United States. Inland Waterways Commission.

Preliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report online

. (page 54 of 83)
Online LibraryUnited States. Inland Waterways CommissionPreliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report → online text (page 54 of 83)
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403,000
445,000
423,000
391,000
344,000
282,000


39.7


16


42.6


17


46.2


18


49.2


19


50.9


20


64.1


52.6


21


65.1
64.6
63.2
61.2
58.1


53.3


22

23


53.1
51.9


24


50.5


25


48.2


26

27


54.0
48.0


44.9
40.5



FLOOD OF MARCH



Mar. 13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.



41.0


290,000


220,000


50.3


420,000


318,000


54.1


475,000


360,000


57.6


530,000


401,000


00.2


570,000


431,000


61.6


590,000


447,000


62.1


600,000


455,000


61.3


590,000


447,000


59.8


565,000


428,000


57.5


530,000


401,000


54.8


490,000


371,000


52.3


450,000


341,000


1 49.4


405,000


307,000



35.5
43.1
46.0
48.9
51.0
52.0
52.6
52.0
50.8
48.9
46.8
44.7
42.2



According to the computations in the above table, the reservoir
system would have reduced the January flood to a total period
above the danger line of five days and a maximum height of 53.3
feet, or 3.3 feet above the danger line, while the March flood would
have been reduced somewhat more. Here, again, we are obliged to
urge consideration of the factors that are left out of account in these
computations. Utilization of all the conservation facilities on the
drainage area above, and a proper accounting for the fact that it is the
torrential flow that would be conserved, would in actual practice
reduce the gauge height as shown by this proportional computation
below the danger fine. How far below, we do not know, but a fair-
minded consideration of the matter will show that it would be well
down to the point of safety.

At Madison, Ind. — The danger line at Madison is 46. feet, equiv-
alent to a flow of 530,000 cubic feet per second in the channel.
Between Cincinnati and Madison enter the Great ^liami and Ken-
tucky rivers. The former has a drainage area of 5,400 square mfles,
and it is necessary in this paper to consider it practically uncon-
served. The latter has a basin of 7,870 sc{uare miles extent, and
partial surveys which do not permit of a thorough consideration of
storage facilities reveal storage-resers^oir sites of capacity sufficient
to conserve 2,280 square miles. Madison, situated shortly below
the entrance point of two great tributaries of the Ohio, subjects the
conservation data included in this report to a severe test. The



WATER CONSERVATION AND FLOOD PREVENTION



477



Miami contributed a comparatively enormous amount of water in
both floods, yet we have no means of determining how much
might have been conserved. So far as these computations are con-
cerned the river must nm wild. The Kentucky also contributed
a large amount of water, and, as above stated, we have for these
computations the benefit of only partial surveys. Even under
these unfavorable conditions, the following table shows entirely
satisfactory indications. The January flood would have submerged
the danger line 1.2 feet. A little more storage on the Kentucky
and Miami rivers would have reduced this considerably below the
line.

Estimated effect of storage on floods of January and March, 1907, at Madison, Ind. —
Danger line 46 feet, equivalent to a flow of 530,000 second feet

FLOOD OF JANUARY



Day.


Effect without
conservation.


Probable effect with
conservation.


Gauge
height.


Discharge.


Discharge.


Gauge
height.


Jan. 17


45.9
49.1
51.6
54.2
56.1
56.7
56.3
55.1
53.0
50.2
46.0


Second-feet.
.530,000
590,000
640, 000
700,000
740,000
750, 000
740,000
720, 000


Second-feet.
392, 000
436,000
474,000
518,000
. 547, 000
555,000
547,000
432 000


36.5


18


41.2


19


43.2


20


4.5.4


21


47.0


22


47.2


23


47.0


24. . .


46.3


25


670,000 I 495,000
620,000 459,000
530,000 1 392.000


44.3


26


42.5


27 .


36.6











FLOOD OF MARCH



Mar. 14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25



42.7


460,000


.353,000


46.3


5.30,000


406,000


47.9


570,000


437,000


49.9


610,000


468,000


51.3


640,000


491,000


51.9


650,000


498, 000


51.7


650,000


498,000


51.1


630,000


483,000


49.9


610,000


468,000


48.2


570, 000


437,000


46.2


530,000


406, 000


44.1


400,000


376,000



.37.0
39.8
41.4
43.0
441
44 5
44 5
43.8
43.0
41.4
.39.8
38.2



It is of interest to note that the tables relating to the upper end of
the river show the March flood highest. Farther down they appear
about equal, while the Madison table shows the greater seventy of
the January flood along tliis portion of the river.

