United States. Inland Waterways Commission.

Preliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report online

. (page 50 of 83)
Online LibraryUnited States. Inland Waterways CommissionPreliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report → online text (page 50 of 83)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


sanitary improvement that the number of waterworks sj^stems has
possibly been doubled or tripled. The urban population of the
United States is now about 45,000,000. If it be considered that a
majority of these persons live in settlements ec[uipped with public
water supplies, then multiplying this figure by 100 gallons per capita
per day, a low average consumption, it would be found that over
4,500,000,000 gallons per day are used for domestic supply in the
United States. This would be an annual consumption of 1,500,000,-
000,000 gallons, an amount equal to 3 per cent of all the water that
flows over Niagara Falls; assuming a velocity of 5 feet per second, it
would require a pipe 41 feet in diameter to carry the water; or a river
150 feet wide and 15 feet deep with an average stream velocity of 3
feet per second.

EFFECTS OF IMPITRITY ON DOMESTIC SUPPLIES

The factors that may affect the value of a })ublic water supply,
making it dangerous, uneconomical, or merely unpleasing, have been
very carefull}^ reviewed by George C. '\^Tiipple who has devised for-
mulas for calculating in dollars and cents the financial loss due to
impurities.

A water for drinking must be free from all poisonous substances,
such as lead, arsenic, zinc, etc.; it must be free from bacteria or other
organisms that are likely to cause disease, such as the bacilli of
typhoid fever or dysentery; it must be free from bacteria of fecal
origin. It must also be clear, colorless, odorless, and fairly free from
objectionable chemical substances and microscopic organisms. It
must be well aerated and of fairly low temperature.

A supply should be low in mineral salts. Hardness makes a water
troublesome in laundries and for bathing; iron makes stains in the
laundry; chlorine corrodes pipes. Some other salts are troublesome.

Mr. Whipple estimates the sanitary quality from the amoimt of
typhoid fever; the attractiveness from the color, odor, and turbidi' v;
he also calculates the depreciation due to hardness and to temperature.

The formulse are quoted:

Depreciation due tu sanitary quality —

D=2.75iT-N)
Depreciation due to physical characteristics —

,Pc+Pt+Po



D=20'



100



c

Po=22 0-^+3.5 0-'d+5 0%
Depreciation due to hardness —



Depreciation due to temperature-






180



444 REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION

in whicli

D =the depreciation value in dollars per million gallons.

T =typhoid fever death rate per 100,000.

iV" =typhoid fever death rate assumed to be due to causes other than water, and
which may be ordinarily taken as 20 per 100,000.

p^ ==per cent of consumers who object to the color of the water.

p^ =per cent of consumers who oliject to the turbidity of the water.

Pg =per cent of consumers who object to the odor of the water.

c = color reading.

t =turbidity reading.

Oy=odors due to vegetable matter, expressed according to standard numerical
scale.

0(j=odors due to decomposition, expressed according to standard numerical scale.

Oo=odors due to microscopic organisms, expressed according to standard numer-
ical scale.

H =hardness of water in parts per million.

d :=average temperature of water during four warmest months.

An application of these formulse to the water supply of Philadel-
phia shows their practice value.

Source of supply, Schuylkill River without filtration; typhoiti
fever in 1905, 51.1 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants; turbidity, 150
parts per million; color, 10 parts per million; odor, 3 v+ 2 m; per
cent of objecting consumers, 102; hardness, 179 parts per million.



Depreciation due to —



Per million
gallons.



Sanitary q uality

Physical characteristics.
Hardness

Total



$55. 52
20.40
17.90



93.82



Assuming a daily consumption of 140,000,000 gallons, this would
mean an annual loss of $4,794,000, the interest at 5 per cent on about
S96,000,000.

The average value of one human life sacrificed by typhoid is about
$5,000. For each death 10 to 20 persons are sick with the disease
and cost about $100 each for medical treatment, nursing, medicine, etc.
But other sicknesses besides typhoid fever are caused by impure
water supplies, so that every death reported from typhoid fever is
equivalent to a loss to the community of not less than $10,000.
The annual losses from insanitary water supplies in some of the
large cities of the United States may be seen from the following
table, remembering that each death means a loss of $10,000:



PURITY OF INDUSTRIAL WATER Sl'PPLIES



445



Mortality table of typhoid fever, 1905, in the larger cities reporting to the United States

Census Bureau



[Cities of 100,000 population and over]



City.



