United States. Inland Waterways Commission.

Preliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report online

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chief engineer reported the canal so far completed as to be navigable,
and that the first boat had passed through the entire length of the
canal from La Salle to Chicago, arriving at the latter city on April
23. As a matter of interest the engineer later reported that this
first boat brought some sugar originating at New Orleans and that
this sugar reached Buffalo on April 30 via Mackinac. °^

As completed in 1848 the canal had the dimensions planned in 1836,
but the summit level was 9 feet higher than then planned, reducing the

« Documentary History of the Illinois and Michigan Canal from 1822 to 1848, Ib
Report of the Canal Commissioners of Illinois, 1900.



STATE AND PRIVATE CANALS



249



cost, but making necessary pumping works at Bridgeport. In 1865
the city of Chicago was authorized to make the "deep cut," lowering
the summit level 8 feet, and this work was completed in 1871.

The canal remained under the trustees until 1871, when it was
turned over to the State in accordance with the act of 1843. Since
the relinquishment by the board of trustees the property has been
under a board of canal commissioners.

Up to the time of the creation of the canal trust in 1845 the State
had expended $5,133,062.21. The trust expended on construction
$1,424,619.24. In 1871 the legislature appropriated $2,955,340 to
the city of Chicago for the ''deep cut." This made the total cost of
constructing the canal $9,513,021.50. Prior to the creation of the
trust the State incurred obligations considerable in amount to raise
funds for the proseQution of the work, but this indebtedness was dis-
charged during the administration of the trust as well as the cost of
maintenance and operation from funds resulting from the sale of canal
lands and the earnings of the canal itself. It is claimed that as the
canal property stands at present it has cost the State nothing, its
construction and maintenance having been paid entirely out of the
proceeds of the Federal land grant and earnings; but it is difficult to
substantiate this statement. It has been shown that the total
receipts from the land grants up to 1885 had been $5,892,707.96 ; and
the net receipts from operation had been $2,919,040.61, a total of
$8,811,748.57. This leaves a deficiency of $701,272.93.« Smce 1885
the operating expenses have exceeded the receipts from tolls; but
there are some other receipts from rentals and power leases, of which
an exact record is not available.



Table 84 — Expenditures and receipts, Illinois and Michigan Canal, 1848-1902



Year.


Ordinary
repairs.


Extraor-
dinary
repairs,

renewals,
and

hydraulic
works.


Gross
expenses.


Tolls.


1848


$30, 452
43,922
38,418
39, 447
42,816
40,383
36,587
38,216
33, 101
37,256
36,115
34,026
34,308
39,238
40,024


$6, 744
26,999
19,996
19,027
10,692
4,486
16, 654
32,657
58,357
65,825
21,972
40,406
48, 275
15,823
15. 337


843, 197
70,922
58,415
58,475
53,508
44,870
53,242
70,873
91,458
103,082
58,088
74, 432
82,583
55,061
55, 362
62,315
66, 107
124,869
116,363
162, 656
122,052
91,765
108,695
97, 222
88,876
81,098
73,798


$87,890


1849


118,375


1850


125, 504


1851 .


173,300


1852


168,577


1853


173,372


1854


198,326


1855


180, 519


1856


184,310


1857.. .


197,830


1858


197,171


1859


132, 140


1860. . .


138, 554


1861


218,040


1862


264,647


1863..


49,294 1 13,021
47,535 1 18,572
39,255 1 85,614
43,716 1 72,647
46,152 116,504
52,984 69,007
49,514 : 42.2.51


210,386


1864


156, 607


1865


300,810


1866.


302,958


1867


252, 231


1868


215. 720


1869


238,759


1870..


43,098
54,555
42,785
53,525
49, 139


65, 597
42,667
46,091
27,572
24,659


149, 635


1871


159, 050


1872. . .


