, HEAVY ARTILLERY;
PBEPABED BY A
BOARD OF OFFICERS,
FOR THE USE OF THE
ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES.
^ './ ;U i
GIDEON AND CO., PRINTERS.
/ 1 5-/
â€¢ â€¢â€¢,-â€¢â€¢ â€¢
West Point, N. Y.,
August 23, 1850.
Bvt. Lt. Col. W. G. Freemak,
^sst. Adjt. Gen., Head Quarters U, S. Ai-my,
Mw York, K. Y.
Sir : The Board of Officers convened by General Orders, No. 12,
dated July 27, 1849, has the honor to submit herewith " a complete
system of instruction for Siege, Garrison, Sea-coast, and Mountain
B. HUGER, Capt. of Ord. and Bvt. Col.
C. F. SMITH, Capt. 2d Jlrt. and Bvt. Col.
F. TAYLOR, Capt. 1st Art. and Bvt. Lt. Col.
R. ANDERSON, Capt. U Art. and Bvt. Maj.
J. W, PHELPS, Capt. AthArt.
Washington, May 10, 1851.
The system of "Instruction for Heavy Artillery," pre-
pared by a Board of Army Officers, pursuant to orders from the
General-in-Chief, having been approved by the President of the
United States, is hereby adopted, and published for the use of
the Army ; and, under the act of May 12, 1820, for the observance
of the Militia of the United States.
C. M. CONRAD,
Secretary of War.
â– ^ 4>
SERVING HEAVY ARTILLERY.
(Service of the ftiece . ^ 1
Service of a gun mounted on a siege carriage . , .6
Service of an 8-inch howitzer mounted on a 24-pdr. siege car-
Service of a 10-inch siege mortar . . . . ,30
Service of an 8-inch siege mortar . . ... 39
Service of a coehom mortar 41
Service of a 10-inch sea-coast mortar .... 43
Service of a 13-inch sea-coast mortar .... 45
Service of a stone mortar 46
Service of a gun mounted on a barbette carriage . . 47
Service of an 8-inch sea-coast howitzer mounted on a bar-
bette carriage 58
Service of a 10-inch sea-coast howitzer mounted on a bar-
bette carriage 59
Service of a gun mounted on a casemate carriage , , 60
Service of an 8-inch columbiad mounted on a casemate car-
Service of a 24-pdr. howitzer mounted on a flank casemate
carriage . . . 68
Service of an 8-inch columbiad mounted on a columbiad car-
Service of a 10-inch columbiad mounted on a columbiad car-
Ibrmation of a company into detachments for the service of a bat-
tery of several pieces ....... 81
Service of a battery of several pieces 83
Pointing guns and howitzers ...â€¢â€¢â€¢ 85
Pointing mortars 89
Table of tangents and tangent scales 92
Ricochet Jiring ...â€¢â€¢â€¢.. 93
Firing hot shot 96
J^ightjinng , . . . .101
Ckneral directions 109
Prelinmary manceuvres â€¢ 115
A gun lying upon the ground to place blocks under the
chase and reinforce 115
To remove the blocks 117
To slew the gun 118
To move the gun short distances to the front or rear , .119
To move the gun short distances by rolling it , . .119
To roll the gun up an inclined plane . . . .119
A howitzer lying upon the ground to place blocks under the
chase and reinforce â€¢ . 122
To remove the blocks -, 123
To raise the howitzer upon its muzzle .... 123
To slew the howitzer while standing upon its muzzle . . 124
A mortar lying upon the ground to raise it upon its muzzle, 125
To slew the mortar 126
To slew the mortar bed 126
To place a long roller under a mortar bed , , , 127
To remove the long roller 128
To limber 129
To unlimber 130
To move a piece, or its carriage, to the front or rear . , 130
To cross-lift a piece . . . . . . .131
Ij essou 523.