Allegheny, Pa

Baltimore, Md

Boston, Mass

BiuTalo, N. Y

Chicaso, 111

Cincinnati, Oliio

Cleveland, Ohio

Columbus, Ohio

Denver, Colo

Detroit, Mich

Fall River, Mass

Indianapolis, Ind

Jersey City, N.J

Kansas City, Mo

Louisville, Ky

Memphis, Tenn

Milwaukee, Wis

Minneapolis, Minn

New Haven, Conn

New Orleans, La

New York Oiggregate).

Newark, N.J

Omaha, Nebr

Paterson, N.J

Philadelphia, Pa

Pittsliurg, Pa

I'rovidence. R. I

Rochester, N. Y

St. Joseph, Mo

St. Louis, Mo

St. Paul, Minn

Scranton, Pa

Svracuse, N. Y

Toledo, Ohio

Washington, D. C

Worcester, Mass




181

195

124

92

329

141

65

121

61

69

12

64

46

110

110

41

71

64

51

101

641

40

30

16

724

393

40

21

9

144

21

20

20

71



142,848
546,217
595,380
376,914

1,990,750
343,337
437, 114
142, 105
150,317
325, 563
105, 762
212, 198
•2.32.699
179, 272
222,660
121.235
312, 948
261,074
119,027
309,639

4,000,403
283,289
120, 565
111,529

1,417,062
364, 161
198,635
182, 022
115, 479
&36.973
197,023
116,111
117,129
155, 287
.302, 883
128, 135



4,265



126.7
35.7
20.8
24.4
16.5
41.1
14.9
85.1
40.6
21.2
11.3
30.2
19.8
61.4
49.4
33.8
22.7
24 4
42.8
32.6
16.0
14.1
24.9
14.3
,51. 1

107.9
20.1
11.5
7.8
22.6
10.7
17.2
17.1
4.5.7
48.2
21.1



33. 5



The following tables, showing a difference in typhoid death rate
between cities having polluted supplies, and those having fairly well-
protected supplies, is significant:

Cities receiving supplies from uplands or lakes or filtered river ivaters



City.



Source of supply.



Boston Rivers and ponds (conserved) .

Buffalo Lake Erie.

Chicago Lake Michigan .

Cleveland I Lake Erie

Detroit j Detroit River (near Lake St. Clair) -. .

Fall River | Purified river water

Jersey City 1 Upland

Milwaukee Lake Michigan

New York ! Croton River and other supplies; proi)i>rty pro

i tected.

Newark ! Purified upland

Providence [ Pawtuxet River (eon.served)

Rochester Hemlock I^ake

St. Louis

St. Paul

Scranton



Mississippi River (filtered).

Wells and lakes

Upland



Popula-


Deaths


Rate per


tion.


in 1905,


100,000.


.595,380


124


20.8


376,914


92


24.4


1,990,750


329


16.5


437,114


65


14.9


325,. 563


69


21.2


105,762


12


n.3


232,099


40


19.8


312,948


71


22.7


4,000,403


641


16.0


283,289


- 40


14.1


190,635


20


20.1


182,022


21


11.5


636,973


144


22.6


197,023


21


10.7


116,111


20


17.2


9,983,586




17.5







446



REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION



Cities having supplies from rivers, receiving raw water directly from rivers, or from
streams and gravel, subject to pollution



City.



Source of supply.



Popula-
tion.



Deaths i Rate per
in 1905. , 100,000.



Allegheny

Cincinnati

Columbus

Indianapolis

Kansas City, Mo.

Louisville, Ky

Memphis

Minneapolis

New Haven

Omaha

Philadelphia

Pittsburg

Toledo, Ohio

Washington, D. C



Allegheny River (polluted)

Ohio River (polluted)

Scioto River (polluted)

Gravel and White River mainly (polluted)

Missouri River (polluted)

Ohio River (polluted)

Wells in gravel (partially purified)

Mississippi River (polluted)

Small streams (polluted)

Unflltered Missouri River

Schuylkill River (polluted)

Monongahela and Allegheny rivers (polluted) . . .