165, 874


1873


166,641


1874


144,831



" Report Chief of Enginoers, U. S. Army, 1887, pp. 2128, 2142, 2147.
31673— «. Doc. 3LM, (iO -1 17



250



REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION



Table 84 — Expenditures and receipts, Illinois and Michigan Canal, 1848-1902-

Continued



Year.



Ordinary
repairs.



Extraor-
dinary
repairs,

renewals,
and

hydraulic
works.



Gross
expenses.



Tolls.



1875
1876.
1877.
1878.
1879.
1880.
1881.
1882.
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1804.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.



846,241
42,418
54,965
43,826
44,077
47,604
53, 597
57, 309
56, 515
55, 731
47,659
44,101
43,509
43,005
42, 907
40,258
43,501
43,476
39,063
36,985
33, 760
31,541
31,524
30,859
31,768
31,205
36,928
25, 413



$28,270
49, 167
55,053
39,013
53,625
77,997
54, 626
48, 103
60,241
43,549
38,734
28,329
27,876
33,240
42, 571
34,867
29,091
23, 661
20, 459
17, 273
37,392
46, 446
36,783
19, 342
22,368
36,805
54,945
81,599



$74,511
91,585
110,018
82,830
97,701
125,601
108,223
105, 412
116,756
99,280
86, 393
72, 430
71,385
76,845
85, 478
75, 125
72,592
67, 137
59,522
54,258
71,152
77,987
68,307
78,986
91,196
88,317
111,002
127,150 1



$107,081
113,293
96,913
84, 330
89,065
92,296
85, 130
85,947
77, 975
77,102
66,800
62, 516
58,024
56,028
63,005
55, 112
49, 557
54,937
38,702
44,928
39, 106
32,100
33,065
38,570
41,021
13,867
8,120
2,879



Total 2,322,206 2,168,937 4,616,562 6,587,826



The foregoing table shows that the receipts from tolls reached the
high-water mark in 1866, when the collections amounted to more than
$300,000. Since that time the tolls have diminished almost constantly.
In 1900 there was a great decrease as compared with the previous
year, and in 1902 the receipts amounted to less than $3,000.

The importance of the canal as a commercial factor is best indi-
cated by a comparison of the tonnage from year to year. The state-
ment below will afford opportunity for comparing the operations of
the canal from 1860 to 1902, inclusive.

Table 85 — Movement of canal bouts on the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 1860-1902



Date.


Clear-
ances.


Boats
run-
ning.


1860


2,926
6,339
7,044
5,810
4,527
3,907
5,488
4,183
4,128
4,524
2,903
3,523
5,018
4,743
4,296


201
194
211
240
288
288
230
209
218
219
179
186
173
172
152


1861


1862


1863


1864


1865


1866


1867


1868 . .


1869


1870


1871


18720


1873


1874



Miles


Tons
trans-


run.


ported.


235, 684


367, 437


415, 599


547,295


474,976


673,590


118,713


619,599


300,340


510,286


360,614


616, 140


406,784


746,815


357, 623


746,815


345, 169


737,727


285,050


817,738


246,650


585,975


278,948


628,970


334,820


783,641


328, 164


849,533


288,075


712,020



1 After 1872 the above table includes clearances from the locks at Henry and Copperas Creek on the
Ilhnois River.



STATE AND PRIVATE CANALS



251



Table 85 — Movement of canal bouts on the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 1860-1902-

Coiitinued



Date.



Clear-
ances.



Boats
run-
ning.



Miles
run.



Tons
trans-
ported.



1875
1876
1877
1878
1879.
1880.
1881
1882,
1883.
1884
1885.
1886
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.



