United States. President's Commission on Immigrati.

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They are the standard field instrument for testing the level of gamma radiation,
particularly as a safeguard against dangerous exposure." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic
Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, X. J., Princeton Univer.sitv Press,
194n, page 229.

"I am reassured, however. In noting that not one, but both Lauritsens are listed
along with Dr. Fowler as principal investigators on one of the research projects
which the Atomic Energy Commission is helping to support here at Cal Tech." —
Remarks of Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss, United States Atomic Energy Com-
mission, at the California Institute of Technology Associates Dinner, Los An-
geles, Calif., November 8, 1949.

"One of the siHiplest and generally useful devices of the electrostatic type of
ionization chamber is the quartz-fiber electroscope invented by C. C. Lauritsen
and T. Lauritsen in the United States in 1937." — Glasstone, S. Sourcebook on
Atomic Energy. New York, D. Van Nostrand Co., 1950, page 134.

Lauritsen, Thomas (Denmark, 1915)

''I am reassured, however, in noting that not one, but both Lauritsens are listed
along with Dr. Fowler as the principal investigators on one of the research
pro.lects which the Atomic Energy Commission is helping to support here at Cal
Tech." — Remarks of Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss, United States Atomic
Energy Commission, at the California Institute of Technology Associates Dinner,
Los Angeles, Calif., November 8, 1949.

"One of the simplest and generally useful devices of the electrostatic type of
ionization chamber is the quartz-fiber electroscope invented by C. C. Lauritsen and
T. Lauritsen in the United States in 1937" (p. 134).

"An analysis of the i-ate of the neutron intensity b.v the American physicists
E. T. Booth, .7. R. I)unning, and F. (J. Slack in 19.39, and later in the same year by
K. J. Brostr0m. J. Koch, and T. Lauritsen, in Denmark, revealed the presence of
four decay periods." P. 356. — Glasstone, S. Sourcebook on Atomic Energy. New
York, D. Van Nostrand Co., 19.50.

Massey, 77. S. W. (Great Britain)

•'Professor Oliphant and his team from Birmingham University were moved
to Berkeley to work with Professor Lawrence's group engaged in research on the
electromagnetic isotope separation project. They were joined bv other phv.sieists
from Britain including Professor Massey of University College, London. Dr. II. W.
Skinner of Bristol University, Dr. Allibone and Dr. Wilinson who worked partly
at Berkeley and partly at the electromagnetic separation plant itself Dr
Emeleus of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. P. Baxter and others were trans-
ferred to the electromagnetic plant."— Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Military
Purposes. Princeton, X. .7., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 286.



1988 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION .

'Neumann, John von {Hungary)

Member, General Advisory Committee, USAEC.
OUphant, Marcus L. E. {Australia, 1901)

"A leading member of the team of British scientists who assisted in the de-
velopment of the atomic bomb is Prof. Marcus L. Oliphant, now director of the
School of Research in Physical Sciences at the Australian National University.
One of his mnjor contributions in the field of nuclear physics has been his design
of heavy higli-voltage apparatus. Oliphant has often been a spokesman for the
group of British scientists who have opposed attempts to keep a monopoly on the
manufacture of the atom bomb, and he has repeatedly urged intensive develop-
ment of industrial use of atomic energy and outlawing the use of the bomb." —
Current Biography 12, 46 (December 1951).

"Oliphant and his team from Birmingliam University were moved to Berkeley
to work witli Professor Lawrence's group engaged in the research on the elec-
tromagnetic isotope separation project." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Mili-
tary Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 286.

Peierls, R. {Great Britain)

"Dr. Frisch from the Liverpool nuclear physics group and Dr. Bretscher from
the corresponding Camliridge section, together with some members of their
teams, were moved into the great American T. A. research establishment at Los
Alamos * * *"

"They were joined, at that time or later, by a number of other British scientists
inclurling Professor Peierls and Dr. Penny, of Imperial College, London Uni-
versity. Professor Sir Geoffrey Taylor paid several visits to the establishment." —
Smyth, H. E., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Prince-
ton University Press. 1945, page 286.

Penny, W. G. {Great Britain)

"Dr. Frisch from the Liverpool nuclear physics group and Dr. Brescher from
the corresponding Camliridge section, together with some members of their
teams, were moved into the great American T. A. research establishment at Los
Alamos * * *"

"They were joined, at that time or later, by a number of other British
scientists including Professor Peierls and Dr. Penny, of Imperial College. Lon-
don T'niversity." — Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Prince-
ton, N. J., Princeton University Press. 1945, page 286.