Maumee River (polluted)

Potomac (before filtration)



142,848
343,337
142,105
212, 198
179,272
222,660
121,235
261,974
119,027
120,565
1,417,062
364, 161
155,287
302,883

4,104,614



181

141

121

64

110

110

41

64

51

30

724

393

71

129



126.7
41.1
85.1
20.2
61.4
49.4
33.8
24.4
42.8
24.9
51.1

107.9
45.7
48.2

54.5



12. APPLICATIONS OF WATER PO\ATER



By W. E. Herring
Engineer, U. S. Forest Service



The application of great water powers to the industrial wants of
distant cities is less than ten years old and is still in its infancy, yet
in this short space of time plants supplying a large number of cities
in the United States with a combined capacity of hundreds of thou-
sands of horsepower have been installed. To reach these industrial
centers the water power is electrically transmitted, and in many cases
the distance is over 100 miles. This method of utilizing water power
has been made possible only by long distance transmission. Fifteen
years ago 10 miles was the limit to which electrical power could be
transmitted, but at the ])resent time 150 miles is very common and
in one case a line of 200 miles is in use. This fact has been the
greatest incentive to such water-power developments.

Cheap and convenient power conduces more to the growth of a
community than any other single item. Industrial operations have
more and more been drawn toward those localities where power is
easily procured, well illustrated by the tendency to locate large man-
ufactories in regions where fuel is plentiful and cheap.

The chance of commercial success is the first subject of investi-
gation in any proposed water-power development and the problem is
whether or not power can be furnished at a slightly lower price than
the prevailing rate and still give a good return on the capital in-
vested. This depends upon the available market, its distance from the
plant, and the price current in that market for power. With this
then arises the question as to whether the available flow is sufficient
to produce the power required at the time of maximum load or not,
for if not, it is necessary to resort to storage, which increases the cost
very materially; yet, if only the available flow of the stream during a
certain ]>ortion of the year could be devoted to the purpose of gen-
erating power, many of the large plants could not be utilized. On the
other hand, however, if all the water carried in the stream could be
made to do work and at the same time the water could be utilized
in maintaining navigation, in irrigating, or some other important
duty, then such powers need only development to be commercial
possibilities.

Water power is not always cheaper than steam, but generally it is,
and by an amount which will allow of its being transformed into
electrical energy and transmitted to the point of use. Its advan-
tages over steam power are the saving of fuel, smaller cost of building
for a given capacity of plant, and less cost for labor.

447



448 REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION

The location of an available site is first purchased outright, and if
storage is to be resorted to, title is obtained to all land that will be
submerged. This step gives absolute control of that particular site.
Should it happen that the flow is sufficient to furnish a large develop-
ment and only a portion of it is used, the balance is allowed to waste,
as no concern which might be a rival is allowed to make use of it.
It is thus a monopoly at that particular point. Owing to the low
cost of the power and the distance to wliich it can be transmitted,
such sites are in demand and it is almost impossible at the present
time to find a suitable site within a reasonable distance of a market
for such a plant in the northwestern States, or on the west side of the
Sierra Nevada Mountains which has not already been appropriated.

A splendid illustration of the extent to wliich such water-power
development is being monopolized is given in California, where, of
numerous rights of way granted for ditches, reservoirs, pole lines,
and other power purposes in three of the land districts, 65 per cent are
controlled by three companies. One of the largest companies in the
State is selling power in comparatively large units at 1| cents per
kilowatt hour for twenty-four-hour service, or at about $98 per
horsepower per annum. Another consiimer of over 1,500 horse-
power pays 0.9 cents per kilowatt hour for twenty-four-hour service
or at the rate of $58.83 per horse-power year. So far as known, this
is their lowest rate made to a consumer.

On four of the rivers in northern California where there is a possible
development of over 800,000 horsepower, only 20,000 has been actu-
ally -utilized, while speculative water rights are held on these streams
from which over 566,000 horsepower could be developed; or in other
words 75 per cent of the power possibilities on these streams have
been alienated from public ownership and less than 2 per cent utilized
for useful purposes. The extent to which the control of such plants
is passing into the hands of a few of the larger companies is also
well illustrated in California, where 4 of the largest companies have
a combined capital of $55,000,000, and operate 30 hydroelectric
plants and 18 steam plants. The largest one of these companies
supplies power to 26 indi^adual lighting companies and 12 electric
railway companies, in addition to a number of cities and towns where
it has its own substations.

North of Bakersfield, Cal., there are now in operation hydroelectric
plants with a combined capacity of over 150,000 horsepower, while
south of this point there are about 50,000 horsepower more, making
a total of over 200,000 horsepower in the State.