3,554
4,049
4,008
4,299
4,458
4,536
4,459
4,055
3,789
4,204
3,990
3,783
3,824
3,320
4,299
2,920
2,203
3,014
2, 452
2,907
2,664
2,660
4,151
3,523
4,705
2,820
2,366
691



142
145
145
140
136
133
133
132
132
134
135
130
132
127
114
104
97
95
82
85
88
67
64
64
70
60
41
41



259,878
302,024
272, 788
293,335
304, 191
320,009
316, 435
335,710
306, 618
325, 431
304, 664
303, 575
290,338
267,771
334, 107
260,713
243,214
260, 149
187,904
206,875
196, 132
167,289
179,954
152,960
173,312
99, 409
74,923
25,290



070,025
•691,943
605,912
598,792
669,559
751,360
826, 133
1,011,287
925, 575
956,721
827,355
8()S,019
742.074
751,055
917,047
742,392
641,156
783,288
529,816
617,811
591,507
446,762
484, ,575
395,017
469,352
121,759
81,450
35,824



It will be seen from the above statement that ft'om 1860 to 1892
the tonnage was fau'ly steady. Since the latter date there was a
gradual decline until 1900, when there was a sudden falling off of ton-
nage to less than 122,000 tons, and two years later the tonnage had
diminished more than 70 per cent.

The movement of the principal commodities is shown fo-om the fol-
low ing table, taken from the annual reports of the canal commissioners:

Table '6i)—Aiiichs transported on the Illinois and Michigan, Canal, 1SD2-1'J02
[('onipilcd from reports of canal commissioners of the State of Illinois]



Year.



Grain.



Bushels.

1892 2. 333, 957

1893 (o)

1894 2, 913, 357

1895 2. 379, 029

1896 2. 1 .50, 925

1897 4, 001 , 919

1898 3. 263, 383

1899 3. 679, 836

1900 3. 183, 155

1901 2, 032, 770

1902 j 1,285,631




Stone. Lumber.



Feet.
9,710,695

(a)

9,181,414

5, 972, 727

3, 342, 162

3,215,297

2.787.051

1.977,517

656.614

435,017

91.463



Volume missing.



The table above indicates that grain was probably the most impor-
tant commodity passing through the canal. The grain movement
as well as the movement of all other classes of freight was very much
less in 1902 than in any previous year shown in the table. The move-
ment of general merchandise, which includes hardware, dry goods,



252



EEPOKT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION



cutlery, groceries, etc., was heaviest in 1895, but in no year was the
movement of this class of goods very large.

The rates of toll and lockage have not been changed in any impor-
tant particular since 1892. The tolls are computed at so many mills
per thousand pounds per mile unless otherwise stated.

Table 87 — Rates of tolls and lockage on the Illinois and Michigan Canal

By resolution of the board of canal commissioners adopted in April, 1899, to take effect
upon the opening of navigation.

On freight boats per mile on the canal, 3 cents.

Lockage at Henry and Copperas Creek on all boats of 150 tons and under shall be
$1.50, and this charge shall be made at each lock.

On boats of more than 150 tons measurement lockage shall be charged at the rate of
1 cent per ton measurement, and this charge shall be made at each lock: Provided, That
on boats passing through the lock in fleets of two or more, engaged in regular traffic,
requiring only a single lockage, the lockage charge, by ton measurement, or otherwise,
may be divided between said boats at each lock.

The lockage of cabin boats, in tow of steamers or canal boats, shall be 25 cents each;
fuel boats in low of steamers, 50 cents; rowboats in tow of steamers or canal boats,
10 cents each.

No lockage on boats shall be made for less than $1.50. Cargoes must be charged for
as hereinafter indicated, in addition to lockage charge on boats.

Toll is to be computed upon the weight (1,000 pounds per mile) of all articles con-
tained in the following list, unless otherwise stated.

Lockage at Henry and Copperas Creek to be comiiuted upon the weight (1,000
pounds^ unless otherwise stated.



Article.



Barbed wire...
Bark, tanner's.
Barley



Barrels, empty.

Beans

Bran

Buckwheat

Charcoal



Clay

Coal, per ton per mile.
Coke i



Through
freight.



Com

Drainage pipe.
Flour



Furniture, household.

Hay and fodder

Hemp.



Hoops and materials for

Hubs, boat knees, and bolts.
Ice



Iron:

Pig, scrap, and railroad.