A gun being on its carriage to place a short roller under the
A howitzer being on its carriage to place a short roller under
the reinforce 133
To remove the short roller ..,,,, 133
To insert handspikes in the trunnion holes . , . 134
To remove the handspikes ...... 135
To shift a gun from the trunnion holes to its travelling bed . 136
To shift a gun from its travelling bed to the trunnion holes . 138
To shift a howitzer from the trunnion holes to its travelling
To shift a howitzer from its travelling bed to the trunnion
To change a limber when the gun or howitzer is on its tra-
velling bed 140
To change the limber of a loaded mortar wagon . , 140
Manceuvres toith the handspike . . , . , , 141
To mount a gun upon its carriage 141
To dismount the gun 144
To mount a howitzer upon its carriage . â€¢ . . 145
Ta dismount the howitzer 145
To mount a howitzer as a field piece â€¢ â€¢ , .146
To dismount the howitzer .â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢â€¢ 147
To mou nt a siege mortar upon its bed . . , , 149
. To dismount the mortar 150
To mount a siege mortar upon the mortar wagon . . 152
To dismount the mortar ...... 154
To mount a gun upon the mortar wagon .... 157
To dismount the gun 160
To mount a howitzer upon the mortar wagon ... 162
To dismount the howitzer 163
lies son 39.
To shift a gun from one carriage to another . . . 164
To shift a howitzer from one carriage to another . â€¢ 166
To shift a gun from the mortar wagon to its carriage . 167
To shift a gun from its carriage to the mortar wagon . 168
To shift a howitzer from the mortar wagon to its carriage . 169
To shift a howitzer from its carriage to the mortar wagon . 169
To change or to grease a wheel 170
To dismount a carriage and its limber .... 171
To remount the carriage and its limber .... 174
To dismount the mortar wagon . . . . . 175
Tojemount the mortar wagon . . . . . 17G
To lower a barbette carriage from its chassis, the piece being
To remount the barbette carriage upon its chassis . . 179
To grease the rollers of a barbette carriage, the piece being
To grease the forks of the traverse wheels . . . 181
To place the chassis for a 24-pdr. howitzer carriage for a
flank casemate in position 182
To mount the howitzer ....... 183
To mount the carriage upon its chassis .... 183
To dismount the howitzer carriage from its chassis, the
piece being mounted . . . . , . . 184
To dismount the howitzer 185
Manceuvres with machines . . , . . . 186
The lifting jack 189
Manceuvres with the lifting jack . . . . , .191
A piece lying upon the ground to place blocks under the
chase and reinforce ....... 191
To remove the blocks 192
To shift a piece from the trunnion holes to its travelling bed, 193
To shift a piece from its travelling bed to the trunnion holes, 194
To mount a siege gun 195
To dismount the gun 198
To mount an 8-inch siege howitzer ..... 199
To dismount the howitzer ...... 199
To change, to grease, or to raise a wheel .... 200
The siege gin 202
Manceuvres with the siege gin ...... 204
To put the gin together 204
To reeve the fall 205
To carry the gin when put together . , , . 205
To raise the gin 206
To move the gin when raised 207
To lower the gin 207
To mount a gun , . 208
To dismount a gun 211
To mount a howitzer ....... 211
To dismount a howitzer . . . . . . .211
To sling a mortar mounted on its bed .... 211
To sling a mortar without its bed 212
Garrison and casemate gins ' 214
The use of the gin as shears . â€¢ . . . . . 215
Manceuvres with the gin as shears ..... 216
To raise a piece over the crest of a parapet or edge of a wall, 216
To lower a piece over the crest of a parapet or edge of a
wall into the ditch 221
To raise a piece and pass it through a casemate embrazure
or any similar opening ...... 221
To pass a piece through a casemate embrazure or any simi-
lar opening and lower it into the ditch . . . 223
The sling cart , . 225
Manoeuvres with the sling cart 226
To sling a siege gun, howitzer, or mortar . . . 226
To lower a siege gun, howitzer, or mortar to the ground . 227
To sling a sea-coast howitzer or columbiad , . . 228
To sling a 10-inch columbiad 228
To sling a siege mortar mounted on its bed , , . 228
To sling a sea-coast mortar 229
To transport a siege piece short distances by a limber . 229
To raise a piece upon one or more blocks by a limber . 229
To sling a piece on two limbers so that it may be transported
with horses 230
The casemate truck 231
Manceuvres with the casemate truck ..... 232
To place a casemate chassis on the truck .... 232
To lower the chassis to the ground 233