At Louisville, Ky. — The observations concerning Madison apply
to Louisville. The following table shows that, with conservation
included in the computations in this report, the January flood would
have submerged the danger line 2 feet. This amount is negligible
in view of considerations previously described in similar cases.



478



KEPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION



Estimated effect of storage on foods of January and March, 1907, at Louisville, Ky.-
Dangcr line 28 feet, equivalent to flovj of 500,000 second-feet



FLOOD OF JANUARY





Effect witliout
conservation.


Probable effect with
conservation.


Day.


Gauge
heigiit.


Discharge.


Discharge.


Gauge
height.


Jan. 16


25.2
29.3
32.7
35.5
37.9
40.1
41.2
41.2
40.3
38.7
36.2
32.8


Second-feet.
452,000
524,000
584,000
630,000
670, 000
710, 000
730,000
730,000
712,000
684,000
640,000
584, 000
492,000


Second-feet.
335,000
388,000
432,000
466,000
496,000
526,000
540,000
540,000
528,000
506,000
474, 000
432,000
364,000


18.1


17 .


21.4


18.


23.9


19


25.9


20 :


27.5


21

22

23

24.

25

26 ^ :

27

28. -


29.2
30.2
30.2
30.0
28.1
26.3
23.9
19.9







FLOOD OF MARCH



Mar. 14


22.7
28.6
31.3
33.0
34.3
35.6
35.9
35.5
34.6
33.1
31.1
28.6
25.8


410,000
510,000
560,000
590,000
610,000
630,000
640,000
630,000
61C, 000
590,000
550,000
510,000
460,000


315,000
392,000
430,000
453, 000
468,000
484,000
491,000
484,000
468,000
453,000
422,000
391,000
353,000


16.8


15 ... .


21.5


16


23.9


17


25.2


18


26.1


19


26.9


20


27.3


21.. .


26.9


22


26.1


23 .


25.2


24


23.3


25

26


21.5
19.2



Concerning the flatter portion of the Oliio River below Louisville,
certain observations must be made with respect to the behavior of
floods. It is well understood that the lower the slope of any river,
the more pronounced will be the backwater effects of an,y tributary
entering the river. Four great rivers and several smaller, though
important, ones enter this flat portion of the stream below Louisville,
namel}^, the Wabash, the Cumberland, the Green, and the Tennessee.
When they pour their great floods into the lower Ohio their effect is to
gorge the channel and back the water up to the foot of the falls at
Louisville. In other words, if a flood comes out of the Wabash,
Cumberland, Green, or Tennessee rivers into the lower Oliio the effect
is almost as plainly marked for long distance above the point of con-
fluence as it IS below. Now, in estimating the effects. of the reservoirs
in the proposed system on the flood height at Evansville, Ind., for
example, we can not take into account storage on the Tennessee,
Cumberland, Green, and Wabash rivers, but must confine estimates to
those on the tributaries above Evansville. Nevertheless it is readily
appreciated that were these 4 great streams well conserved the effect
would be to markedly reduce the floods in the Oliio Eiver above their
points of entrance. The estimates for Evansville and Mount Vernon
are therefore given without taking account of such effects.

At EvansmUe, Ind. — The danger line at Evansville is 35 feet, equiv-
alent to a flow of 390,000 cubic feet per second. Tliis is exceedingly



WATER CONSERVATION AND FLOOD PREVENTION



479



low and does not provide for as ^reat a flow as at any other point
heretofore considered between Point Pleasant and Evansville. The
progress of the floods of 1907 is as follows:

Estimated effects of storage on floods of January and March, 1907, at Evansville, Ind. —
Danger line 35 feet, equivalent to a flow of 390,000 seco')id-feet

FLOOD OF JANUARY



Day.



Effect without
conservation.



Gauge

heigut.



Jan. 3

4

5

6

7

8



10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

Feb. 1



Discharge.



Second-feet
202,000
394,000
480,000
532,000
556,000
556,000
542,000
530,000
506,000
496,000
492,000
500,000
514,000
540,000
570,000
614,000
664,000
692,000
716,000
734,000
754,000
764,000
764,000
760,000
754,000
740,000
710,000
666,000
604,000
514,000
440,000
358,000



Probable effect with
conservation.