Wrought and cast

Iron ore



Land plaster, bone dust, and superphosphate

Lead pipe, sheet and roll, pigs and bars

Lime:

Common

Hydraulic

Machinery

Meal



Merchandise (including hardware, dry goods, cutlery, groceries, crock-
ery, and other articles not specified )

Oats



Rye

Salt, in sacks and barrels.

Sand and other earth

Seeds

Ship stuff

Shorts and screenings

Staves and heading.s

Wheat

Zinc, spelter



Local
freight.



Mills.



Lockage.



Cents.



STATE AND PRIVATE CANALS



253



On the following articles toll per mile and lockage will be computed by number
and measures:



Article.



Through Local t ™u„„p
freight, freight, ^oc^age.



On each 1,000 feet of lumber per mile.

On each 1,(K)0 feet of dressed flooring do...

On each 1,000 feet of siding do...

On each 1 ,000 lath do. . .

On each 1 ,000 sliingles do. . .

On each 1 .000 brick do. . .

On each 100 spUt posts (not over 5 inches in diameter) or fence rails.do. . .

On each 500 railroad ties do. ..

On each cord of wood for fuel" do...

On each cubic yard (27 cubic feet) dressed or sawed stone b do. . .

On each cubic yard (27 cubic feet) rubble stone b do...

On each cubic yard (27 cubic feet) dimension stoned do...

On each cubic yard (27 cubic feet) macadam stone 6 do...

rs (each round trip of 25 miles or less on canal) , 2§ cents each.



Mills.



Mills.
5
4
2
1
i
2
4
20
10



Cevts.



a Provided that on wood transported over 25 miles, the toll shall not exceed 25 cents per cord. All
timber on boats shall be taken board measure.

b Provided that on stone transported over 25 miles, the toll shaU not exceed 12^ cents per cubic yard
on macadam and rubble and 20 cents per cubic yard on dimension and dressed or sawed stone.

' Through freight ' ' is that which is cleared from Copperas Creek or Henry to Chicago; or from Chicago
to Henry or Copperas Creek.
"Local freight" includes all other freight.

The importance of the canal is not fully measured by its traffic, but
its influence upon railroad rates in the territory adjacent must be
taken into account in any estimate of the sum total of benefits accru-
ing to commerce. Complete data for a comparison of freight rates
from Cliicago are not at presetnt available.



CHICAGO SANITARY AND SHIP CANAL

This canal has been constructed under an act of the legislature of
Illinois, passed in 1889, authorizing the formation of sanitary dis-
tricts. As was expected, the only district created has been the Sani-
tary District of Chicago (including some portions of Cook County
outside of the city), \vith an elected board of trustees, for the con-
struction of a drainage canal to protect the waters of Lake Michigan
from sewage pollution. The mam drainage canal from Robey street,
Chicago, to Lockport, a distance of 27.15 miles, was completed and
opened in January, 1900. The expenditures up to that time were
over $25,000,000; but additional work has made the total cost of
constructing the main channel, including right of way, excavation,
river improvements, dams, bridges, pumping plants, etc., to Decem-
ber, 1905, approximately $42,000,000. In addition there had been
about $8,000,000 expended for interest, maintenance, and miscella-
neous charges. The larger part of the expenditure has been met by
direct taxes, but a bond issue of $20,000,000 was authorized, to run
for twenty years, one-twentieth to be retired annually. In 1906 the
bonds outstanding amounted to $17,180,000.

Still further expenditures have been made for connecting works
and for the development of electrical energy from the water power,
and some income is received from leases of power, wharfage, and
rents. The plans of the sanitary trustees include the drainage of the
Evanston and Calumet additions, the widening of the Chicago River
and the main channel, and the extension of the main channel to Lake
Joliet.