The Bureau of the Census, in its last report on electric powers in
the United States, shows an increase from 1900 to 1905 of 270 per
cent in the amount of electric power in use, a majority of which is
probably generated by water power. In the same report they show
a total to January 1, 1905, of only 598,900 total horse])ower in elec-
trical-transmission plants which includes only thc*^ large ones. This
is obviousl}" too low, as the total given for California is only 119,500
horsepower and in reality the total was greater than this by at least
40 per cent. Up to the same date th(\y show a total in the United
States of 1,047,969 horsepower developed from water ))ower alone.
As this amount is not separated it is imj)ossible to tell what per cent
is used for develoi)ing j)ower to be transmitted electrically.



APPLICATION OF WATER POWER 449

It requires a large outlay of capital to secure and hold these loca-
tions, and unless the entire situation at the ptirticular point in ques-
tion can be controlled it is not feasible to obtain the necessary funds.
Over 40,000 horsepower is transmitted from the Niagara Falls
development to Buffalo, of wliich more than 20,000 is used in manu-
facturing and mdustrial works. Wlien such plants can furnish
power at a less cost than it can be furnished in other ways, the
market for power is monoplized and the development of such plants
becomes a monopoly.

The monopoly of water power affects every individual within that
territory, for the reason that -it has to do with the commodities of
everyday life. Heat, light, and power, particularly tlie two latter,
are practicall}' controlled by such a monopoly. Prices are usually
not based upon a fair return from the amount invested, but are so
arranged as to be slightly less than the cost of furnishing the same
item when steam is used.

The expansion of electric water-power S3'stems has been much
greater, as a rule, than that of electrical supply from steam-driven
stations, and that the power is cheaper is well illustrated in Buffalo,
where over 7,000 horsepower transmitted from Niagara is used in
place of steam in the street-railway lines of that city. One of the
largest single users of such power in Southern California is one of the
street-railway lines in Los Angeles, which uses 2,000 horsepower, part
of which is brought a distance of US miles and jet is cheaper than
steam power. The companies developing such power in California,
for uistance, furnish power to the street railways, manufacturing
plants, and factories, and to many small consumers for pumping water
for irrigating purposes, motive power for machinery on the farms, and
lights in the farm house, small towm, and city. Thus it is seen that all
classes are affected by such a monopoly and. that each contributes to
its support. In New York State, where fuel is cheap, power is sup-
plied from hydro-electric plants at S20 per horsepower per year for
twenty-four fiour service. In North and South Carolina the average
charge is $15 per horsepower per year for sixty-six hours per vvcek.
Compare these prices with those in California, Vviiere one of the largest
producers of such power charges its largest consumer (averaging over
2,000 horsepower) at a rate of approxhnately S53 per horsepower per
year, and the smaller consumer pays more than twice this amount.
The difference arises from the variation in the price of fuel and not
altogether from the difference in the initial costs of the developments.
Surely no one will argue that there is any good reason for a difterence
of $35 per horsepower year in the amounts paid by the consumer.
Even should there be a difference of as much as $100 per horsepower
in the installation this would only account, at 6 per cent per annum,
for $6 of the difference.

The actual cost of production of power with steam is very hard to
determine, but the most patient and searching investigations show
that, on a basis of 500 net horsepower delivered ten hours per day and
308 days per year, the cost, with coal at $3 per ton, varies from about
$36 for a simple high-speed engine, to about $25.50 for a triple expan-
sion, condensing low-speed engine. In units of 50 horsepower the
cost per horsepower ten hours per day may easily be $75, and in
regions where fuel is high, or if the engines are not run economically,
the cost may mount up as high as $150.



450 REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION

With a working year of three thousand and eighty hours the cost of
steam power in units up to 20 horsepower is seldom below 5 cents
per horsepower hour. Above 20 and up to 1 00 horsepower the cost is
less, but seldom below 2 J cents per horsepower hour. Over 100
horsepower the cost decreases, but even in the largest developments
is not often less than 1 cent per horsepower hour. These figures
assume practically continuous working; if it is intermittent the cost
of course is increased. With a 20,000-horsepower plant, coal at $2.25
per ton, and a fairly long distributing sA^stem, the actual cost per
horsepower year is $33.

Since the water power can be and is sold for as low as $20 per horse-
power year when necessary to secure the business, it is self-evident
that the actual cost of electrically transmitted water power as a gen-
eral rule is much less than steam. One of the nicest points in operat-
ing such a plant is the correct adjusting of the prices of such power
to the existing market, for it is not easy to find the happy medium
between the cost of this power and other power which will allow of
the maximum net profit.