To remove the chassis from the casemate .... 234
,To place a gun carriage on the truck .... 234
To lower the gun carriage to the ground .... 234
To shift the gun carriage from the truck to its chassis . 234
To shift the gun carriage from its chassis to the truck . 235
To place a heavy gun on the truck 236
To remove a heavy gun from the truck and place it on two
To place a heavy gun on the truck by a gin . . 237
To mount a gun 238
To dismount a gun ....... 238
To remove or to grease the truck wheels when the gun is
To embark and disembark artillery and ordnance stores . .241
Tables of dimensions and weights of guns, carriages, shot, shells,
machines, and implements ; of charges for shells ; of ranges
for heavy ordnance; Sfc. ...... 245
Principal dimensions and weights of guns . . . 246
Principal dimensions and weights of columbiads and how-
Principal dimensions and weights of mortars . . , 248
Dimensions and weights of shot ..... 248
Dimensions and weights of shells . Â« . . . 249
Dimensions and weights of spherical case shot . . 250
Weights of carcasses ....... 250
Dimensions and weights of grape shot .... 251
Dimensions and weights of canister shot .... 251
Dimensions and weights of grenades .... 251
Dimensions and weights of canisters .... 252
Dimensions and weights of a stand of grape . . . 252
Principal dimensions of siege gun carriages and limbers . 253
Principal weights of siege gun carriages and limbers . . 254
Dimensions and weights of mortar beds , . . . . 254
Principal dimensions and weights of barbette carriages . 255
Principal dimensions and weights of casemate carriages . 256
Weight of lifting jack 257
Dimensions and weights of gins 257
Dimensions and weight of the sling cart .... 258
Dimensions and weight of the mortar wagon . . , 258
Lengths and weights of finished implements . . . 259
Weights of implements 260
Dimensions of cartridge bags ...... 261
Manner of strapping shells 262
Charges for shells for mortars ...... 262
Charges for shells for columbiads and heavy guns . . 263
The number of balls in a pile 263
Ranges of heavy ordnance 265
LIST OF PLATES
No. 1. 24-pdr. Â»iege Gun 18
JVo. 2. 24'pdr, Gun on a siege carriage 18
No. 3. 24-pdr. Gun on a siege carriage â€” horizontal preyection . 18
No. 4. 24-pdr. Gun on a siege carriage â€” in travelling position . 18
No. 5. Gunner's Level, Breech-sight, Friction Tvbe, Lanyard . 18
No. 6. Sponge, Rammer, Ladles and Tongs for hot shot, Car-
tridge, Shells, Spherical Case, Chrape, Canister . . 18
No. 1. 8-inch Siege Howitzer, Qvmn, Loading Tongs . . 29
No. 8. 8-inch Siege Mortar and Bed 46
No. 9. Siege, Sea-coast, Coehorn, and Stone Mortarsâ€” horizon-
tal projection 46
No. 10. 32-pdr. Sea-coast Gun 69
iVb. 11. 24-pdr. Gun on barbette carriage 59
iVo. 12. 32-pdr. Gun on barbette carriageâ€” horizontal projection, 69
No. 13. Sea-coast Howitzer 69
No. 14. 8-inch Columbiad on a casemate carriage . . .67
No. 15. 24-pdr. Howitzer on a flank casemate carriage . . 72
No. 16. 24-pdr. Howitzer on a flank casemate carriage â€” horizon-
tal projection 72
No. 17. 8-inch Columbiad 80
No. 18. 8-inch Columbiad carriage 80
No. 19. 8-inch Columbiad carriage â€” horizontal projection . . 80
No. 20. Platform for Siege Gun or Howitzer . . . .108
iVo. 21. Platforms for Mortars 108
No. 22. Block, Half Block, Skid, Shifting Plank . . . 114
No. 23. Manoeuvring Handspike, Long Roller, Short Roller,
Half Roller, Gun Chock, Wheel Chock, Roller Chock,
Trunnion-loop ,. 114
No. 24. To shift a piece from the trunnion holes to its travelling
JVo. 25. To change a limber when the piece is on its travelling bed, 140
No. 26. To mount a Gun upon its carriage .... 146
No. 27. Mortar toagon 166
XVI LIST OF PLATES.
No. 28. Morim wagonâ€” horizontal projection .... 156
No. 29. To mount a Siege Mortar on the Mortar wagon . . 156
No. 30. Th mount a Chin on the Mortar wagon . . . .163
No. 31 . To mount a Gun on the Mortar wagon without using a
No, 32. To shift a Gun or Howitzer from one carriage to another, 166
No. 33. To change a Wheel 176
No. 34. To lower a Barbette carriage from its chassis, the piece
being mounted 181
No. 35. Lifting Jack, Lifting Block, Field and Siege Gin . 188
No. 36. Garrison Gin 188
No. 31 . Sling Cart, Sling Chain 188
iVo. 38. Hand Sling Cart, Casemate Truck . . . .188
No, 39. Crown for head of Gin, Knots, Loops, Hitches . . 188
Page 10, line 9. After "motions" add: "at the words One â€”
Two â€” Three â€” Four â€” Five :"
Page 25, line 36. Between " posts," and " break " insert : " take
the chocks, and "
Page 26, line 3. Omit : "except that the wheels are not chocked."