Discharge, ^^^-^e



Second-feet.




201,000


27.0


302,000


31.6


368,000


34.1


408,000


35.0


427,000


36.0


427,000


36.0


416,000


35.8


407,000


35.4


388,000


34.8


371,000


34.6


378,000


34.5


384,000


34.7


394,000


35.0


415,000


35.8


438,000


36.5


471,000


37.6


510,000


38.8


531,000


39.6


550,000


40.1


564,000


40.5


578,000


41.0


587,000


41.2


587,000


42.2


583,000


41.1


578,000


41.0


568,000


40.7


544,000


40.0


511,000


38.9


463,000


37.5


394,000


35.1


338,000


33.0


275,000


30.5



FLOOD OF MARCH



Mar. 14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31




294,000
430,000
514,000
574,000
614,000
638,000
6.50,000
666,000
674,000
676,000
670,000
656,000
638,000
610,000
580,000
532,000
476,000
390,000



232,000
338,000
405,000
452,000
483,000
503,000
516,000
524,000
531,000
533,000
527,000
516,000
503,000
479,000
458,000
421,000
375.no
.307,000



28.5
33.2
35.6
37.1
38.2
.38.7
39.3
39.5
39.7
39.7
39.6
39.5
38.8
38.1
37.3
36.1
34.5
32.0



The conservation system on the Ohio tributaries entering above
Evansville would not have retained either flood below the danger
line. It is only fair, however, to call attention to the fact that the
great Green River, which pours enormous floods into the Ohio at
Evansville, has not been surveyed for reservoir sites and in the



480



REPORT OF THE INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION



above computations the benefits that would be derived from such
storage have not been taken into account. Neither is the benefit
of storage on the Cumberland, Tennessee, and Wabash rivers in-
cluded in the estimate and had their back-water effects on the Ohio
been decreased by conservation these two floods would probably
never have reached the danger line at Evansville. Add to this the
complete development of facilities on those other Ohio tributaries,
like the Kentucky, Muskingum, Scioto, and Miami, and the flood
problem at Evansville would be solved.

The conditions at Mount Vernon, Ind., are so similar to those at
Evansville that they constitute merely a repetition. The river was
above the danger line from January 5 to February 4, the highest
excess being 13.5 feet. The storage on the river above would have
reduced this to 6.3 feet above the danger line and, taking into ac-
count the factors above noted with reference to the Cumberland,
Green, Tennessee, and Wabash rivers, it is reasonably certain that
the river would never have reached the danger line at this point.

At Paducah, Ky.^The next point is Paducah, Ky., between
which and Mount Vernon, Ind., enter the Wabash, Tennessee, and
Cumberland rivers. We have not the benefit of surveys on the
Wabash, and therefore must leave it out of consideration here. The
Cumberland is also only partially surveyed, and, while there are
shown to be available 2,380 square miles that may absolutely be
conserved, it does by no means represent the highest development
of conservation on the river. The Tennessee River has an area that
may be conserved of 12,800 square miles. Therefore, we have in
the station at Paducah, Ky., tiie effect of a completing conserved
river in the Tennessee, partially conserved in the Cumberland and
wild rivers in the Wabash and Green. The danger line at Paducah
is 40 feet, equivalent to a flow of 830,000 cubic feet per second. The
record oiF the floods of 1907, and the effect of such storage facihties
as have been identified, are set forth in the following table:

Estimated effect of storage on floods of January and March, 1907, at Paducah, Ky. —
Danger line 40 feet, equivalent to a flow of 830,000 second-feet

FLOOD OF JANUARY





Effect without
conservation.


Probable effect with
conservation.




Gauge
height.


Discharge.


Discharge.


Gauge
height.


Jan. 21


39.7
41.0
42.3
43.4
44.3
45.0
45.6
45 7
4,5. 6
45.3
44.8
44 3
43.3
42.3
41.4
40.2
38.7


Second-feet.

820,000

867,000

923,000

970,000

1,008,000

1,036,000

1,062,000

1,0



Online LibraryUnited States. Inland Waterways CommissionPreliminary report of the Inland Waterways Commission. Message from the President transmitting a preliminary report → online text (page 54 of 83)