254 EEPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION

The dimensions of this canal are much larger than was necessary
for drainage purposes. It is 22 feet in depth, and its typical cross
section is 292 feet in mdth at the water surface and 202 feet at the
bottom. The size of the canal was determined by the views of its
projectors that it should eventually form part of a great ship canal
connecting the Great Lakes with the Mississippi. But as yet it is
not used for traffic purposes.

CANALS IN NEW JERSEY
DELAWARE AND RARITAN CANAL

The main line of the Delaware and Raritan Canal extends from
Bordentown, N. J., to New Brunswick, in the same State, a dis-
tance of 44 miles, and connects the Delaware and Raritan rivers.
A feeder 22 miles long, used for navigation purposes, unites Raven
Rock, N. J., with Trenton, the capital of the State, where it con-
nects with the main canal, the total length of canal and feeder thus
being 66 miles. The surface width of the main line is 80 feet, with
a depth of about 8 feet. The canal was completed about the yesLT
1838, at an estimated cost of $2,500,000. The census reports the
total cost of construction and improvements to 1906 as $5,113,749.
No recent improvements appear to have been made on the canal.
The period of navigation is ten months, beginning in March and
ending in December. The canal appears to be both a towpath
canal and a sliip canal, animal power being used when vessels have
no means of propulsion of their own. The main line has 13 locks,
with a length of 210 feet, and a width to pass clear, 23yV feet. The
Census of 1880 reports that the banks of the main canal are walled
the entire length, and that steam vessels navigate the main canal.

History. — The Delaware and Raritan Canal Company, the original
owaier of this waterw^ay, was incorporated February 4, 1830, by a
special act of the New Jersey legislature. The company was em-
pow^ered under its charter to construct a canal and feeder, as w^ell as
to make river improvements. The company was endow-ed with the
usual powders of a corporation and was also authorized to construct
all necessary locks, works, wharves, and storehouses, and to secure
land for its bed, being empow^ered for that purpose to institute
condemnation proceedings wiienever necessary. It w^as made
unlaw^ful for any other corporation or individuals to construct
another canal witliin 5 miles of any point on that of the com-
pany. The State retained the power for ten years to subscribe for
one-fourth of the capital stock. The construction w^as to be com-
menced witliin two years and completed in eight, and at the expira-
tion of tliirty years therefrom the State w^as to have the privilege
for ten 3^ears of taking the w^orks at an appraisement not exceeding,
however, the first cost. B}^ subsequent act of the legislature, passed
February 3, 1831, the time for making such appraisement was ex-
tended to fifty 3^ears, and until after the time limit for construction
of the canal the construction of any railroad witliin 5 miles of any

Eoint thereon was proliibited, and thereafter the company w^as to
ave the refusal of constructing anj^ such railroad.
On February 15, 1831, the legislature passed an act by which the
Delaw^are and Raritan Canal Compaii}^ and the Camden and Amboy
Railroad and Transportation Company w^ere allow^ed to consolidate
their stock, each company, however, retaining its separate organiza-



STATE AND PRIVATE CANALS 255

tion. In 1867 the two companies just named, and the New Jersey
Railroad and Transportation Company were authorized to consoU-
date their interests under a corporate name, each company retaining
its separate organization. In 1872 these three companies were
merged into one organization under the title of the United New
Jersey Railroad and Canal Company, which is still in existence.

The capital stock of the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company, as
authorized by the charter of 1830, was $1,000,000, divided into shares
of $100 each. By act of March 2, 1832, the legislature of New Jersey
directed that the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company and the Cam-
den and Amboy Railroad and Transportation Company should transfer
to the State 1 ,000 shares of the jointstock of said companies, fully paid,
and that dividends should be paid thereon the same as though sub-
scribed for and paid for by the State. Under this act the State was
guaranteed the payment of $30,000 annually during the life of the
charter of the consohdated companies, whose surplus was limited to
$100,000; the balance was to be distributed in dividends. The same
act provided that the State should have one director, and repealed
section 23 of the act incorporating the Delaware and Raritan Canal
Company, which authorized the State to subscribe for one-fourth of
the capital stock and to be represented by two directors. Subse-
quent legislation increased the capital stock of the United Com-
panies, so that the authorized capital stock of the United New Jersey
Railroad and Canal Company at present is $21,240,800, all of wliich,
except $400, has been issued and is now outstanding. Of this amount
the State of New Jersey owns 3,242 shares, of a par value of $324,200,
and has a director in said company. The certificates of stock held by
the State antedate the act of the legislature of 1872, authorizing the
consolidation, and it appears that the State may not vote on such
stock. But it has the right to change these certificates for those issued
under the act of 1872, which act seems to repeal the prohibition
against the State voting on its stock.