Page 51, line 19. After "motions'* add: "at the words One â€”
Two â€” Three â€” Four â€” Five :"
SERVING HEAVY ARTILLERY.
SERVICE OF THE PIECE.
1. The cannoneer, previous to receiving instruction
in Heavy Artillery, should be thoroughly instructed
in the School of the Piece, Field Artillery.
2. The manner of serving heavy artillery varies
with the kind of piece, and the carriage upon which it
3. There are four kinds of heavy pieces in the land
service, viz: the Gun, the Howitzer, the Mortar,
and the Columbiad.
They are distinguished according to their use, as
Siege, Garrison, and Sea-coast Artillery.
For their service six distinct kinds of carriages are
necessary, viz: the Siege, the Barbette, the Casemate,
the Flank' Casemate, the Columbiad, and the carriage
â– " *
'/ SJBSlVlip^^Oi' THE PIECE.
upon which the Mortar is mounted, which is techni-
cally called its bed.
Siege Artillery is used in the attack of places; and
as it follows armies in their operations, is mounted upon
carriages which serve for its transportation.
Garrison Jlrtillery is employed in the defence of
forts, more especially those of the interior; and Sea-
coast Artillery^ consisting of the heaviest calibres, is
used for the defence of the sea-coast. Their carriages
do not subserve the purpose of transportation; the bar-
bette carriage may, however, be used for moving its
piece for short distances, as from one front of a work
The following are the kinds and calibres of Heavy
Artillery used in the land service of the United States:
Kind of Ordnance.
Siege and Garrison .
Siege and Garrison . . j
4. The detachment for serving a piece is formed
into two ranks, and numbered from right to left. The
odd numbers form the rear rank, and serve on the right
ART. 1.] GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 3
of the piece; the even numbers and the gunner form
the front rank, and serve on its left. The right file is
numbered 1 and 2; the next file 3 and 4; the gunner
is uncovered, and generally on the left of no. 4; and
on his left are as many files as are deemed necessary,
numbered 5 and 6, 7 ajjd 8, &c.
5. A piece is in battery when it is in the proper
position to be fired.
The right of a piece, when in battery, is the right of
the cannoneer when facing to the object to be fired at;
the front is the direction towards which the muzzle
The term battery is applied to one or more pieces, or
to the places where the pieces are fired.
A platform is the support upon which a piece is
manoeuvred when in battery.
6. The detachment is marched to the battery by a
flank. It is halted, and faced to the front, when its
centre is opposite to the middle of the platform, and (if
there be room) four yards from it.
7. To cause the cannoneers to take their posts, the
1. Detachment, to your posts.
At the first command, the detachment is faced to the
right by the chief of piece. ;
At the second command, it files to the left, and the
two ranks separate; the rear rank marching to the right
of the piece, and the front rank to the left, in lines
parallel to its axis. As each man arrives at his post,
he halts and faces to the piece; nos. 1 and 2 one yard
from the epaulment, parapet, or scarp, their breasts
eighteen inches outside of the wheels of the carriage
or cheeks of the mortar bed, as the case may be; and
the other numbers and the gunner, dressing on nos. 1
4 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART 1.
and 2 respectively, at intervals of one yard, except that
between nos. 3 and 5 there is an interval of two yards.
With the mortar, nos. 1 and 2 are opposite to the front
manoeuvring bolts, and nos. 3 and 4 opposite to those
in the rear.
Under the fire of the enemy, the men will be directed
to cover themselves by the parapet as much as may be
consistent with the execution of their duties.
8. The chief of piece (a non-commissioned officer)
assists the instructor in effecting a correct execution of
the movements. While at the battery, he will gene-
rally be one yard outside of the cannoneers of the left,
facing the piece, and two yards in rear of the platform
or rearmost part of the carriage. He communicates,
and attends to the execution of, all orders he may
receive in relation to the service of his piece; as, for
instance, the kind of ammunition to be used, the
weight of charge, the kind and length of fuze, &c.
9. The movements of the cannoneers at the battery
are in double-quick time.
10. Posts are changed at the discretion of the in-
11. To allow the detachment to rest, the instructor
In place â€” rest; or, Rest.
The cannoneers lay down their handspikes.
In the first case, the men remain at their posts ; in
the second case, they may leave their posts, but will
remain near the piece.