"The other is Dr. Penny, professor of applied mathematics at London Uni-
versity, one of the group of eminent British scientists at Los Alamas." — ■
Laurence, W. L., Dawn Over Zero. New York, Knopf, 1947, page 2.31.

Rabi, Isidor I. {Austria, 1898)

"The participants included a large number of the pioneer explorers of the
nucleus of the atom who later played a major part in the development of the
atomic bomli. Among them were Drs. Bohr, Fermi, I. I. Rabi * * *" —
Laurence, W. L., Dawn Over Zero, New York, Knopf, 1947, page 44.

"Nobel prize for Physics, in 1944. Also has received other honors for his
research on the magnetic property of atoms. The physicist assisted in the
development of radar and the atomic bomb. Head of the physics department of
Columbia University, Rabi directs part of the atomic research of the Brook-
haven National Laboratory." — Current Biography. New York, H. W. Wilson
Co., 1948.

"The new tools at Berkeley, the Argonne, Oak Ridge. Brookhaven. and in many
university laboratories will soon be serving men like Lawrence, Fermi, Seaborg.
Compton, Ralii, 0:ipenheimer, Spedding, Sinn [sic], Alvarez, and their brilliant
associates, and new discoveries as dazzling as those which have been made will
be forthcoming." — Remarks of Lewis L. Strauss, member. United States Atomic
Energy Commission, before the University of New Hampshire, October 9, 1948.

Member, General Advisory Committee, United States Atomic Energy Commis-
sion.

"The most important developments in the field of nuclear moments are due
mainly to the work of I. I. Rabi and his collaborators, performed in the United
States since 19.33." — Glasstone, S., Sourcebook on Atomic Energy. New York,
D. Van Nostrand, 1950, page 341,



COMAHSSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1989

Rossi, Bruno (Italy)

"Those tests were in tliemselves marvels of inpremuty and inventiveness. One
of tliem, devised by Dr. Oppenlieinier and Dr. Robert Serbor, and carried out
with special apparatus designed by Prof. Bruno Rossi, of Cornell, made it pos-
sible to get an approximation of the forces that would develop inside an atomic
bomb at th^ instant of exjilosion, without the use of any U-23.J or plutonium." —
Laurence, W. L. Dawn Over Zero. New York, Knopf, 1947, page 185.

Seore, E. {Italy)

"On March 1, 1041, Drs. Seaborg, Segre. Kennedy, and Lawrence proceeded to
bombard about 1 kilouram of uranium with neutrons." — Laurence, W. L. Dawn
Over Zero. New York, Knopf, 1947, page 153.

"An Italian by birth and a former colleague of Dr. Fermi, Segre came to
Berkele.v in 19:58 from the University of Palermo, where he directed the physics
laboratory. With the cooperation of the Radiation Laboratory, he discovered
element 4."'. and, with Dale Corson and Kenneth MacKenzie. created element 85." —
Young Men of the Atom. Newsweek 27 : 62-63 (February 25, 1946).

Skinner, H. W. B. (Ch-eat Britain)

"Professor OMphant and his team from Birmingham University were moved to
Berkeley to work with Professor Lawrence's group engaged in research on the
electromagnetic isotope separation pro.ieet. They were .joined by other physicists
from Britain including Professor Massey, of University College, London; Dr.
H. W. Skinner, of Bristol University ; Dr. Allibone and Dr. Wilkinson who worked
partly at Berkeley and partly at the electromagnetic separation plant itself.
Dr. Emeleus. of Imperial College, London ; Dr. J. P. Baxter, and others were
transferred to the eletcromagnetic plant." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for
Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 286.

Slot in, Louis B. (Canada)

" * * * Research associate in biochemistry, to help construct the cyclotron
at the University of Chicago. This served as an introduction to the iield of
nuclear physics. He contributed to a number of papers in radio1)iology before
joining the atomic-energy pro.ieet when it was centralized in Chicago in 1942.
* * * Slotin went to Oak Ridge to help with pile development there. When
the problems of plutonium production were solved, Slotin moved to Los Alamos
to as ist in the final problem of constructing an atomic bomb.

"It was Slotin who assembled and delivered the first atomic bomb for the
Alamogordo test. The receipt which he received when he turned this, the first
atomic bomb, over to the Army was one of his most prized possessions. It rep-
resented the culmination of the whole effort of the Manhattan district."

He died May 30, 1946. from the effects of radiation produced in an accident
involving fissionable materials. — Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 1 : 16 (June
1946).