It has been estimated that every person in the United States uses
annually about $7 worth of electricity in some form. Trolley rides
lead at $3 per capita, and electric light is second with $1.50 per capita.
This gives a very good idea of the interest each individual has in such
developments.



13. RELATION OF WATER CONSERVATION TO FLOOD
PREVENTION AND NAVIGATION IN OHIO RIVER



By M. O. Leighton
Chief Hydrographer, United States Geological Survey



[A discussion of the possibilities of preventing floods and maintaining navigable depth by the estab-
lishment and maintenance of reservoirs in highland tributaries of great rivers, based on an investiga-
tion of such possibilities in the basin of Ohio River]

INTRODUCTION

This report will be confined to a statement of possibilities. There
will be no attempt to prescribe methods for treatment of each local
modifying condition that will be encountered in the prosecution of the
plan here proposed. Such features are merely collateral, and their
proper disposition is a matter of ordinary engineering. It is not
expected that the facts here set forth will refute all the objections
made in past years to the conservation scheme. Such, indeed, is not
the object. The paper will have served its purpose if it demonstrates
that the plans proposed have so many features of promise that it
would be a grave mistake to recommend the permanent adoption of
a governmental policy that did not recognize the possibilities and
provide for a further and more minute investigation of them.

Briefly stated, the contentions are as follows:

First. That the logical way to control a river is to control the
sources of its water supply.

Second. That in nearly all of the rivers of the United States such
control can readily be effected by the construction of storage reser-
voirs.

Third. That the way to prevent floods is to use these reservoirs to
catch and temporarily hold the flood waters, so that they will not
descend upon the lower valleys in so large unit volume.

Fourth. That in the majority of cases the improper and illogical
way to attempt the control of floods is to endeavor to confine the
rivers between high and expensive levees.

Fifth. That except along those portions of river channels that are
too steep for open navigation, the proper way to maintain navigable
depth at the low-water season is to provide, if possible, for the intelli-
gent release of stored w^ater.

Sixth. That canalization of rivers should be the resort only along
those portions of the channel too steep for open navigation or in the
tributary basins of which sufficient flood water can not be stored to
maintain navigable depth at low water; further, that when such
results may be derived from storage reservoirs, canalization is dispro-
portionately expensive in maintenance and the money so expended
might b© used for more useful purposes in the uplands.

451



452 EEPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION

Seventh. That, while the first cost of the proposed conservation
system will be large, the burden will be widely distributed over a
series of years necessary to complete the construction.

Eighth. That the ulitmate cost will appear nominal when com-
pared with the enormous benefits conferred, these benefits being
applied to water power and to irrigation, as well as to flood preven-
tion and navigation.

The general proposition in this paper is not new. It was proposed
by a British engineer in the year 1800, and in this country by Mr.
Charles Ellet, jr., nearly sixty years ago. An interesting discussion
ensued at the time, wliich was apparently brought to a close in 1857
.by a report of Mr. W. Milnor Roberts. So efi"ectively did Mr. Rob-
erts dispose of the matter that at that time the policy of the Govern-
ment appears to have been well-nigh crystallized. Whether or not
]\ir. Roberts's contentions were correct, he enlisted the approval of
so many engineers that even at the present time when one advo-
cates the conservation scheme he is almost certain to be met with
the question ' ' Have you read the report of Milnor Roberts ? " There-
fore it will be profitable to review briefly the points of objection
made by this distinguished engineer.

In the first place, it should 'he borne in mind that the report of
Mr. Roberts was presented in the year 1857, when the country trib-
utary to Ohio River was, so far as special topography and reser-
voir facilities are concerned, practically an unknown region. At the
outset of his presentation Mr. Roberts made a very sensible obser-
vation that applies with equal force to-day, viz:

The question is not merely one of dollars and cents that may be involved in the
adoption and completion of a particular plan; it is of the first consequence that that
jjlan shall be one with which the sober good sense of the country will rest satisfied
and which in the end will l^e productive of the greatest benefit.

In considering the objections of Mr. Roberts the author will use
an abstract of the same made by Maj. William E. Merrill, Corps of
Engineers, the successor, friend, and supporter of Mr. Roberts. This



Online LibraryUnited States. Inland Waterways CommissionPreliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report → online text (page 50 of 83)