they demand relief. WTien the congestion of which they complain
is relieved, the whole Nation will share the good results.

While rivers are natural resources of the first rank, they are also liable
to become destructive agencies, endangering life and property; and
some of our most notable engineering enterprises have grown out of
effort to control them. It was computed by Generals Humphreys and

.Abbott half a century ago that the Mississippi alone sweeps into its
lower reaches and the Gulf 400,000,000 tons of floating sediment each
year (about twice the amount of material to be excavated in opening
the Panama Canal), besides an enormous but unmeasured amount of
earth-salts and soil-matter carried in solution. This vast load not only
causes its channels to clog and flood the lowlands of the lower river, but
renders the flow capricious and difficult to control. Furthermore, the
greater part of the sediment and soil-matter is composed of the most
fertile material of the fields and pastures drained by the smaller and
larger tributaries. Any plan for utilizing our inland waterways should
consider floods and their control by forests and other means; the pro-
tection of bottom-lands from injury by overflow, and up-lands from loss
by soil-wash; the physics of sediment-charged waters and the physical
or other ways of purifying them; the construction of dams and locks,
not only to facilitate navigation but to control the character and move-

- ment of the waters ; and should look to the full use and control of our
running waters and the complete artificialization of our waterways for
the benefit of our people as a whole.

It is not possible to properly frame so large a plan as this for the con-
trol of our rivers without taking account of the orderly development
of other natural resources. Therefore. I ask that the Inland Water-
ways Commission shall consider the relations of the streams to the use
of all the great permanent natural resources and their conservation for
the making and maintenance of prosperous homes.

Any plan for utilizing our inland waterways, to be feasible, should
recognize the means for executing it ahead y in existence, both in the



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