Smith, Cyril S. (Great Britain)

"In the preparation and the shaping of the active metal employed in the first
three atomic bombs which were used in the New Mexico test in 1945, the super-
visor of the operations was Cyril S. Smith. His work on this project, as well as
his activities in the general field of metallurgical research, led to his appoint-
ment, by President Truman in 194G, as a member of one of the key advisory
groups for atomic control in the United States, the General Advisory Commit-
tee to the Atomic Energy Commission. * * *

"In 1943 he was given the post of associate division leader in charge of met-
allurgy at the Los Alamos, N. Mex., atom-bomb laboratories. During the 3
years he worked there on atomic researcli. Smith was in charge of the activi-
ties in the metallurgy of uranium, plutonium, and other materials used in atomic
production and research. * * * In a pul)lished appreciation by a former
associate, it is said of Smith that at Los Alamos 'he had few assistants and
almost no equipment. 15ut after a very short period he assembled a group which
was able to solve the problems and meet the necessary deadlines. The fact that
he was able to think like, talk to, and understand tlie problems of, the physicists,
translate their requirements into things that could be done, and get these things
done, explains the high regard in which he was held by his associates on the
project.' " — Current Biography, New York, H. W. Wilson Co., 1948.



1990 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZAHON

Szilard, Leo (Hungary)

"Such towering scientific figures as Niels Bohr of Denmark and Sir James
Chadwick of Great Britain, together with dozens of associates from almost all
countries except Russia, came to the United States during the war, participated
intimately in the Manhattan District project, rendered priceless service, and
returned to their native lands when hostilities ended. Equally notable figures
from abroad^ — Enrico Fermi of Italy and Hugarian-born Leo Szilard, for ex-
ample — shared in our atomic effort and established permanent American resi-
dence following the war." — Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Investigation
Into the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Eighty-first Cong., 1st sess.,
S. Kept. No. 1169, October 13, 1949, page 8.

"It bears repeating tliat the men who stimulated this country's interest in
attempting to use the Hahn-Strassmau discovery of the fissionability of unanium
were Enrico Fermi, who had won the Nobel prize in physics when he was a pro-
fessor in his native Italy, and Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard, and Eugene P.
Wigner, all of whom were mature scientists before they were American citi-
zens." — Gellborn, W., Security, Loyalty, and Science, Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell
University Press, 1950, page 13.

"E. Fermi and Szilard who proposed the use of graphite as a moderator for
a chain reaction. The general scheme of using a moderator mixed with the
uranium was pretty obvious. A specific manner of using a moderator was first
suggested in this country, so far as we can discover, by Fermi and Szilard" (p.
S4).

"The announcement of the hypothesis of fission and its experimental confirma-
tion took place in January 1939. * * * There was immediate interest in the
possible military use of the large amounts of energy released in fission. * * *
The early efforts both at restricting publication and at getting Government sup-
port were stimulated largely by a small group of forein-born physicists cen-
tering on L. Szilard and including E. Wigner, E. Teller, V. F. Weisskopf, and E.
Fermi." (p. 45). — Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, Princeton,
N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945.

"In 1939 at Columbia University his experiments became fundamental to the
uranium project, and his foresight was largely responsible for governmental
support of the proiect." — Masters, D., and Way, K., editors. One World or None,
New York, N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1946, page 61.

"Leo Szilard, internationally known physicist, who was instrumental in get-
ting President Franklin D. Roosevelt interested in the atomic-energy field, is
professor of biophysics and professor of social sciences at the University of
Chicago. He began his work in the field of nuclear physics in 1934 in London
and later continued his work at the University of London. Szilard worked with
Enrico Fermi, Nobel-prize physicist, on the early phases of work on chain reac-
tion at Columbia University and at the metallurgical laboratory at the Univer-
sity of Chicago. He was born in Budapest, Hungary, in 1898. Szilard received
his doctor of pholosophy from the University of Berlin in 1922 and served on
the university's faculty there from 1925 to 1933. He became an American citi-
zen in 1943." — Robinson. G. O., the Oak Ridge Story, Kinsport, Tenn., Southern
Publishers, 1950, page 178.

Taylor, Geoffrey (Great Britain)

"Dr. Frisch, from the Liverpool nuclear-physics group, and Dr. Bretscher,
from the corresponding Cambridge section, together with some members of their
teams, were moved into the great American T. A. research establishment at
Lios Alamos. * * *

"They were joined at that time or later by a number of other British scientists,
Including Professor Peierls and Dr. Penny, of Imperial College, London Univer-
sity. Professor Sir Geoffrey Taylor paid several visits to the establishment." —
Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, Princeton, N. J., Princeton
University Press, 1945, page 286.