To resume the exercise, the instructor commands :
Attention â€” Detachment.
At which command, all resume their posts and hand-
ART. 1.] GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 5
12. Until the cannoneer becomes well versed in his
duties at the piece, the instructor will himself, by way
of example, occasionally execute the movements which
he orders. In the intervals of rest he will minutely
instruct the men in the names and uses of the imple-
ments, and in the nomenclatures of the piece, its car-
riage or bed, and of the parts of the fortification near
the battery. In the course of the instruction he will
require every man to point out and designate by name
all the parts enumerated in these nomenclatures, and
to answer questions relative to the service of the piece;
such as the weight of charge, the manner of making
cartridges and wads, of heating shot and throwing hot
shot, of laying platforms, pointing, &c. And although
he is to consider precision of movement as highly
essential, yet he is to inculcate that something more is
necessary than a merely mechanical performance of
duty. He will, therefore, endeavor to impress upon
the cannoneer not only the habit of a soldier-like man-
ner of working his gun, but an accurate understanding
of all the elements necessary to the efficiency of its
13. To leave the battery, the instructor commands:
1. Detachment y rear.
At the first command, the detachment is faced from
the epaulment by the chief of piece.
At the second command, it marches to the rear â€” the
cannoneers of the left closing upon those of the right â€”
files to the right, and is halted and faced to the front
by the chief of piece, so as to bring its centre opposite
to the middle of the platform, and four yards from it.
The chief of piece places himself upon the right.
The detachment is marched from the battery by a
SERVICE OF THE PIECE.
^ 1.ESSOIV I,
Service of a Oum ntounted on a siege carriage*
(Plates I, II, III, IV, V akd VI.)
Seven men are necessary; one gunner and six other
14. The piece is in battery upon its platform.
The implements, &c., are arranged as follows:
Handspikes . .
Three on each side of the carriage,
leaning against the epaulment,
in line with the cannoneers.
One yard behind and parallel to the
line of cannoneers of the right,
the sponge uppermost, the sponge
and rammer-heads turned from
the epaulment, and supported
upon a prop.
Against the epaulment, outside of
the pile of balls.
Containing friction tubes, and the
lanyard, which is habitually
wound in the form of St. An-
drew's cross upon its handle.
Suspended from the knob of the
Ounner's-pouch . .
Containing the gunner's level,
breech-sight, fingerstall, priming
wire, gimlet, vent-punch, and
chalk. Suspended from the knob
of the cascable.
One on each side of the piece, near
the ends of the hurter.
Covering the vent.
In the muzzle.
Leaning against the epaulment, out-
side of the pile of balls.
When several guns are served together, there will be
only one gunner's level and two vent-punches to each
battery, not exceeding six pieces. To the same battery
there will be one worm, one ladle, and one wrench.
The balls are regularly piled on the left of the piece,
near the epaulment, and close to the edge of the plat-
The wads are placed between the epaulment and the
balls, partly resting on them.
15. The cannoneers having been marched to their
posts, the instructor directs them to place their muskets
against the epaulment, and then explains to them the
names and uses of the implements, and the nomencla-
tures of the gun, its carriage, and the battery.
16. To cause the implements to.be distributed, the
instructor commands :
The gunner steps to the knob of the cascable;
takes off the vent-cover, handing it to no. 2 to place
against the epaulment, outside of the pass-box; gives
the tube-pouch to no. 3; equips himself with his own
8 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART 1.
pouch and the fingerstall, wearing the latten on the
second finger of the left hand; levels the piece by the
elevating screw; applies his level to ascertain the high-
est points of the base-ring and swell of the muzzle,
which he marks with chalk; and resumes his post.
No. 3 equips himself with the tube-pouch.
Nos. 1 and 2, after passing two handspikes each to
nos. 3 and 4, take each one for himself. Nos. 5 and 6
receive theirs from nos. 3 and 4.
17. The handspike is held in both hands; the hand
nearest to the epaulment grasping it near the small end
and at the height of the shoulder, back of the hand
down, elbow touching the body; the other hand back
up, the arm extended naturally; the butt of the hand-
spike upon the platform on the side farthest from the
epaulment, and six inches in advance of the alignment.
18. When the cannoneer lays down his handspike,
he places it directly before him, about six inches in
advance of, and parallel to the alignment, the small end
towards the epaulment; and whenever he thus lays it
down for the discharge of any particular duty, he will
resume it on returning to his post after the completion