Lease to Pennsylvania Railroad. — In June, 1871, all the property of
the United Companies of New Jersey, including the Delaware and
Raritan Canal, the Camden and Amboy Railroad, the New Jersey
Railroad, running from Jersey City to New Brunswick, and the
Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad, were leased to the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company for nine hundred and ninety-nine years, at a
yearly rental of $1,948,500. The rent was estimated to be ec^ual to
$10 a share upon the aggregate outstanding capital stock of the
lessors. The lessee covenanted to pay all assessments, taxes,
charges, and other impositions that might be la^vfully assessed upon
the several companies whose property was leased. The lessee fur-
ther agreed to maintain and operate the canal and railroad, and to
maintain the same as first-class works in thorough repair, fully sup-
phed with rolling and floating stock and equipment ecpal to that
then used in operating said works. To enable the lessors to keep up
and maintain their corporate organizations, the lessee agreed to pay
semi-annually to the lessors, on the first Tuesday of July and January,
the sum of $5,000, and provide suitable offices in Philadelphia and
Trenton and New York for the accommodation of the directors and
officers of the said companies. The property of the United New
Jersey Railroad and Canal Company (the name of the organization
since 1872) is now operated by the United Railroads of New Jersey
division of the Pennsylvania Railroad system under this lease.



256



REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION



Traffic. — The canal company itself is not engaged in transportation,
but the Pennsylvania Railroad Company owns 21 canal boats which
are used in the operation of the canal under the lease by that com-
pany of the United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company's prop-
erty. Various other individuals, partnerships, and corporations oper-
ate boats on the canal, including the Trenton Transportation Com-
pany, Easton and McMahon Transportation Company, Philadelphia
Lighterage and Transportation Company, Peter Hagan & Co., The
Standard Oil Company, J. S. Hoskins Lumber Company, Maxwell
& Company, and Charles H. Gallagher.

The number of vessels entering and leaving the canal in 1904 was
as follows:





Class of vessel.


Boats oper-
ated.




1904.


1905.


Tow


1,764


2.2S0


Steamers


1,067 ! l.O.'ifi


Rafts


40
455


122


Electric, etc -


554








Total


3,326


4,012









The freight passing through this canal is composed largely of
stone, sand, lumber, coal, and general merchandise. The annual
tonnage for the past ten years is as follows :



Year.


Tons.


Year.


Tons.


1897


595, 375
546,083
606,961
584, 112
513,531


1902


473,375
422, 492


1898


1903

1904


1899


464, 518


1900


1905

1906


441, 735


1901


395,753







The articles of merchandise shipped over the canal in 1904 and
1905 were distributed as follows (arranged as per schedule of the
canal company furnished the Bureau of Corporations) :

Table 88 — Traffic on Delaware and Raritan Canal, 1904, 1905



Articles.


Tonnage.


1904.


1905.


Stone a


57, 778
5,470

26,964
3,989

14, 318
1,298
8,689
3,516
846
101,055


73,596


Clay a


4,302


Sand o


34,860


Brick a


5,427




20,943




4,140


Lumber and piling"


23,074


Oil "


3,056




351


General merchandise, etc." .


69,303






Anthracite coal:


66,918
94,321


76,699



Online LibraryUnited States. Inland Waterways CommissionPreliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report → online text (page 26 of 83)