Taylor, Huyh S. (Great Britain)

"The most effective catalyst of this type [for the production of heavy water]
was discovered by H. S. Taylor at Princeton University'' (p. 169).

"The type of barrier selected for use in the plant was perfected under the
supervision of H. S. Taylor" (p. 181).— Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Mili-
tary Purposes, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945.



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1991

Teller, E. {Hungani)

"For example, Dr. I'.etlie and Dr. Teller in the area of fundamental and ana-
lytical nuclear considerations. The fact that men of their caliher were willing
to Kive their time and found it worth while to give their time * * *."— Dr.
Mervin J. Kellev, executive vice president, Bell Laboratories, Inc. (Investigation
into the United States atomic energy project. Hearings before the Joint Com-
mittee on Atomic Energy, Congress of the United States, 81st Cong., 1st sess..
pt. 20, p. 812).

"The announcement of the hypothesis of fission and its experimental confirma-
tion took place in January m'Jt). * * * There was immediate interest in the
possible military use of the lar.w amounts of ener.2;y released in fission. * * *
The early efforts both at restricting publication and at getting Government sup-
port were stimulated largely by a small group of foreign-born physicists center-
ing on L. Szilard and including E. Wigner, E. Teller, V. F. Weisskopf, and E.
Fermi."— Smyth. H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, Princeton, N. J.,
Princeton University Press, 1945, page 45.

Chairman, Reactor Safeguard Committee, U. S. A. E. C.

Thornton, Robert L. (Great Britain)

"Thornton, Robert L. 37: The British-born physicist helped to build the
University of INIichigan cyclotron and directed the construction of the cyclotron
at Washington University, St. Louis, where most of the plutonium for the
Chicago atomic-bomb project was made. Thornton also carried the load in.
desigiiins; the Berkeley calutron, and the subsequent construction at Oak Ridge^
Term. Now head physicist in charge of the ISl-inch cyclotron at Berkeley,
Thornton will also use his skill in designing new atomic-re:;earch equipment." —
"Young Men of the Atom." Newsweek 27: 62-63. (Feb. 25, 1946.)

Member, Committee of Senior Responsible Reviewers, U. S. Atomic Energy
Commission.

WeissJcoj)f, V. F. (Austria)

"The announcement of the hypothesis of fission and its experimental ceu-
firmaticm took place in January 1939 * * *_ There was immediate interest-
in the possible military use of the large amounts of energy released' in fis-
sion * * *. Tlie early efforts l)oth at restricting publication and at gettln.i^
Government support were stimulated largely by a small group of foreign-boru
physicists centering on L. Szilard and including E. Wigner, E. Teller, V. F
Weisskopf, and E. Fermi." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes,
Princeton. X. J., Princeton T'niversity Press, 1945, page 45.

Westendorp, W. F. (Netherlands)

'•Shorrly thereafter, in 1947, H. C. Pollock and W. F. Westendorp of the
General Electric Co. designed and built a machine combining the action of
botli betatron and synchrotron. It produced electrons of 70 Mev energy, although.
the magnet weighed only 8 tons, as compared with 135 tons of the 100-Mev
betatron." — Glasstone, S. Sourcebook on Atomic Energy. New York, N. Y.,
D. Van Nostrand ('o.. Inc., ]!>50, itage 32cS.

Wiffner, E. P. (Hinif/arin

"It l)ears repeating that the men who stimulated this country's interest iru
attempting to use the llahn-Strassman dist-overy of the lissionability of uranium
were Enrico Fermi, who had won the Nobel prize in physics when he was a
professm- in his native Italy, and Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard, and Eugene P.
Wigner, all of whom were mature scientists before they were American citi-
zens." — (Jellhorn. W. Seeurity, Lo\alty. and Science. Ithaca, N. V., Cornell l"ni-
versity Press. 1950. page 13.

"The announcement of the hypothesis ot fission and its exju'iMmental confirma-
tion took i)lace in .lanuary li)37 * * * Tlioi-e was immediate interest in the
possible military use of the large amounts of enertiy releascMl in fission * * *.
Tlie early efforts l)oth at restricting iiublication and at getting (Jovernment sup-
port were stinndated largely by a small group of foreign-born ])hysicists centerinar
on L. Szilard and including E. Wigner. E. Teller, V. F. Weisskopf, and E.
P'enni."— Smyth, II. D. Atondc Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J.,.
Princeton University Press, 1945, page 45.

"The theory of the absorption of neutons at. and m the vicinity of, the reson-
ance i)eaks was worked out by G. IJreit and E. P. Wigner in tlu> United States;
in 193(!, and the resulting Bi-eit -Wigner formula, as it is called, has formed the
basis of the interpretation of neutron cross sections." — Glasstone, S. Sourcebook
on Atomic Energy. New York. D. A'an Nostrand Co., Inc., 1950, page 313.



1992 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Wilkinson, V. J. R. {Great Britain)

"Professor Oliphant and his team from Birmingham University were moved
to Berkeley to work with Professor Lawrence's group engaged in research on
the electromagnetic isotope separation project. They were joined by other
physicists from Britain including Professor Massey of University College, Lon-
don, Dr. H. W. Skinner of Bristol University, Dr. Allibone and Dr. V. J. R. Wil-
kinson who worked partly at Berkeley and partly at the Electro-Magnetic Sepa-
ration Plant itself. Dr. Emeleus of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. P. Baxter,
and others were transferred to the electro magnetic plant." — Smyth H. D. Atomic
Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press.
1945, page 286.

Yukawa, Hideki {Japan)

"On November ?>, 1949, the Royal Swedish Academy of Science announced
that the 1949 Nobel prize for physics had been awarded to Dr. Hideki Yukawa,
Japanese physicist who in 1950 is at Columbia University on leave from his
teaching post at Kyoto University of Japan. Yukawa first came to the attention
of the world of physics in 1935 when, after a year of investigation, he published
a series of equations forecasting the existence of a fourth basic particle of
subatomic matter, the meson (in addition to the proton, the electi-on, and the
neutron). In October 1948, Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, director of the Insti-
tute for Advanced Studies at Princeton, N. J., invited Yukawa to the United
States for a period of work with the group of nuclear physicists at the insti-
tute * * *

"Upon Yukawa's departure from Princeton, Dr. Oppenheimer said : 'Dr. Yu-
kawa's anticipation of the meson is one of the few really fructifying ideas in the
last decades * * * jje was deeply loved by all his colleagues in his year
here, both as a scientist and a man.' * * *

"Accoi'ding to the official citation of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science
on November 3. 1949, the Japanese physicist was given the Nobel Prize 'for his
prediction of the existence of the meson (an elusive mass, heavier than the
electron, which theoretically glues the atomic nucleus together), based upon
his theory of nuclear forces.' " — Current Biography. New York, H. W. Wilson
Co., 1950.

Zinn, W. H. (Canada)

"The new tools at Berkeley, the Argonne, Oak Ridge, Brookhaven, and in
many university laboratories will soon be serving men like Lawrence, Fermi,
Seaborg, Compton, Rabi, Oppenheimer, Sinn [sic], Alvarez, and their bril-
liant associates, and new discoveries as dazzling as those which have been
made will be forthcoming." — Remarks of Lewis L. Strauss, member. United
State Atomic Energy Commission before the University of New Hampshire,
October 9, 1948.

"The Argonne director is Dr. Walter H. Zinn, the Nation's leading expert
in this fl:'ld; and he personally has been the principal proponent of the fast
reactor — often called the Zinn reactor on that account." — Joint Committee
on Atomic Energy. Investigation into the United States Atomic Energy Com-
mission. Eighty-first Congress, first session. Senate Report No. 1169, October
13, 1949, page 32.

"The Chairman (Senator McMahon). Gentlemen, we have with us this morn-
ing Dr. W. H. Zinn, who is Director of 'the Argonne National Laboratory. Dr.
Zinn is the gentleman who was in charge of the building of the first reactor pile
in this country, and, of course, that was the first in the world ; and Dr. Zinn as
I have said, is now in charge of the Argonne National Laboratory." — Senator
Brien McMahon. (Hearing before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, 81st
Cong., 1st sess. On investigation into the United States Atomic Energy project,
pt. 9, p. 360.)

"Director of the Argonne National Laboratory, was one of the original members
of the Fermi group to work on chain reactors. Zinn was born in Kitchener,
Ontario, Canada, in 1906. He received his bachelor's and master's degrees from
Columbia University, New York, N. Y. He taught at Columbia, and City College,
New York, before coming to Chicago with the Metallurgical Laboratory. With
Leo Szilard he performed early experiments showing that neutrons are emitted
in the fission process ; this work became fundamental in studies on atomic energy.



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1993

Zinn was in charge of a group wliich constructed the first chain reacting pile and



Online LibraryUnited States. President's Commission on ImmigratiHearings → online text (page 25 of 35)